Spanish Conquest of the Islands


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Spanish Conquest of the Islands

  1. 1. Spanish Conquest of the Islands<br />
  2. 2. The Philippines was not formally organized as a Spanish colony until 1565 when Philip II appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi the first Governor-General.<br />Statue of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.<br />
  3. 3. Legazpi tried every effort to win the trust of the natives.<br />Polytheism was still practiced by Filipinos although some had converted to Islam.<br />
  4. 4. Legaspi sends an expedition under the leadership of Martin de Goiti to Manila. Manila is ruled by Rajah Suliman, whose friendship is won by de Goiti.<br />Rajah Suliman wages war against the Spaniards due to a move by de Goiti which he mistakes for an assault. De Goiti's army defeats Suliman's troops and occupies the town.<br />
  5. 5. PandayPira<br />PandePira acknowledged as the first Filipino metallurgist. He had devised the cannons using a mold of clay and wax which Muslim leader Rajah Suliman used to protect Manila against the invading Spanish troops.<br />
  6. 6. Establishment of Manila as Capital<br />Legaspi establishes his government in Manila and proclaims it the capital of the Philippines, calling it the Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad which means "distinguished and ever loyal city".<br />
  7. 7. Manila in 1700’s<br />Coat of Arms<br />
  8. 8. From the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was a dependency of Mexico.<br />The Mexican viceroy, in the name of King of Spain administered the country.<br />After 1821, the Philippines was directly governed from Madrid.<br />
  9. 9. Strategies Implemented by Spain<br />
  10. 10. The Sword and the Cross<br />These two symbols are what constituted the strategies or tactics used by the Spaniards in invading the Philippines. It made the pacification of the natives easier. The cross symbolizes religion while the sword symbolizes force. <br />
  11. 11. The Blood Compact<br />
  12. 12. The Blood Compact<br />Through the blood compact of Magallanes and Kulambo, Magallanes and Humabon, and even Legazpi, Sikatuna and Gala, the natives were enticed. This ritual symbolizes unity and is done by the slashing of the wrist of both parties and drinking the blood of the other fused with wine. The giving of gifts of Spaniards to the datus and their families were also strategies to occupy the Philippines.<br />
  13. 13. Reduccion<br />Reduccion is the centralization of the Filipino community where churches, convents, casa real and plaza complexes can be found. Plazas are where people gather when there are events or celebrations like festivals. By using this system, the Spaniards can easily monitor the movements of Filipinos to prevent protests and to collect the taxes easier. There are also changes in the architectural designs of infrastructures.<br />
  14. 14. Plaza Complex<br />
  15. 15. Divide et Impera (Divide and Rule)<br />In line with reduccion, the people were categorized based on race and religion. For the still rebellious places, entrada was enforced. For those which are not, Spain turned the citizens to soldiers and were made to fight with their fellow Filipinos.<br />
  16. 16. The Encomienda<br />The word “encomienda” comes from the Spanish “encomendar” which means “to entrust.” Ecomienda is a grant of inhabitants living in particular conquered territory which Spain gave to Spanish colonizer as a reward for his services (Zaide)<br />
  17. 17. The encomienda was not a land grant, it was more of an administrative unit to extract tribute<br />
  18. 18. The Tribute<br />In July 26, 1523, King Charles V decreed that Indians who had been pacified should contribute a “moderate amount” in recognition of their vassalage (Cushner 1979). In theory the tribute or tax was collected from the natives in order to defray the costs of colonization and to recognize their vassalage to the king of Spain.<br />
  19. 19. The Political Structure<br />Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a national government and the local governments that administered provinces, cities, towns and municipalities.<br />
  20. 20. Cabeza de Barangay<br />Provinces <br />King<br />Philippines<br />Governor General<br />Spain<br />Towns<br />Gobernadorcillo<br />Barangays<br />Alcalde Mayor<br />Corregimientos<br />Alcaldia-Mayor<br />Political Structure in the Philippines during Spanish Colonization<br />
  21. 21. The Royal Audiencia<br />Apart from its judicial functions, the Royal Audiencia served as an advisory body to the Governor General and had the power to check and a report on his abuses. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain.<br />
  22. 22. The Polo <br />The Polo or forced labor is another Spanish that had created discontent among the Indios during the Spanish times. All men between sixteen and sixty years of age, except chieftains and their elder sons, were required to render labor of various forms for 40 days in the colony. This was instituted in 1580 and reduced to 15 days per year in 1884 (Constantino).<br />
  23. 23. Polo y Servicio<br />
  24. 24. The Bandala<br />In the first half of the 17th century, Governor Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera begins collecting the bandala from the natives. Bandala is an annual quota of products assigned to the natives for compulsory sale to the government.<br />