Contemporary Philosophy<br />This literally mean “the philosophy of our time.”<br />Evolutionary Philosophy—the Late 19th Century<br />Philosophy in the second half of the 19th century was based more on biology and history than on mathematics and physics. Revolution thought drifted away from metaphysics and epistemology and shift towards ideologies in science, politics, and sociology.<br />Significant historical developments during this period include:<br /><ul><li>the Revolution of 1848 in France, Austria, and throughout much of Western Europe
the expansion and progress of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and America
the growth of industrial prosperity, population, and urbanization
increased nationalism, and the unification of Germany and Italy
the spread of European imperialism and colonial rule
advances in science, increasing secularization, and the growth of materialism
Realism in art and literature </li></ul>Particularly influential was the theory of evolution through natural selection, announce in 1858, by Charles Darwin. His work inspired conceptions of nature and humanity that emphasized conflict and change, as against unity and substantial permanence.<br />A New Worlds Order—Transition to the 20th Century<br />Profound material progress and European hegemony over world affairs during the 19th century gave way to world war, revolution, and economic collapse in the 20th century.<br />Major historical developments during this time include:<br /><ul><li>Imperialism, industrialization, and advancements in technology and production produced a golden age in Europe and America at the turn of the century.
This facilitated the rise of nationalism, militarism, and political alliances which led to ongoing brinkmanship as nations jockeyed for political and economic position.
The Great War (1914-1918) brought an end to the old world order and European hegemony of the 19th century, and further eroded the European balance of power.
This was followed by worldwide economic decline and eventually the Great Depression.
Socialist labor movements before and after the Bolsheviks Revolution in Russia increased political and social unrest throughout the world.</li></ul>Although these events had a profound significant effect on history—especially nationalism and global economics—they seemed to have little effect on developments in philosophy.<br />20th Century Philosophy <br />The 20th century made the biggest advances on two fronts of philosophy, namely:<br /><ul><li>A radical reappraisal of the nature of human knowledge as such
An attempt to understand the human condition in a universe no longer seen as created by God, or as having any meaning or purpose of its own.
A philosophy which seeks to express allegiance to rigor and precision, science, logical techniques, and perhaps most distinctively of all – careful investigation of language as the best means of investigating concepts.