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B. Concepts of State and Government
Meaning of State A state is a community  of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control.  The Philippines is a state.
Elements of a state People    	- The mass of the  population living within the state.
“people” answers the question, “who governs whom?” no specific number requirement “…the state shall neither be too small nor yet one that seems great but has no unity.” (Plato)
Elements of a state Territory 	- demarcated area that rightly belongs to the population
“territory” answers the question, “where?” terrestrial, fluvial, maritime and aerial should be permanent and large enough to be self-sufficing
Elements of a state	 Government 	- Refers to the agency to which the will of the state is formulated, expressed, and carried out.
Elements of a state Sovereignty - 	May be defined as the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from the people within its jurisdiction and corollarily to have freedom from foreign control.
“sovereignty” Internal – power of the state to rule within its territory External – the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection to or control by other states.
Origin of states Divine right theory Necessity or force theory Paternalistic theory Social contract theory
State distinguished from nation	 	“The state is a political concept while 	a nation is an ethnic concept.”
State distinguished from nation	 “ A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent of external control.”
State distinguished from nation	 “ A single state may consist of one or more nations or people and conversely, a single nation may be made up of several states.”
State distinguished from government “…they are usually regarded as identical. As ordinarily, the acts of the government are the acts of the state.”
State distinguished from government “A state cannot exist without a government, but it is possible to have a government without a state.”
State distinguished from government “A government may change, its form may change, but the state, as long as its essential elements are present, remains the same.”
Forms of Government
[object Object]
there is no standard for the classification of governments
actual arrangements differ from theoretical ones,[object Object]
As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government Unitary  - control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central or national government Federal –powers of the government are divided between to sets of organs, one of the national and the other for local affairs
As to the relationship of the between the executive and the legislative branches of the government Parliamentary – legislative and executive bodies are fused together Presidential – the executive is constitutionally independent of the legislature
C.	The Government of the Philippines in Transition
The pre-Spanish government	 Unit of government  ,[object Object]
from balangaya Malayan word meaning boat,[object Object]
they form confederations for the purpose of protection against common enemies,[object Object]
The pre-Spanish government Datu ,[object Object]
the barangay is monarchy in form, with datu as its monarch,[object Object]
 the nobility (maharlika)
the freemen (timawa)
 serfs (alipingnamamahay)
slaves (alipingsagigilid),[object Object]
Alipin

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Concepts of state and government

  • 1. B. Concepts of State and Government
  • 2. Meaning of State A state is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control. The Philippines is a state.
  • 3. Elements of a state People - The mass of the population living within the state.
  • 4. “people” answers the question, “who governs whom?” no specific number requirement “…the state shall neither be too small nor yet one that seems great but has no unity.” (Plato)
  • 5. Elements of a state Territory - demarcated area that rightly belongs to the population
  • 6. “territory” answers the question, “where?” terrestrial, fluvial, maritime and aerial should be permanent and large enough to be self-sufficing
  • 7. Elements of a state Government - Refers to the agency to which the will of the state is formulated, expressed, and carried out.
  • 8. Elements of a state Sovereignty - May be defined as the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from the people within its jurisdiction and corollarily to have freedom from foreign control.
  • 9. “sovereignty” Internal – power of the state to rule within its territory External – the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection to or control by other states.
  • 10. Origin of states Divine right theory Necessity or force theory Paternalistic theory Social contract theory
  • 11. State distinguished from nation “The state is a political concept while a nation is an ethnic concept.”
  • 12. State distinguished from nation “ A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent of external control.”
  • 13. State distinguished from nation “ A single state may consist of one or more nations or people and conversely, a single nation may be made up of several states.”
  • 14. State distinguished from government “…they are usually regarded as identical. As ordinarily, the acts of the government are the acts of the state.”
  • 15. State distinguished from government “A state cannot exist without a government, but it is possible to have a government without a state.”
  • 16. State distinguished from government “A government may change, its form may change, but the state, as long as its essential elements are present, remains the same.”
  • 18.
  • 19. there is no standard for the classification of governments
  • 20.
  • 21. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government Unitary - control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central or national government Federal –powers of the government are divided between to sets of organs, one of the national and the other for local affairs
  • 22. As to the relationship of the between the executive and the legislative branches of the government Parliamentary – legislative and executive bodies are fused together Presidential – the executive is constitutionally independent of the legislature
  • 23. C. The Government of the Philippines in Transition
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. the nobility (maharlika)
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. the system of government although defective was not so bad
  • 37.
  • 38. Conquest of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565
  • 39.
  • 40. Mexico obtained its independence from Spain, thus, the Philippines was ruled directly from Spain until 1898