ABSTRACTSelf reproduction is ultimate form of self repair. Self replication isgenerally considered to be a machine that can build itself, and that theycan build another copy and so on. The self reproducing machinesdemonstrated here are essentially modular robots, consisting of multipleidentical actuated modules with electromagnets to selectively weaken andstrengthen connections .The cubes are powered at the base and transferdata and power through their faces. The control of machine is distributedamong the modules executes a motion schedule governed by time andcontact events. The sides also have electromagnets that enable them toselectively attach and detach from each other. The modular robot canthus reconfigure itself. And in each block is a small computer chip whichis programmed with step-by-step instructions about what to do. It is asmall step towards developing robots that can repair and replicatethemselves in space or hazardous environments
DEFINITION OF ROBOTICS:Robotics is the science and technology of howrobots are made and function via electronicand mechanical processes. It is also aboutunderstanding the software applications thatcontrol their movements. Robots areessentially machines that perform tasks.
SELF REPLICATING ROBOTS:DEFINITION:•Self-replication is the process by which a thing may act,and thereby make a copy of itself.•Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduceby cell division. During cell division, DNA is replicatedand can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction.. Computer viruses reproduce using the hardware andsoftware already present on computers.• A self-replicating machine is, as the name suggests, anartificial self-replicating system that relies onconventional large-scale technology and automation.
It is unlikely that this would all be contained within asingle monolithic structure, but would rather be a group ofcooperating machines that is capable of manufacturing allof the machines.The factory needs production of mining robots to collectraw materials, construction robots to put new machinestogether, and repair robots to maintain itself against wearand tear, all without human intervention or direction.Self-replicating machine needs the capacity to gatherenergy and raw materials, process the raw materials intofinished components, and then assemble them into a copyof itselfThe advantage of such a system lies in its ability toexpand its own capacity rapidly and without additionalhuman effort.
Self-replicating machine needs the capacity to gather energyand raw materials, process the raw materials into finishedcomponents, and then assemble them into a copy of itself The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to expandits own capacity rapidly and without additional human effort.
SELF REPLICATINGMACHINES REQUIRE:•Construction materials•Manufacture of new parts•Consistent power source•Programming the new members
Theory:Research by John von Neumann established thatone common form of a replicator has severalparts:A genome, a compact, usually error-resistantrepresentation of the replicators storedalgorithm. Biologically, this is DNA.A specialized set of mechanisms to copy andrepair the genome, using resources gathered bythe body. Biologically, this is something liketranscriptase.A body, which gathers resources and energy,and interprets a stored algorithm. Biologically,these are ribosomes.
A self-reproducing computerprogramIn computer science a self-reproducingcomputer program is a computer program,that, when executed, outputs its own code.An example in thePython programming language:a=a=%s;print a%%`a`;print a%`a`
CLASSIFICATION OF SELF REPLICATING ROBOTS:Recent research has begun to categorize replicators,based on the amount of support they require.•Natural replicators have all or most of their designfrom nonhuman sources. Such systems include naturallife forms.•Autotrophic replicators can reproduce themselves "inthe wild". They mine their own materials. It isconjectured that non-biological autotrophic replicatorscould be designed by humans, and could easily acceptspecifications for human products.•Self-reproductive systems are conjectured systemswhich would produce copies of themselves fromindustrial feedstocks such as metal bar and wire.•Self-assembling systems are assemble copies ofthemselves from finished, delivered parts.
Design considerationThe design phase of the replicators is very broad. Acomprehensive study to date has identified 137 designdimensions grouped into a dozen separate categories,including: (1) Replication Control, (2) ReplicationInformation, (3) Replication Substrate, (4) ReplicatorStructure, (5) Passive Parts, (6) Active Subunits, (7)Replicator Energetics, (8) Replicator Kinematics, (9)Replication Process, (10) Replicator Performance,(11) Product Structure, and (12) Evolvability.
Construction:A self replicating robot which has been developedrecently contains a series of modular cubes called"molecubes" each containing identical machineryand the complete computer program for replication.
•The cubes have electromagnets on their faces thatallow them to selectively attach to and detach fromone another, and a complete robot consists of severalcubes linked together.•Each cube is divided in half along a long diagonal,which allows a robot composed of many cubes tobend, reconfigure and manipulate other cubes. Forexample, a tower of cubes can bend itself over at aright angle to pick up another cube.
WORKING PRINCIPLE: Replication starts with , the stack of cubes bending over and sets its top cube Then it bends to one side or another to pick up a new cube and deposit it on top of the firstBy repeating the process, one robot made up of a stack of cubes can create another just like itself. Since onerobot cannot reach across another robot of the same height,the robot being built assists in completing its ownconstruction.
APPLICATIONS OF THE SELF REPLICATING ROBOTS Terrestrial Applications: An Intelligent Earth-Sensing Information System A new primitive cell state in the system to permit signals to cross without interference called "wire-crossing" organ can be devised using only the self replicating cell types Studies of the flow of excitation in heart tissue, the dispersal of medicinal drugs, and pattern recognition Cell spaces also have been investigated as abstract mathematical objects where one tries to determine whether from every mathematical pattern all other patterns can be attained, and whether there are some patterns not attainable at all by means of the transition function, and various other specialized questions.
CONCLUSION Self-reproduction is the ultimate form of self- repair. We see that robotic systems are becoming more complex, and in some cases like space exploration, they need to sustain operation for long periods of time without human assistance. If you send a robot to Mars, for example, and it breaks, there is little you can do. But if instead of sending a fixed robot you send a robot with a supply of modules, then that robot may be able to self-repair and even make more and possibly different robots if the mission needs change unexpectedly.