Schizophrenia: The Real Deal


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The Real Deal about Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia: The Real Deal

  1. 1. By: Candace Renken
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by positive, negative, cognitive, and mood symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors can account for 80%-85% of the variance in the sickness. </li></ul><ul><li>About 3 million people in America will develop schizophrenia during their lifetime. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>When it comes to the brain there seems to be plenty of malfunctions within and also disordered connections between different parts. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Prefrontal Cortex can be divided into 3 types of components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes excitatory pyramidal neurons that utilize the neurotransmitter glutamate. Most numerous class of neurons & the principle conveyors of information. Their axons communicate with other cells within the prefrontal cortex & project to other brain regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons in the cortex utilize GABA, provide inhibitory control of the excitatory neurons, & play a very important role in the timing of neuronal activity. Inhibitory neurons are critical in determining when pyramidal cells fire and if they fire in synchrony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes projections from other regions & its divided into two categories – excitatory & modulatory inputs. Excitatory inputs from the thalamus & other cortical regions convey specific information. Modulatory inputs tend to shape activity within the prefrontal cortex, which includes inputs that contain the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each of these categories are CRITICAL for the normal function, but with schizophrenia there are disturbances in each of the categories above. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Suspiciousness </li></ul><ul><li>These are psychological experiences that are not in the range of normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Social Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Social Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>These all represent the loss of normal function. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>4 major subgroups of Negative Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective = Facial expressions, gestures, inadequacy in eye contact are all affected in a negative way making the person unable/uneasy about having causal interactions with other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative = Involving the persons speech and it being reduced in information as well as quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conational = Loss of drive or very little drive in doing everyday things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational = Interest in social activities can be reduced to the point where they end up being neglected. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Risks Factors of Schizophrenia <ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><li>Job Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis use during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>** A lot of things can increase schizophrenia in a person, and when referring to the vulnerability model something must be exceeded in order for the illness to occur, whether it be environmentally or heredity. So a lot depends on how much of the illness is in the genes and what type of things happens in our life, depicts how hard the disorder will hit a certain person. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Differential Diagnosis <ul><li>Schizoaffective Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person must suffer from a mood disorder & schizophrenia. Could suffer from major depressive disorder or mania & schizophrenia and must also suffer from psychosis for at least 2 weeks without a mood disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person also suffers from schizophrenia and can also be accompanied by depression. Can determine if suffering from psychosis by using The Brief Psychiatric Scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*In order for one to distinguish what disorder a person has they must 1) Test 2) Listen Carefully 3) Pay attention to the facts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Treatment <ul><li>Schizophrenia can be treated with both medicine management & therapy (group & individual), which can be both positive and very beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors must make sure they provide the patient with the upmost care. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stigma <ul><li>Schizophrenia is seen as a very violent disorder, but in reality its not. Schizophrenia is a disorder like any other and the negativism that surrounds it is just as bizarre as the symptoms that the people who have the disease are victims of. The best thing to do is educate yourself about this horrible disorder more, so you then to can be both sympathetic and aware! </li></ul>