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Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country


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Using solar hot water heaters for energy savings in cold climates.

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Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country

  1. 1. Solar Hot Water Systems North Country Sustainable Energy Fair 2007 Matt Bullwinkel Alternative and Renewable Energy Applications Program SUNY Canton April 28, 2007
  2. 2. Video
  3. 3. Systems PV Panel to Power Pump HelioStat Solar II Kramer Valley CA Power Plant
  4. 4. Jets Stadium NYC <ul><li>“ 1000 of Thermomax tubes..” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why not solar water heating? <ul><li>Capital cost ($5K vs. $200-$1K for conventional electric or gas heater) </li></ul><ul><li>System failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overheating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Perception: not enough sun/ too cold </li></ul><ul><li>Finding qualified designers/installers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why solar water heating? <ul><li>Free Fuel* </li></ul><ul><li>High Fuel Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Modest capital cost (vs. PV, wind) </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bang for Buck: DHW ~30% energy bill </li></ul><ul><li>Well established: retro fit, “just works” </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable economics to provide fraction of DHW 60-70% </li></ul><ul><li>Federal &State Tax credits </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul>*We have a fuel crisis, not an energy crisis, energy always conserved (kinda)
  7. 8. Too Cold /Not Enough Sun Florida Solar Research Center NC State Solar Center Univ Wiscosin Solar Research !
  8. 9. Applications <ul><li>DHW (Domestic Hot Water) </li></ul><ul><li>Pool Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Space Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Process hot water </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Power </li></ul>
  9. 10. Outline <ul><li>System Types </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Example Installations </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations: </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Solar, Incentives, Training </li></ul>
  10. 11. System Components <ul><li>Solar Collector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb radiation and transfer heat to fluid (water/air/glycol) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mounting Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds collector: wind & seals roof </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plumbing & Pumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move fluid to/from collector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn pump on/off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat Exchanger </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Tank </li></ul>
  11. 12. Heat Transfer Conduction Loss Back & Sides Conduction, Radiation and Convection Loss Top Cold Fluid (Water) IN Hot Fluid (Water) OUT ABSORBER PLATE (Metal) Radiation Insolation IN COVER PLATE (Glass/Polymer) “ Good” Greenhouse Effect ~Transparent to Incoming radiation ~Opaque to Outgoing radiation Trap Energy and Transfer to Fluid
  12. 13. Sun Earth/AET Collector
  13. 14. Thermomax
  14. 15. Thermomax <ul><li>“ heat pipe” </li></ul><ul><li>high conductance thermal conductor. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat transfer rate is thousand's times greater than solid heat </li></ul><ul><li>conductor </li></ul><ul><li>closed container consisting of a capillary wick structure and a small amount of vaporizable fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>employs an evaporating-condensing cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accepts heat from an external source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses this heat to evaporate the liquid (latent heat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases latent heat by condensation (water header) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>return condensed fluid back to the heat zone. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Differential Control
  16. 17. Collector Types <ul><li>Flat Plate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with Cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w/o cover (pool) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evacuated Tube “Thermomax” </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrating Collector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parabolic Trough </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Selective Surface Absorber Plate absorbs large fraction (>.9) of energy But doesn’t emit a lot of energy (>.1)
  18. 19. Direct (open loop) Pumped <ul><ul><li>Circulate Potable water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump turns on when water in collector 15-20 deg warmer than tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns off when 3-5 deg warmer than tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couple of freezes/year OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recirculates warm water if collector starts to freeze </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. PV operated system <ul><li>Pump turns on when enough sun to run pump </li></ul><ul><li>Collector </li></ul><ul><li>is warm too </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul>
  20. 21. Indirect Pumped System <ul><li>Closed Loop </li></ul><ul><li>Northern climates </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate Antifreeze solution </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Exchanger </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Controller </li></ul>
  21. 22. Drain Back System <ul><li>Remove all water from collector when freezing </li></ul><ul><li>When pump off, collectors drain by gravity to inside tank </li></ul>
  22. 23. Integral Collector Storage (ICS) System <ul><li>Collector is storage </li></ul><ul><li>Cold water supply flows directly to collector where heated </li></ul><ul><li>Then into tank with aux heater </li></ul><ul><li>Florida etc. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Thermosiphon System <ul><li>Tank above collector </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate by density differences </li></ul><ul><li>Hot water rises from collector into tank </li></ul><ul><li>Cold water in tank flows down into collector be heated </li></ul><ul><li>Need to protect from freezing </li></ul>
  24. 25. Drain back system Installed Basement Collector
  25. 26. How much Energy required? <ul><li>BTU saved is BTU doesn’t have to be generated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low flow shower heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water laundry </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Available Solar Resource <ul><li>Sun Position </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Incident radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Collector Tilt </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albedo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Pathfinder </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Available Solar Resource <ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer simulation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. NREL
  29. 30. F Chart: Fraction from Solar F Avg=0.65
  30. 31. Thermomax <ul><li>Burlington VT (simulation) </li></ul>
  31. 32. System Economics <ul><li>1 sqft/gal storage@80 gal= </li></ul><ul><li>80 sq ft collector </li></ul><ul><li>North Country weather (Massena) </li></ul><ul><li>Electric bill $0.15 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Paid by 20 yr mortgage </li></ul>
  32. 33. System Cost
  33. 34. Simple Payback <ul><li>$5000/$500- 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback on Couch? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback on Elec Water heater? need hot water! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need better model of usage </li></ul><ul><li>Did not include incentives </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 reduction </li></ul>
  34. 35. Incentives: DSIRE <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>tracks federal financial incentives for renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Especially residential </li></ul>
  35. 36. Federal Tax Incentives
  36. 37. NYS Tax Incentives
  37. 38. System Economics Breakeven!
  38. 39. Organizations <ul><li>NYSERDA-NYS Incentives, R&D, Edcn </li></ul><ul><li>ISPQ-Training and Certification </li></ul><ul><li>NABCEP Training and Certification </li></ul><ul><li>IREC </li></ul><ul><li>SRCC- Solar Rating Certification Center Industry -Testing of Collectors </li></ul><ul><li>DSIRE- Incentive database </li></ul>
  39. 40. IREC <ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Trade organization </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Installation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Installers </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Master Trainers </li></ul>
  40. 41. IREC: Task Analysis
  41. 42. Training and Certification <ul><li>SUNY Canton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AREA Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NYSERDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPQ Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NABCEP Certification </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Questions?