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Mike Newtown: Energy for Everyone: Intro to Renewables


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Mike Newtown of SUNY Canton offers an overview of renewable energy options.

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Mike Newtown: Energy for Everyone: Intro to Renewables

  1. 1. Energy for Everyone Michael Newtown, P.E. Assist. Professor Canino School of Engineering Technology SUNY Canton
  2. 2. We are in an energy crisis!
  3. 3. We think this is the crisis, Picture Source: Dr. Robert W. Meyers SUNY ESF
  4. 4. Oil to Water Comparison <ul><li>Oil at $ 70 a barrel </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle water from vending machine $ 1.50 for 16.9 ounces </li></ul><ul><li>A barrel of crude oil is 42 gallons U. S. </li></ul><ul><li>The comparison to water, oil cost $0.44 for 16.9 ounces. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately enough oil to drive a car across the Village of Canton. </li></ul><ul><li>We pay more for water than oil. </li></ul>
  5. 5. We think this is the crisis, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
  6. 8. We think this is the crisis,
  7. 9. This is the real crisis, sustaining our way of life beyond today. Picture Source: Dr. Robert W. Meyers SUNY ESF
  8. 10. Energy <ul><li>Is used by everyone to exist and grow </li></ul><ul><li>Is used to make life easier </li></ul><ul><li>Should be considered a benefit of modern life, not a necessity </li></ul>
  9. 11. Energy & Power Units <ul><li>Food that we eat everyday, kcals </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, 8000 Btu/lbm </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, 140,000 Btu/gal </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity, watts </li></ul><ul><li>Wind, watts </li></ul><ul><li>Solar, watts </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-thermal, btu or tons </li></ul><ul><li>Btu is the amount of energy to raise 1 lbm of water, 1 o Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>Joule is the amount of energy to raise 1 kg of water, 1 o Celsius </li></ul><ul><li>1 Btu = 1055 Joules </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical, the movement of 1 lbf the distance of 1 foot, Ft-lbf </li></ul>
  10. 12. Units of Power <ul><li>Power = energy / time </li></ul><ul><li>Btu/hr (Btuh) heat energy used per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Watts, number of Joules used per second </li></ul><ul><li>Horse Power, the power provided by one Welsh pony lifting 550 lb of coal one foot in 1 minute. </li></ul><ul><li>National Grid bills in KWh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power X Time [(KJ/S) x hour] </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Basic Appliances <ul><li>Refrigerator operating at 115 volts on a 15 amp circuit will draw 1725 watts. </li></ul><ul><li>A circular saw that is rated at 13 amps will use 1495 watts. This is equivalent to 2 hp </li></ul><ul><li>¾ hp shallow well pump will use .55 watts </li></ul>As you see it is difficult to keep power and energy straight, as each has its own meaning depending on the use.
  12. 14. An Energy Vs. Power Experiment <ul><li>First pick up a 10 pound weight and move it 10 feet. How much work has been done? (Work equals Energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: 100 ft-lbf or 135 Joules or .13 Btu </li></ul><ul><li>Now if that could be done once every second for 1 min, the power necessary to perform such a feat is 1.67 ft-lbf/sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent in other units are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.003 hp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.002 KW or 2 Watts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. TANSTAAFL <ul><li>“ There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch” John W. Campbell, Editor, Astounding Science Fiction Magazine , 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>In this modern world we have sometimes forgotten that energy costs more than money. Global Warming, Peak Oil production, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Now for some alternatives to sustaining our energy demands. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Net-metering for Grid-Connected Systems <ul><li>“ Bank” excess energy with the local utility </li></ul><ul><li>Meter spins backward; customer receives full retail value for each kWh produced </li></ul><ul><li>Net excess generation (NEG) credited monthly or annually </li></ul>
  15. 17. Connecting to the Grid <ul><li>PURPA requires utilities to connect with and purchase power from small wind systems </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce consumption of utility-supplied electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Utility acts as a big “battery bank” </li></ul><ul><li>Contact individual utility before connecting to its lines </li></ul>
  16. 18. Interconnection Requirements <ul><li>Power Quality Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Must synchronize with grid </li></ul><ul><li>Must match utility power’s voltage, frequency and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Must meet electrical codes </li></ul><ul><li>Must stop supplying power to grid during power outages </li></ul>
  17. 19. Solar
  18. 20. Solar Power Today <ul><li>Direct solar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Solar energy passing through windows heating our homes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active Solar energy heating of hot water or glycol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Solar Power Today <ul><li>Direct solar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation conversion to electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of electricity by chemical actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar cell wafer has Boron or Phosphorous dopant over a silicon chip exposed to light and electrons start to flow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Single Cell to Array
  21. 23. Components to PV <ul><li>Array </li></ul><ul><li>Array disconnect fuse </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Load disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter </li></ul><ul><li>System Monitor </li></ul>
  22. 24. Passive Solar Heating & Cooling <ul><li>Direct gain systems </li></ul><ul><li>Storage wall systems </li></ul><ul><li>Sunspaces </li></ul><ul><li>A passive system has to have a net gain in energy during the heating season and net loss during cooling season </li></ul>
  23. 25. Direct Gain Systems <ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having windows with high R values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low E coatings reduce heat loss while being able to gain Solar Radiation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Trombe Walls <ul><li>Masonry wall exposed to the Sun through a window during the daytime </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation heats the wall </li></ul><ul><li>At night, the wall re-radiates energy to heat room. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Sunspaces <ul><li>Sunrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Glass enclosed rooms </li></ul><ul><li>This is a bad example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much glass </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Solar Hot Water heater <ul><li>Any system that uses mechanical assistance to move a fluid is an active system. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Guidelines summary for solar domestic water heating systems: <ul><li>A well designed system will provide 50-80% of a home's hot water needs (less in winter, more in summer). </li></ul><ul><li>There should be 10-15 square feet of solar collector area for each person in the household. </li></ul><ul><li>The storage tank should hold 20-30 gallons per person. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be no shade on the collectors during the hours from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM. </li></ul><ul><li>The collectors should face south and be tilted at a 30 degree angle (slight variations noted above will not significantly harm performance). </li></ul><ul><li>The collectors and storage tank should be in close proximity to the backup system and house distribution system to avoid excessive pipe losses. The pipes need to be well insulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing valves or thermal shutoff devices should be employed to protect from excessively high temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Select systems that are tested and certified by the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC). </li></ul>
  28. 30. Major Components to Solar Water Heating <ul><li>Collectors to capture solar energy. Circulation system to move a fluid between the collectors to a storage tank </li></ul><ul><li>Storage tank </li></ul><ul><li>Backup heating system </li></ul><ul><li>Control system to regulate the overall system operation </li></ul>
  29. 31. Wind
  30. 32. How a Wind Turbines Work Wind Turbine (400 W-100 kW) Guyed or Tilt-Up Tower (60-120 ft) Safety Switch Power Processing Unit (Inverter) Cumulative Production Meter AC Load Center
  31. 33. How Power is Made from Wind <ul><li>P=0.5ρAV^3 (SI units) </li></ul><ul><li>ρ= density of air (lbm/ft^3) </li></ul><ul><li>A= Sweep Area of Blades (ft^2) </li></ul><ul><li>V= Velocity of Wind (mph) </li></ul>
  32. 34. Turbine Efficiency <ul><li>Efficiency = P out /P wind </li></ul><ul><li>Betz Limit: 59% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Best achieved efficiencies are 20-40% </li></ul>
  33. 35. Typical Applications Farms, Homes, Businesses <ul><li>Supplementing Grid Power </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to utility grid through house/farm wiring </li></ul><ul><li>3 kW, 15-ft rotor, 23-ft tower* </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ~ 5,000 kWh/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Offsets ~ 3.8 tons CO 2 /yr </li></ul><ul><li>Costs ~ $10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>* due to zoning restrictions (not recommended) </li></ul><ul><li>Off-Grid Water Pumping with Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ~ 2,000 kWh/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Offsets ~ 1.5 tons CO 2 /yr </li></ul><ul><li>Costs ~ $4,000 installed </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies water for 120 head of cattle </li></ul><ul><li>1 kW, 9-ft rotor, 30-ft tower </li></ul>
  34. 36. Typical Applications Farms, Homes, Businesses <ul><li>Offsetting All Utility Power </li></ul><ul><li>“ Net metering” utility power </li></ul><ul><li>10 kW, 23-ft rotor diameter, 100-ft tower </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ~ 15,000 kWh/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Offsets ~ 14 tons CO 2 /yr </li></ul><ul><li>Costs ~ $35,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Selling Power Back to Utility </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ~120,000 kWh/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Offsets ~ 91 tons CO 2 /yr </li></ul><ul><li>Costs ~ $150,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Excess power sold to utility </li></ul><ul><li>50 kW, 49-ft rotor, 90-ft tower </li></ul>
  35. 37. Number of Blades <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Start-up speed vs maximum power </li></ul><ul><li>Blade drag, Wake </li></ul>
  36. 39. Factors to Consider <ul><li>Good wind resource: Class 2 or better </li></ul><ul><li>Home or business located on 1 acre or more of land </li></ul><ul><li>Average monthly electricity bills > $100 for 10 kW system, > $50 for 5 kW system </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning restrictions, economic incentives </li></ul>
  37. 40. Options: On or Off the Grid? <ul><li>Stand-Alone System </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries to store excess power </li></ul><ul><li>Charge controller </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter (DC to AC) </li></ul><ul><li>Back-up power source for complete energy independence </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-Connected System </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter (DC to AC) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual wind speed > 10 mph (4.5 m/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer motivated by high utility prices, self sufficiency, or environmental concerns </li></ul>
  38. 41. Modern Small Wind Turbines High Tech, High Reliability, Low Maintenance <ul><li>Small turbines range from 20 W to 100 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3-4 moving parts means very low maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>20- to 40-year design life </li></ul><ul><li>Proven technology – 150,000 installed; over a billion operational hours </li></ul><ul><li>American companies are the market and technology leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial cost-reduction potential </li></ul>
  39. 42. Before You Buy <ul><li>Economics will depend on system chosen, local wind resource, electricity costs, and how you use your wind system </li></ul>Evaluate energy efficiency options first! Approach investment as you would any other major purchase – do your homework Average Home Energy Use
  40. 43. Installation Costs <ul><li>Estimate $2-4/installed watt for typical system </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller systems require smaller initial outlay, but cost more per watt </li></ul><ul><li>Taller towers cost more, but usually reduce the payback period </li></ul>A 4-10 kW system can meet the needs of a typical home Customers paying 12 cents/kWh or more for electricity with average wind speeds of 10 mph or more can expect a payback period of 8-16 years
  41. 44. Factors Affecting Payback <ul><li>Type, size and configuration of system </li></ul><ul><li>Wind resource </li></ul><ul><li>Local cost of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>How wind system is used </li></ul><ul><li>Rebates available, if any </li></ul>
  42. 46. Indirect Estimates of Wind Resource <ul><li>Review wind maps </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain airport data </li></ul><ul><li>Visually observe site vegetation </li></ul>See “A Siting Handbook for Small Wind Energy Conversion Systems,” 800-553-6847 or
  43. 47. Tower Height Matters <ul><li>Wind speed increases with height </li></ul><ul><li>Small increases in wind speed result in large increases in power </li></ul><ul><li>Tall towers often needed for clearance above obstacles (turbulence) </li></ul><ul><li>May require a variance or a special use permit </li></ul>
  44. 48. Height or Distance Needed
  45. 49. Geothermal Heat Pumps
  46. 50. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  47. 52. Hugh Henderson, P.E. Approx. 3 tons per 100 ft of well
  48. 53. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  49. 54. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  50. 55. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  51. 56. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  52. 57. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  53. 58. Hugh Henderson, P.E.
  54. 59. Economics of Geothermal Heat Pumps <ul><li>Geothermal heat pumps save money in operating and maintenance costs. </li></ul><ul><li>While the initial purchase price of a residential GHP system is often higher than that of a comparable gas-fired furnace and central air-conditioning system, it is more efficient, thereby saving money every month. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, a geothermal heat pump system costs about $2,500 per ton of capacity, or roughly $7,500 for a 3-ton unit (a typical residential size). </li></ul><ul><li>A system using horizontal ground loops will generally cost less than a system with vertical loops. </li></ul>
  55. 60. Fuel Cells
  56. 61. How fuel cells work Source: US Fuel Cell Council Fuel Cells
  57. 63. Bio-mass
  58. 64. Source of Biomass
  59. 66.