Africa: Week 2

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Africa: Week 2

  1. 1. Class ObjectiveStudents will examine, comprehend and synthesis the historical importance of African geography and culture and the significance of the Egyptian Empire on world history.
  2. 2. Point of Consideration• To what extend do you think Geography can determine a People’s history?
  3. 3. A Satellite View
  4. 4. Africa’s Size 4600 MILES 5 0 0 0 M I L E S# Second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi.# 10% of the world’s population.# 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.
  5. 5. Mediterranean SeaBodies Nile RiverOf L. Chad-->Water L. Albert--> L. Victoria L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Limpopo River Orange River Pacific Ocean
  6. 6. The Mighty Nile River:“Longest River in the World”
  7. 7. The Congo River Basin # Covers 12% of the continent. # Extends over 9 countries. # 2,720 miles long. # 99% of the country of Zaire is in the Congo River basin.
  8. 8. The Niger River Basin # Covers 7.5% of the continent. # Extends over 10 countries. # 2,600 miles long.
  9. 9. The African Plateau
  10. 10. Libyan DesertDeserts Sahara Desert Sahel
  11. 11. The Sahara Desert
  12. 12. Valleys&Plains
  13. 13. Great Rift Valley 3,000 miles long
  14. 14. West Africa:Home of our Hurricanes
  15. 15. Vegetation Zones
  16. 16. The African Savannah:13 million sq. mi.
  17. 17. African Rain Forest # Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. # Rapid decomposition (very humid). # Covers 37 countries. # 15% of the land surface of Africa.
  18. 18. Mt. Kilimanjaro:Snow on the Equator?
  19. 19. Mediterranean Sea Libyan DesertThe Tropic of Cancer 20 N Sahara DesertComplete Sahel Nile River L. Chad-->Topography Equator 0 L. Albert--> Δ Mt. Kenya L. Victoria Δ Mt. KilimanjaroOf L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic OceanAFRICA Zambezi River Tropic of Capricorn Limpopo River 20 S Orange River Pacific Ocean
  20. 20. Natural Resources
  21. 21. Controversy Over Egypt: Traditionalists Versus Afrocentricists
  22. 22. Social Darwinism, 19th Century Intellectual Black and Liberals Argued that Egypt as a positive in racial arguments.
  23. 23. Afrocentricists• The Egypt was a black civilization• Linked to other African Civilizations In the South• Important Impact on the Mediterranean Sea, especially Greek and Rome• Thus, promoted philosophy and science which is the basis for Western Civilization.
  24. 24. Traditionalists• Modern racial categories has no relevance to the ancient Egypt• Ancient Greece is the father of empirical science and ideas about individual freedom• Egypt did make huge contributions in religion, commerce and art.
  25. 25. A View of Egypt by Satellite
  26. 26. The Fertile Nile Valley
  27. 27. Scenes of Ancient Egyptian Daily Life
  28. 28. Making Ancient Egyptian Beer
  29. 29. Making Ancient Egyptian Wine
  30. 30. An Egyptian Woman’s “Must- Haves” Mirror Perfume Whigs
  31. 31. Egyptian Social Hierarchy
  32. 32. Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs Tutankham on 1336-1327 B. C. E.Thutmose III1504-1450 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E.
  33. 33. Egyptian Nobility
  34. 34. Egyptian Priestly Class
  35. 35. Egyptian Scribe
  36. 36. Papyrus  Paper Hieratic Scroll PiecePapyrus Plant
  37. 37. Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 What number is this?
  38. 38. Champollion & the Rosetta Stone
  39. 39. Hieroglyphic“Cartouche”
  40. 40. Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols
  41. 41. Egyptian Creation Myth The Goddess Nut
  42. 42. Preparations for the Underworld ANUBIS weighs the dead person’s heart against a feather.Priests protectedyour KA, or soul-spirit
  43. 43. Materials Used in Mummification 1. Linen 6. Natron 2. Sawdust 7. Onion 3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud 4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads 5. Resin 10. Frankinsense
  44. 44. Egyptian Mummies Seti I Queen Tiye, Ramses II1291-1278 B. C. E. wife of 1279-1212 B. C. E. Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. E.
  45. 45. The Final Judgement Anubis HorusOsiris
  46. 46. Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s Servants in the Afterlife
  47. 47. Giza Pyramid Complex
  48. 48. Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu
  49. 49. King Tutankhamun’s Tomb
  50. 50. Ankhenaton: First Monotheist? 1352-1336 B. C. E.
  51. 51. Abu Simbel: Monument to Ramses II1279-1213 B. C. E.
  52. 52. Routes of the “Sea Peoples” The end of the Bronze Age!
  53. 53. Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALTGOLD
  54. 54. Ghana Empire [4c-11c]Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast
  55. 55. Salt
  56. 56. Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALTGOLD
  57. 57. Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”
  58. 58. Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque
  59. 59. Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali
  60. 60. Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”
  61. 61. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]
  62. 62. European Map
  63. 63. Songhai Empire [15c-16c]SALTGOLD
  64. 64. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492]
  65. 65. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529]
  66. 66. Askia Mohammed’s Tomb [1443-1538] Gao, Mali
  67. 67. Benin Empire [15c-19c]
  68. 68. IslamicInvasions
  69. 69. Traditional African Society Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  70. 70. 1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes
  71. 71. An African’s “Search for Identity” 1. Nuclear Family 2. Extended Family 3. Age-Set 4. Clan 5. Lineage (ancestry) TRIBE (communal living)
  72. 72. Traditional Family Structures C CNuclear Family: C W H W C C U GP Cs C CExtended Family: C W H W C C GP Cs A
  73. 73. Traditional African Religion ANIMISM1. Belief in one remote Supreme Being.2. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all things.3. Ancestor veneration.4. Belief in magic, charms, and fetishes.5. Diviner  mediator between the tribe and God.
  74. 74. Other Religions in AfricaISLAM  25% * Nigeria  largest sub-Saharan Muslim countries.CHRISTIANITY  20%
  75. 75. Common Traits or Characteristicsof Traditional African Tribal Life 1. The good of the group comes ahead of the good of the individual. 2. All land is owned by the group. 3. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. 4. Important ceremonies at different parts of a person’s life. 5. Special age and work associations. 6. Deep respect for ancestors. 7. Religion is an important part of everyday life. 8. Government is in the hands of the chiefs [kings].
  76. 76. What is a Griot ? Musician Genealogist(Troubadour) Storyteller Tribal “Historian”
  77. 77. Images of the Traditional African Griot
  78. 78. Images of the Traditional African Griot
  79. 79. Images of the Traditional African Griot

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