Emb Sys Rev Ver1

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  • 4000 ICs The first to use Ics Each IC had 2 NAND gates
  • Based on 4 typical tasks; packing BCD, loop control, bit test and branch, serial data xmit… 2 factors; Harvard architecture; 14 bit instruction bus hold 8 bit operand….code is also a lot simpler, almost all instructions Execute in ONE cycle. RISC -> 33 instructions [half that of comparable uCs.]
  • Emb Sys Rev Ver1

    1. 1. NCCT Centre for Advanced Technology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT * EMBEDDED SYSTEMS #109, 2nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034. Phone - 044 - 2823 5816, 98412 32310 E-Mail: ncct@eth.net, esskayn@eth.net, URL: ncctchennai.com Dedicated to Commitments, Committed to Technologies
    2. 2. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS NCCT Where Technology and Solutions Meet
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The purpose is to make a technical presentation on EMBEDDED SYSTEMS & ITS APPLICATIONS </li></ul> NCCT
    4. 4. About NCCT <ul><li>NCCT is a leading IT organization backed by a strong R & D, concentrating on Electronics product development. </li></ul><ul><li>The major activities of NCCT include Hardware Design, Development, Implementation and related activities </li></ul> NCCT
    5. 5. WHAT WILL WE DISCUSS <ul><li>About Embedded System </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Embedded System </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Embedded System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro Controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLSI </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Embedded system is a combination of software and hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>An Embedded system is a system, that has a computing device embedded into it. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded systems are designed around a µ C which integrates memory & peripherals . </li></ul>
    7. 7. WHY ‘EMBEDDED’? <ul><li>It is embedded because the processor is ‘inside’ some other system. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example a microprocessor is ‘embedded’ into your TV, car, or appliance. </li></ul><ul><li>The consumer need not think about how to make it perform or process </li></ul>
    8. 8. EMBEDDING A COMPUTER CPU mem input output analog analog embedded computer
    9. 9. EXAMPLES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Automotive systems: electronic dashboards, ABS brakes, transmission controls. Medical instrument’s controls: CAT scanners, implanted heart monitors, etc. Controls for digital equipment: CD players, TV remote, programmable sprinklers, household appliances, etc.
    10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS <ul><li>Sophisticated functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Low manufacturing cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Low power. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to tight deadlines by small teams. </li></ul>
    11. 11. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS - EARLY HISTORY <ul><li>Late 1940’s: MIT Whirlwind computer was designed for real-time operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally designed to control an aircraft simulator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First microprocessor was Intel 4004 in early 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>HP-35 calculator used several chips to implement a microprocessor in 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles used microprocessor-based engine controllers starting in 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control fuel/air mixture, engine timing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple modes of operation: warm-up, cruise, hill climbing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides lower emissions, better fuel efficiency. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Some history… <ul><li>The first Embedded System: Apollo Guidance Computer </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Difference between a Micro Processor and a Micro Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bitwise Instruction Set </li></ul>
    14. 14. Types of Micro Controller <ul><li>70 TYPES OF MICRO CONTROLLERS </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the examples are </li></ul><ul><li>Microchip </li></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Philips </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung etc … </li></ul>
    15. 15. What is PIC <ul><li>PIC stands for Peripheral Interfacing Controller developed by MICROCHIP technology INC, USA </li></ul><ul><li>PIC is a very popular Microcontroller world wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Microchip is the first manufacture of 8 pin RISC MCU. </li></ul>
    16. 16. PIC ARCHITECTURE BACKGROUND <ul><li>Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Very little external support hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Most RAM, ROM and peripherals on chip. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Computer on a chip”, or “System on chip” (SOC) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., PIC = Peripheral Interface Controller </li></ul>
    17. 17. PIC Architecture: Background <ul><li>We’re used to the Von-Neuman Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Used in: 80X86 (PCs), 8051, 68HC11, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Only one bus between CPU and memory </li></ul><ul><li>RAM and program memory share the same bus and the same memory, and so must have the same bit width </li></ul><ul><li>Bottleneck: Getting instructions interferes with accessing RAM </li></ul>CPU 8 Memory (Program & Data)
    18. 18. PIC Architecture: Background <ul><li>PICS USE THE HARVARD ARCHITECTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in RISC CPUs (we’ll get there) </li></ul><ul><li>Separate program bus and data bus: can be different widths! </li></ul><ul><li>For example, PICs use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data memory (RAM): a small number of 8bit registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program memory (ROM): 12bit, 14bit or 16bit wide (in EPROM, FLASH, or ROM) </li></ul></ul>CPU 12 14 16 Memory (Data) 8 Memory (Program)
    19. 19. Use the PIC micro ® Micro Controller Technology You Need...! <ul><li>FLASH for your re-programmable applications </li></ul><ul><li>OTP for you production line configured applications </li></ul><ul><li>ROM for your stable code applications </li></ul><ul><li>Need to migrate from one part to another? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchip makes it easy... even across different technologies </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. PIC µC SPEED COMPARISON
    21. 21. DEVELOPMENT PHASES <ul><li>Designing such systems requires a combination of hardware and software. </li></ul><ul><li>Development phases include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the electronic design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing & developing the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing the hardware </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. DEVELOPMENT PHASES... <ul><ul><li>Debugging and simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedding Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC DESIGN <ul><li>What kind of external circuitry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement of external circuitry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture of µ C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which µ C ? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. DESIGNING THE SOFTWARE <ul><li>Choosing the computer language </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding the flow of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the modules in the system </li></ul>
    25. 25. Software: Instruction Set <ul><li>Let’s see what makes PICs tick! See handout: “PIC 16CXX Instruction Set Summary” Program counter increments once each Tcyc to “grab” the next instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, instructions are stored in program memory and are completely separate from RAM (“File registers”). </li></ul>
    26. 26. Software - Programmers Model Program Memory “ Burned” in by programmer (can’t change during execution). Stored instructions, addresses and “literals” (numbers). <- 12/14/16 bits -> Hardware Stack Stores addresses for subroutines Program Counter-PCL (PCH) Status Special Purpose Registers I/O pin states, peripheral registers, etc. General Purpose Registers RAM or “data memory”. Variables are stored here. W “Register” <- 8 bits ->
    27. 27. TESTING <ul><li>The µ C is placed in the appropriate electronic circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>Test result at various points in the circuit are taken and compared with expected output. </li></ul><ul><li>External factors that may affect the electronic circuitry should be taken care of. </li></ul>
    28. 28. DEVELOPING THE SOFTWARE <ul><li>Coding is done in an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)- MPLAB </li></ul><ul><li>Different compilers available are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HITECH C </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. DEBUGGING AND SIMULATION <ul><li>Simulation is done by giving test inputs,which is called stimulus input. </li></ul><ul><li>Debugging can be done manually or using an IN-CIRCUIT DEBUGGER. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation tool used is MPLAB-SIM </li></ul>
    30. 30. EMBEDDING PROCESS <ul><li>Fusing of the compiled code into the µC is termed as Embedding Process </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding process is executed by using a device – PICSTART PLUS Programmer </li></ul><ul><li>It gives a summary of how many addresses are programmed & success or failure of the embedding process </li></ul>
    31. 31. ROUTINES <ul><li>Software development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product architecture & development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware circuit design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding in Assembly and C Language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PICmicro Training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design consultation . </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Field of Embedded <ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>RF </li></ul>
    33. 33. Today/Tomorrow
    34. 34. Embedded Systems in today’s world <ul><li>Signal processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time video, set-top boxes, DVD players, medical equipment, residential gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, elevators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Small” systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, smart badges </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. RECENT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DESIGNS <ul><li>Two Digit Universal and Custom Timers </li></ul><ul><li>Six Digit Preset, Up/Down Counters </li></ul><ul><li>Water Level Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Length counter </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature control </li></ul>RECENT AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT DESIGNS <ul><li>Car central locking and alarm system with RF remote and keypad access </li></ul><ul><li>Smart wiper controller </li></ul><ul><li>Power window controller </li></ul><ul><li>Smart flasher for two wheelers </li></ul><ul><li>Auto dipper </li></ul>
    36. 36. Recent Telecommunication Product Designs <ul><li>Telephone caller ID with LCD and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone controller switch for home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Private telephone exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Local call metering system </li></ul>Recent Biomedical Product Designs <ul><li>Blood pressure monitor </li></ul><ul><li>ECG monitor using a computer monitor for display and settable alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate monitor </li></ul>
    37. 37. Recent Agriculture Product Designs <ul><li>Irrigation pump controller </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation timer </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation motor protector </li></ul><ul><li>Motor phase reversal and failure protector </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation controller </li></ul><ul><li>Soil RH monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pH meter </li></ul>
    38. 38. Recent Consumer Product Designs <ul><li>Four zone burglar alarm system </li></ul><ul><li>Code key access system </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerator temperature controller </li></ul><ul><li>Air-Conditioner controller with remote </li></ul><ul><li>Water level controller </li></ul>
    39. 39. PROJECT SAMPLES <ul><li>Industrial Timer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four digit Timer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Car Alarm with remote control </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. BENEFITS OF EMBEDDED CONTROL DESIGN <ul><li>Eliminates necessity of complex circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>Smarter products. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller size. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost. </li></ul><ul><li>User friendly. </li></ul><ul><li>State of the art technology. </li></ul>
    41. 41. FUTURE OF EMBEDDED CONTROL <ul><li>Intelligent products are used everyday - mobile phones, printers, washing machines, microwave ovens, water purifier, air conditioners etc. </li></ul><ul><li>New generation embedded control will include internet connectivity and RF controls. </li></ul>
    42. 42. The Job Opportunities in the areas of <ul><li>Software Design Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Device Driver Developer </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel Developer </li></ul><ul><li>Network Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>RTOS Programmer </li></ul><ul><li>Software Engineer in Research & Development </li></ul>
    43. 43. Companies are working on Embedded Systems and Applications <ul><li>AXES technologies </li></ul><ul><li>CG Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Converge Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Future Software </li></ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li>LUCENT </li></ul><ul><li>MASCON </li></ul><ul><li>Sundaram Telematics </li></ul><ul><li>Visteon </li></ul><ul><li>WIPRO </li></ul><ul><li>TCS </li></ul><ul><li>Infosys </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Bosch </li></ul><ul><li>Kshema Technologies </li></ul>
    44. 44. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Embedded systems is THE happening thing in the engineering industry…. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances marketability of the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers development cost / product cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances product quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum utilization of advanced chip features. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Projects @ NCCT Redefining the Learning Specialization, Design, Development and Implementation with Projects Experience the learning with the latest new tools and technologies…
    46. 46. Projects @ NCCT Project Specialization Concept <ul><li>NCCT , in consultation with Export-Software Division, offers Live Electronics related Projects, to experience the learning with the latest new tools and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>NCCT believes in specialized Hardware Design, development training and implementation with an emphasis on development principles and standards </li></ul><ul><li>NCCT plays a dual positive role by satisfying your academic requirements as well as giving the necessary training in electronics and embedded product development </li></ul>
    47. 47. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>WE ARE OFFERING PROJECTS FOR THE FOLLOWING DISCIPLINES </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS </li></ul>
    48. 48. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>PROJECTS IN THE AREAS OF </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Systems </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI Design and Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>DSP, RTOS Design & Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>PLC, Power Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>AI, ES and ROBOTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Computing, Communication, RF, Bluetooth technologies related </li></ul>
    49. 49. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>SAMPLE PROJECTS @ NCCT </li></ul><ul><li>BIOMEDICAL AND WIRELESS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>WIRELSS HEART BEAT RATE MONITOR WITH WAP MESSENGER </li></ul>
    50. 50. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>BRIEF IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTANT MONITORING OF HEART BEAT </li></ul><ul><li>FINGER SENSOR </li></ul><ul><li>FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>EASY TOOL </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHICAL OUTPUT PLOTTED </li></ul><ul><li>WAP ENABLED </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOMATIC PACE MAKER ON </li></ul>
    51. 51. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>SAMPLE PROJECTS @ NCCT </li></ul><ul><li>SECURITY WITH WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES SYSTEM WITH WEB CAM </li></ul>
    52. 52. Projects @ NCCT <ul><li>BRIEF IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL SECURITY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>USING SENSORS AND WEB CAMERA </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT- OF SENSORS IS FED INTO THE PC </li></ul><ul><li>THROUGH A PIC µC USING PIC RS 232 INTERFACE </li></ul><ul><li>FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>INTRUDER DETECTION WITH WEB CAMERA AND AUTO DIALER, FLAME DETECTION, ATTENDANCE , SECURITY ALERT </li></ul><ul><li>DOOR TAMPERING, METAL DETECTION </li></ul>
    53. 53. Placements @ NCCT NCCT has an enormous placement wing, which enrolls all candidates in its placement bank, and will keep in constant touch with various IT related industries in India / Abroad, who are in need of computer trained quality manpower Each candidate goes through complete pre-placement session before placement made by NCCT The placement division also helps students in getting projects and organize guest lectures, group discussions, soft learning skills, mock interviews, personality development skills, easy learning skills, technical discussions, student meetings, etc., For every student we communicate the IT organizations, with the following documents * Curriculum highlighting the skills * A brief write up of the software knowledge acquired at NCCT, syllabus taught at NCCT * Projects and Specialization work done at NCCT * Additional skills learnt
    54. 54. NCCT THE FOLLOWING SKILL SET IS SECURE
    55. 55. NCCT Quality is Our Responsibility Dedicated to Commitments and Committed to Technology

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