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E Commerce 1


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E Commerce 1

  1. 1. NCCTCentre for Advanced Technology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT * EMBEDDED SYSTEMS #109, 2nd Floor, Bombay Flats, Nungambakkam High Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034. Phone - 044 - 2823 5816, 98412 32310 E-Mail:,, URL: Dedicated to Commitments, Committed to Technologies
  2. 2. WEB TECHNOLOGIES AND TRENDS NCCT Where Technology and Solutions Meet
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The purpose is to make a technical presentation on E-Commerce, Web Technologies, Trends and Applications NCCT
  4. 4. About NCCT  NCCT is a leading IT organization backed by a strong R & D, concentrating on Software Applications, Web related Products, Electronics product development.  The major activities of NCCT include Hardware Design, Development, Implementation and related activities NCCT
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Three landmark events changed the world of COMMERCE forever In 1769…through Watts’ development of the steam engine - COMMERCE GOT POWER! In 1858…through the laying of the Transatlantic cable - COMMERCE GOT CONNECTED! In 1985…through the assignment of the first .com name on the Internet COMMERCE GOT SMART!
  6. 6. Over 100 years ago a technology convergence fueled a new economy STEAM POWER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL SCIENCES The resulting Industrial Economy defined the business landscape for the 20th century
  7. 7. Today, another technology convergence is fueling a new economy Computing Technologie s Communicati on Technologies Content Technologi es The resulting eEconomy is defining the business landscape for the 21st century For Business: Greater competitive intensity, new entrants and value propositions. For Government: New demands, new services, new partners, organizational transformation and a revolutionary decentralization of power and decision making
  8. 8. eEconomy … the broad business environment in which global commerce is conducted. eEconomy eCommerce … the conduct of business among eEnterprises and consumers with an alignment of people, processes and technology with eCommerce enlightened strategic intent. eCommerce eEnterprise … a business or government enterprise with the capability to exchange value (money, goods, services and information) electronically. eEnterpris e The eEconomy creates the context for a dramatic change in the way business is conducted In the 21st century… eEnterprises will conduct eCommerce in the eEconomy
  9. 9. WHAT IS THE INTERNET? • The internet is a collection of wires, protocols and hardware that allows the electronic transmission of data over TCP/IP • Any data can be transferred over the net, e.g., email, faxes, video, voice & web pages • Technically www (web) and the net are not the same. The web is an application for the net INTERNET ARCHITECTURE • A collection of networks, 2 networks can only be connected by a computer that is connected to both of them. This machine is a router. • Routers use the destination network address not the destination host address when routing a packet. • The amount of info a router needs to store is proportional to the # of nets not hosts.
  10. 10. HOW THE INTERNET WORKS CHARACTERISTICS THAT ALLOW SHARED ACCESS OF DATA IN A NETWORK • Unique identification of each computer on the network - Internet is a network of millions of computers and thousands of networks intertwined together. Thus it was important that each computer can be uniquely identified by assigning a specific Internet Protocol(IP) address. e.g., • Human-friendly addressing - Domain Name System(DNS) gave each computer on the network an address comprising an easily recognizable letters and words instead of an IP address; e.g., • Packet Switching - To remedy delays associated with unequally sized data transfers, instead of transferring files in their entirety, whole files are broken up into data packets before being transferred over the network. • Routing - Routers are dedicated, special-purpose computers which serve as an intermediary between networks. They route packets efficiently through networks. Routers are building blocks of the internet.
  11. 11. NETWORKING SOFTWARE • The two most well-known pieces of internetworking software are the TCP and IP • IP software set rules of data transfer over the network • TCP software ensures the safe and reliable transfer of data • With open system nature of TCP/IP development, software development and computer companies could more easily build TCP/IP compliant software and hardware • TCP/IP standard network protocol laid the groundwork that enabled the deep internetworking that made internet possible • Reliability and Transmission control Protocol - IP software handles packet deliveries and TCP handles safe delivery of packages. • Standardization - Without the TCP/IP standardization, there would have been many negative tradeoffs, such as inflexibility and increased functional and switching costs. HOW THE INTERNET WORKS CHARACTERISTICS THAT ALLOW SHARED ACCESS OF DATA IN A NETWORK
  12. 12. WEB SITE BASICS •WEB SERVER – Software, Hardware, Network •CONTENT – Keeping it current •DESIGN •IDENTITY NCCT
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES OF USING WEB • Automated content – CGI, Servlets, etc., Persistent data interface, cookies • Interactive components – Allow the users to respond • Push technology – Mailing lists, Channels INTERACTION & AUTOMATION SEARCH & STRUCTURE • Search facility for site • Site maps - auto-generated • Site templates/structure – CGI, Imagemaps, Stylesheets
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES OF USING WEB COMMERCE & ADVERTISING • Commerce server – Shopping carts, Stateful sessions – Security/Encryption, Payment • Ad Servers • Marketing – attract customer attention, build customer loyalty • Direct Sales – global, 7x24 • Advertising Revenue • Reduced Support Costs
  16. 16. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE (E-COMMERCE) • Commerce is fundamentally based on Trust • Commerce refers to all the activities the purchase and sales of goods or services. – Marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service • Electronic commerce is doing commerce with the use of computers, networks and commerce-enabled software (more than just online shopping) • E-Commerce involves the translation of protocols, that have evolved over the millenia, into the Electronic environment
  17. 17. E-COMMERCE BRIEF HISTORY • 1970s: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) – Used by the banking industry to exchange account information over secured networks • Late 1970s and early 1980s: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for e-commerce within companies – Used by businesses to transmit data from one business to another • 1990s: the World Wide Web on the Internet provides easy-to-use technology for information publishing and dissemination – Cheaper to do business (economies of scale) – Enable diverse business activities (economies of scope)
  18. 18. ECOMMERCE INFRASTRUCTURE • INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE – Internet, LAN, WAN, routers, etc. – telecom, cable TV, wireless, etc. • THE WORLD WIDE WEB - WWW, MESSAGING AND INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION INFRASTRUCTURE – Part of the Internet and allows users to share information with an easy-to-use interface – HTML, XML, e-mail, HTTP, Web browsers, etc. • COMMON BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE – Security, authentication, electronic payment, directories, catalogs, etc. • WEB ARCHITECTURE – Client/server model – N-tier architecture; e.g., web servers, application servers, database servers, scalability
  19. 19. THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF E-COMMERCE • Consumer shopping on the Web, called B2C (business to consumer) • Transactions conducted between businesses on the Web, call B2B (business to business) • Transactions and business processes that support selling and purchasing activities on the Web – Supplier, inventory, distribution, payment management – Financial management, purchasing products and information
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE • Increased sales – Reach narrow market segments in geographically dispersed locations – Create virtual communities • Decreased costs – Handling of sales inquiries – Providing price quotes – Determining product availability • Being in the space
  22. 22. THE PROCESS OF E-COMMERCE • ATTRACT CUSTOMERS – Advertising, marketing • INTERACT WITH CUSTOMERS – Catalog, negotiation • HANDLE AND MANAGE ORDERS – Order capture – Payment – Transaction – Fulfillment (physical good, service good, digital good) • REACT TO CUSTOMER INQUIRIES – Customer service – Order tracking
  23. 23. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE • BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER (B2C) • BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS (B2B) • CONSUMER-TO-CONSUMER (C2C): Individuals use Web for private sales or exchange * NCCT
  24. 24. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE BUSINESS - TO - CONSUMER • WEB SITES: Provide information on products, services, prices, orders • CUSTOMER-CENTERED RETAILING: Closer, yet more cost-effective relationship with customers • INFORMATION BROKERS: Comparison shops to customer’s requirements, reintermediation
  25. 25. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS • Automation of purchase, sale transactions from business to business • Provides alternative sources • ELECTRONIC HUBS: online marketplaces, point-to- point connections, integrated information • EXCHANGES: commercial on-line market, many buyers, sellers • Potential for integrating product information • Provides service, value
  26. 26. Consumer to Consumer (C2C) Customer(s) Commercial web site (e.g., gets small % seller Places items for sale on web site Pay electronically or via plastic Send item(s) to customer(s) Via Courier
  27. 27. Business to Consumer (B2C) Electronic catalog on company web site or host Customer(s) Credit card Debit card E-check online off line company Processes payment In-house processing 3rd party processor Ships goods directly or via 3rd party shipper Order Proc’g/ Whse.
  28. 28. Business to Business (B2B) Manufacturer’s catalog on company Web Site or host / Auction (B2B) Web site (buyer’s or 3rd party) buyer seller (manufacturer) E-check, Check, Credit card, P-card, EFT Processes electronically Schedules order/ships Observes credit terms Settles payment ----------------------- Could be 3rd party (OS) or in-house system or both goods delivered Orders and pays electronically / Accepts bid and pays electronically
  29. 29. Customer Browser Merchant Website Payment Gateway Bank Switch Shop Pay Card Details Visa Mastercard American Express Bank HostATM POS AuthAuth End of business day settlement Transaction Flow - Buying Scenario • Customer shops • Clicks on Pay • Enters Card details Shipm ent
  30. 30. E-COMMERCE SERVICES • Personalization and Membership • Merchandising Database • Merchandise Search • Shopping Cart • Shipping & Handling • Tax Services • Payment Solutions • Site Security • Order Processing • Chat & Mail NCCT
  31. 31. E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS MODULAR SOLUTIONS • Financial Accounting & Costing (FI&CO) • Supply / Vendor Chain Management (SCM) • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) • Chat & Mail • Customer Care/Call Center • Human Resource Management & Payroll (HRM) • Inventory & Logistics (I&L) • Advertisement Management (AM) • Security & Protection Solutions (S&P) • Industry Vertical Solutions (IV) • Connectivity Solutions (CS) • Video on demand • Remote banking • Procurement and purchasing • Online marketing and advertisement • Home shopping • Auctions
  33. 33. E-COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES • Internet • Mobile technologies • Web architecture • Component programming • Data exchange • Multimedia • Search engines • Data mining • Intelligent agents • Access security • Cryptographic security • SSL, SET • Watermarking • Payment systems NCCT
  34. 34. SYSTEM DESIGN ISSUES • GOOD ARCHITECTURAL PROPERTIES – Functional separation – Performance (load balancing, web caching) – Secure – Reliable – Available – Scalable CREATING AND MANAGING CONTENT • What the customer see • Static vs. dynamic content • Different faces for different users • Tools for creating content • Multimedia presentation • Integration with other media • Data interchange • HTML, XML (Extensible Markup Language)
  36. 36. • What?: Provide security information and consultation to assess corporate security risks and implementation. • Why?: way to provide security assessment and project mgmt between multiple corps and the customer and news links; Corp: save in loss of data and provide security to customers to build customer confidence • How?: Security Engine: rank existing security; allows customers to assess existing level of security with evaluation and Q&A • Differentiators: (1) customized security needs programs via Internet; (2) provides incentives: alternatives in security via cost reports balance E-SECURE - BUSINESS CONCEPT The e-secure key to securing information Matching security needs to business Server Server’s public key
  37. 37. E-SECURE BUSINESS MODEL–CONSULTING & PARTNERSHIPS Banking & Financial institutions Security Seekers Security Providers Capital, Space, Admin. Support, Sales, Marketing, Corporations with Security solutions Service providers & manufacturers Build a level of security management integration and confidence to the seekers Security companies System integrators Profit 35%online pm, 10% on site pm, 5% Streaming presentations Adds value Builds security knowledge, management And partnerships with security companies Government & educational institutions E-Secure Security Need Engine, Streaming video training Project management
  38. 38. INTRODUCTION  Security System  Algorithms NCCT • SECURITY - The man who looks for security, even in the mind, is like a man who would chop off his limbs in order to have artificial ones which will give him no pain or trouble. • Henry Miller (1891–1980), Sexus, ch. 14 (1949).
  39. 39. FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES • Secure communication over insecure channel • Privacy • Agreement/Commitment • Right to access • Security • Protocols • Encryption • Zero Knowledge Proof • Digital signature, digital time stamp • Identification/ authentication • Firewall • SSL, SET
  40. 40. Enabling Technologies Protocols & Practices • Protocols – SET (Secure Electronic Transactions- S-HTTP) – SSL (Secure Sockets Layer- HTTPS) • Practices – Dual Signatures – Digital Signatures – Certificate Trust Train
  41. 41. SSL Secure Socket Layer • SSL is a standard that encrypts data sent between you and a web server • When connecting, the client requests a certificate from the server. This is sent, which confirms that you really are talking to the server that you think you are Web ServerYOU Data contained in packets is encrypted; no one but you and the web server can read the traffic
  42. 42. SET COMPONENTS • Wallet - performs cardholders’ authentication • Merchant Server - authenticates merchant and its accepted payment brand • Payment Gateway - processes payments and authorizations • Certificate Authority - manages certificates for wallets and merchants; allows for branding
  43. 43. FEATURE SET SSL Secure Transmission of Data Yes Yes Identify Authorized Purchasers Yes No Verify Validity of Account Yes No Identify Legitimate of Payment Brand for Merchants Yes No Track Sales Slips and Totals Yes No Enabling Technologies Set vs. SSL
  44. 44. CRYPTOGRAPHY • Cryptographic software transforms plain text messages into something no one without a key or secret knowledge can easily read • The most basic form of this is simple substitutions; one letter is replaced by another letter wherever it appears • But this is very easy to break, so more sophisticated algorithms are used to encrypt messages • Cryptography: Techniques, Protocols, and Applications using the existence of difficult problems • Cryptanalysis: How to compromise cryptographic protocols and techniques
  45. 45. DIGITAL SIGNATURES • This is used to confirm that data has not been changed by anyone other than the person who created and signed it. • Example: Suja sends a document to Prema. Kumar intercepts the message during transmission and changes it. Prema receives a doctored document. Or Kumar could send a message to Prema and claim it was from Suja. • To prevent this we can use digital signatures. Generally this is done by using a hash function to generate a “fingerprint” of the data. Any change to the data will change the fingerprint. • The “fingerprint” is encrypted using the sender’s private key and attached to the document • The receiver can decrypt the “fingerprint” using the sender’s public key, then see if it matches the fingerprint of the received document • This ensures that the data has not changed since the sender signed it, and confirms that the sender signed it (since only he has the private key.)
  46. 46. FIREWALLS • What is a firewall? – A firewall is any mechanism that acts to restrict access to a network according to a set of defined rules. – Function as “front doors” to a network. • There are 2 Basic approaches to implementing rule sets on your firewall – Block all and Allow – Allow all and Block
  47. 47. PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY • Most systems on the internet use public key cryptography. • This uses two keys: a public key, which is available to anyone; and a private key, which is secret and known only to the user • The most popular variation on this concept is RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), named for the three who invented it
  48. 48. RSA • RSA works by using a mathematical function that is (comparatively) easy to compute while encrypting, but very difficult to reverse without knowing the private key. See handout for gory details. • RSA works by selecting two large prime numbers and doing some semi- fancy math. One of the prime numbers and the product of the two prime numbers is the public key; the other prime number and their product is the private key • The security of the system depends on it being difficult to efficiently factor large numbers. There’s been a lot of research in the area by a lot of smart people, and no one has come up with an algorithmically good solution. • The only engineering solution is to throw more resources at brute force approaches, but this is not very practical for large key sizes, since the computations required increase exponentially with key size.
  49. 49. EXAMPLES MODERN APPLICATIONS • Electronic Commerce – Online Banking, Online Shopping • Internet Security – Secure emails, Remote access of applications • The military – secure communication • The internet – secure communication, authentication, on-line shopping, emails • Election
  50. 50. SECURE COMMUNICATION Sender Receiver Insecure Channel Hacker M M Encryption C = E(M) Decryption M = D(C)C
  51. 51. SENDING ENCRYPTED MESSAGES • To send to someone, the message is encrypted with the public key. • It can only be decrypted by the private key. Message Public Key Encrypted Text Web Site Plain Text Private Key I N T E R N E T
  52. 52. Projects @ NCCT Redefining the Learning Specialization, Design, Development and Implementation with Projects Experience the learning with the latest new tools and technologies…
  53. 53. Projects @ NCCT Project Specialization Concept • NCCT, in consultation with Export-Software Division, offers Live Software Applications, System, Electronics related Projects to experience the learning with the latest new tools and technologies • NCCT believes in specialized Hardware Design, development training and implementation with an emphasis on development principles and standards • NCCT plays a dual positive role by satisfying your academic requirements as well as giving the necessary training in electronics and embedded product development
  55. 55. Projects @ NCCT PROJECTS IN THE AREAS OF • System Software Development • Application Software Development, Porting • Networking & Communication related • Data Mining, Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic, AI based • Bio Medical related • Web & Internet related • Embedded Systems - Microcontrollers, VLSI, DSP, RTOS • WAP, Web enabled Internet Applications • UNIX LINUX based Projects
  56. 56. Placements @ NCCT NCCT has an enormous placement wing, which enrolls all candidates in its placement bank, and will keep in constant touch with various IT related industries in India / Abroad, who are in need of computer trained quality manpower Each candidate goes through complete pre-placement session before placement made by NCCT The placement division also helps students in getting projects and organize guest lectures, group discussions, soft learning skills, mock interviews, personality development skills, easy learning skills, technical discussions, student meetings, etc., For every student we communicate the IT organizations, with the following documents * Curriculum highlighting the skills * A brief write up of the software knowledge acquired at NCCT, syllabus taught at NCCT * Projects and Specialization work done at NCCT * Additional skills learnt
  57. 57. NCCT THE FOLLOWING SKILL SET IS SECURE Software Applications C, C++, Visual C++, ASP, XML, EJB Embedded Technologies Embedded Systems, PLC Other Areas VLSI, ULSI, DSP, Bio Informatics & Technology Emerging Technologies WAP, Remote Computing, Wireless Communications, VoIP, Bluetooth in Embedded, LINUX based applications Ever green technologies UNIX, C
  58. 58. NCCT Quality is Our Responsibility Dedicated to Commitments and Committed to Technology