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Cockpit White Box


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Cockpit White Box

  2. 2. PROPOSED SYSTEM Here we propose a system of automated information to be available to the Base, and also the instantaneous Relay of the Alert Levels and the Replay of the course of journey, the pilot had covered till the time back to him.
  3. 3. EXISTING SYSTEM The Black Box in the cockpit is only been elemental in recording the audio part, happening in cockpit and apparently the control station at the ATC obtains the deferred data as explained by Pilot and thus there is no automated system to obtain the instantaneous reports happening there. Moreover if the Pilot the asks for the replay of the process that had gone through, in his past-journey span while on-board and still at traveling, its not possible for the Base Station to relay the Replay of the information.
  8. 8. BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION Power supply to the circuit is given through single regulated power supply. Power supply unit has following components. Step down transformer Bridge rectifier Filter regulator
  9. 9. STEPDOWN TRANSFORMER When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/12-0-12v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 12V AC across the secondary winding . One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and the bottom negative. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse. The current rating of the transformer used in our project is 2A. Apart from stepping down AC voltages , it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries.
  10. 10. RECTIFIER In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode. A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4*IN4007) are used to achieve full wave rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will conduct during the positive half cycle.
  11. 11. FILTER UNIT Filter circuits which is usually a capacitor acting as a surge arrester always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypassing capacitor, is used not only to ‘short’ the ripple with frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a reference to the ground is maintained . C1R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2R2 is used as a low pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high frequency signals
  12. 12. REGULATOR The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. Power supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC liner voltage. With a regulator connected to the DC output, the voltage can be maintained within a close tolerant region of the desired output. IC7805 and 7812 is used in this project for providing +12v and +5v DC supply.
  13. 13. ATMEL MICRO CONTROLLER In this project our controller receives the data sent by the pc. If the finger print matches with existing data pc will send one controller will operate one relay so one bulb load will glow. If the finger print does not matches with existing data pc will send another controller will operate relay so bulb load will not glow.
  14. 14. ATMEL MICROCONTROLLER • The AT89C51 is a low-power, high- performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). • The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51™ instruction set and pin out
  15. 15. FEATURES • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Re- programmable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-Level Program Memory Lock
  16. 16. FEATURES • 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel • Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
  17. 17. LCD In this project we are using 16x2 lcd. It means LCD has 2 lines of 16 characters each. Many other LCDs like 20×2, 24×2, 32×2, 20×4 etc. are available. Functionally all these LCDs are same . These displays contains two internal byte-wide registers, one for command and second for characters to be displayed. There are three control signals called R/W, DI/RS and En.
  18. 18. LCD LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line, 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters. Instruction Register (IR) and Data Register (DR) There are two 8-bit registers controller Instruction and Data register. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD
  19. 19. LCD Eg. LCD shift command, LCD clear, LCD address etc. and Data register is used for storing data which is to be displayed on LCD. When send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted, the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD
  21. 21. RELAY Relays are electromagnetic switches, which provides contact between two mechanical elements. Relays have a coil which works on 12V dc power supply and provides DPDT action as an output. In general relays provide potential free contacts which can be used for universal function like DC, AC voltage switching and to control bigger electrical switch gears. The electromechanical relays are based on the comparison between operating torque/force and restraining torque/force.
  22. 22. RELAY The VA burden of such relays are high. The characteristics of these relays have some limitations. Each relay can perform only one protective function. Such relays are used for simple and less costly protection purposes. For important and costly equipment installation static relays are preferred. Protective relaying is necessary for almost every electrical plant and no part of the power system is left unprotected.
  23. 23. DC MOTOR DC Motor is an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical motion. The reverse task that of converting mechanical motion into electrical energy is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. In many cases the two devices differ only in their application and minor construction details DC motor speed generally depends on a combination of the voltage and current flowing in the motor coils and the motor load or braking torque.
  24. 24. DC MOTOR… The speed of the motor is proportional to thevoltage,and the torque is proportional to the current. The speed is typically controlled by altering the voltage or current flow by using taps in the motor windings or by having a variable voltage supply Electrical energy or electromagnetic energy is a form of energy present in any electric field or magnetic field, or in any volume containing electromagnetic radiation
  25. 25. RS 232 The most common communication interface for short distance is RS-232. RS-232 defines a serial communication for one device to one computer communication port, with speeds upto 19,200 baud. Typically 7 or 8 bits (on/off) signal are transmitted to represent a character or digit.The 9 pin connector is used.
  26. 26. MAX 232 It has four level translators, two of which are RS232 transmitters that convert TTL CMOS input levels into + 9V RS232 outputs. The Max 232 is a dual RS-232 receiver / transmitter that meets all EIA RS232C specifications while using only a +5V power supply. It has 2 onboard charge pump voltage converters which generate +10V and –10V power supplies from a single 5V power supply.
  27. 27. MAX 232 These receivers have a nominal threshold of 1.3V, a typical hysterics of 0.5V and can operate upto + 30V input. 1. Suitable for all RS232 communications. 2. +12V power supplies required. 3. Voltage quadruple for input voltage up to 5.5V (used in power supply Section of computers, peripherals, and modems). Three main sections of MAX232 are 1. A dual transmitter 2. A dual receiver 3. +5V to + 10V dual charge pump voltage converter.
  28. 28. ENCODER The TP 5088 is a low threshold voltage_ field-implanted_ metal gate CMOS integrated circuit' It interfaces directly to a standard telephone keypad and generates all dual tone multi-frequency pairs required in tone-dialing systems' The tone synthesizers are locked to an on-chip reference oscillator using an inexpensive 3'579545 MHz crystal for high tone accuracy' The crystal and an output load resistor are the only external components required for tone generation' A MUTE OUT logic signal_ which changes state when any key is depressed_ is also provided‘.
  29. 29. FEATURES 3'5V–10V operation when generating tones 2V operation of key scan and MUTE logic Static sensing of key closures or logic inputs On-chip3'579545 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator Output amplitudes proportional to supply voltage High group pre-emphasis Low harmonic distortion Open emitter-follower low-impedance output SINGLE TONE INHIBIT pin
  30. 30. DECODER In this Project the main operation is performed by this IC Cm8870 i.e., the main DTMF to BCD Conversion is done thro this IC only. Let us know the Features and Functions of this IC Features Full DTMF receiver Less than 35mW power consumption Industrial temperature range Uses quartz crystal or ceramic resonators Adjustable acquisition and release times
  31. 31. RF TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER This is the RF based Transmitter and Receiver module, which can facilitate the remote applications. The process using the Radio - Frequency spectrum for Transmitting and Receiving Voice, Data and Video signals by which information(s) are shared is known as Wireless Communication . Radio Frequency - A range of electromagnetic frequencies above sound and below visible light, generally in the 30Khz to 300GHz range, used for all broadcast transmission including AM and FM radio, television, short-wave, microwave, and satellite transmissions.
  32. 32. RF TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER FEATURES Complete super regenerative RF Transmitter & Receiver Module operating @ 433.92 MHz Compact in Size & Model No External Components & No tuning is required. High Performance SAW based architecture with a maximum range of 100 feet @ 4800 bps data rate. Low Power Consumption RF Receiver Module - 433.92 MHz (FT-COM-RX2), Bandwidth–4 MHz RF Transmitter Module -433.92 MHz (FT-COM- TX2), Bandwidth – 4 MHz
  33. 33. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a combination of Software and Hardware. An Embedded system is a system, that has a computing device embedded into it. These are the controllers, processors, arrays or other hardware using dedicated (embedded) logic or programming (code) called “firmware” or a “micro kernel Embedded systems are designed around a C which integrates Memory & Peripherals
  34. 34. WHY EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Avoids lots of Electronics Components Built in rich Features Reduces the cost, space Less Down Time for Maintenance Probability of Failure is reduced Easy interface with Computers
  35. 35. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Sophisticated functionality Real-Time Operation Low Manufacturing Cost Low Power Consumption Eliminates Necessity of Complex Circuitry Smarter Products Smaller Size User Friendly State of the Art Technology