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Invasive plants and animals of Maui   Elizabeth Speith, USGS Pacific Basin Information Node Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Speci...
<ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in your big backyard? </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Plants and Animals in Urban Are...
Hawai’i is special... ...but not just because of scenes like this!
Hawaii is special because of...
Endemism <ul><li>a species is said to be ENDEMIC to an area if it lives  exclusively  in that area </li></ul><ul><li>usual...
Endemic species: terrestrial <ul><li>flowering plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~90%  endemic  to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>'opae 'ula </li></ul><ul><li>hihiwai </li></ul><ul><li>gobies </li></ul>Endemic species: aquatic
Endemic species: marine <ul><li>fishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~25% endemism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;This is the hi...
Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
koa
 
Threats to native Hawaiian species/ecosystems <ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>global warming </li></ul><ul><li>INVAS...
What does this have to do  with my backyard?
Less than 4 miles as the bird (or seed) flies. Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
 
 
Definitions: INVASIVE SPECIES <ul><li>Any species not native to a particular ecosystem whose intentional or unintentional ...
<ul><li>Characteristics of  Invasive Species  </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Early Maturity </li></ul><u...
Method of introduction of the 1150 non-native species in California How do they get here? forage,  feed,  erosion control ...
How do invaders jump the fence? <ul><li>&quot;wind, water, wings&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>...and now: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID ...
Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Grows in a bunch
 
Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Red flowers shaped like a bottle-cleaning brush
 
Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Fountain Grass    LOOK-ALIKE! Red Fountain Grass (Pennisetum macrostachyum)‏ Molass...
Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! - Star shaped flowers - Red Fruit 1-3 in long
 
Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Variable leaves
 
Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Ivy Gourd   LOOK-ALIKE! Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)‏
Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>- Purple funnel shaped flowers </li></ul><ul>...
 
Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
 
Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Rubber Vine   LOOK-ALIKE! Purple Alamanda (Allamanda violacea)‏ Brazilian jasmine (...
Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
 
 
 
Coqui  LOOK ALIKE! Greenhouse frog ( Eleutherodactylus planirostris )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Bulbul New non-native birds  Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Pycnonotus cafer
New non-native birds  Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
New non-native birds  Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Morse Code </li></ul><ul><li>Green “J” Hooks </li><...
Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Spread by aphids </li></ul>
Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Banana Bunchy Top   LOOK-ALIKE! Cucumber Mosaic Virus
 
Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
LFA Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Little Fire Ant LOOK ALIKE! Tropical fire ant ( Solenopsis geminata )   3-5 mm (1/8-1/4 in)   Investigate it! Inspect it! ...
Alien Algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
supersucker Alien algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! SUPER SUCKER
Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
Gorilla ogo
Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo   LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Limu manauea  (Gracilaria coronopi...
Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo   LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! limu wawae'iole    (Codium edule)
kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus  spp   and  Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus  spp   and  Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus  spp   and  Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
kappaphychus Alien Algae  ( Kappaphycus  spp) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan   LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Hypnea musciformis
kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan   LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!   Acanthophora  spicifera
<ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID ...
BECOME MAUI’S EYES AND EARS!
WWW.REPORTAPEST.ORG
 
643-PEST 573-MISC
 
<ul><li>Don’t plant a pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid planting any plant that may potentially become invasive. Use the HAWAI...
What can we do? <ul><li>Protect Hawai‘i. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean your hiking boots, equipment and vehicles before you go i...
THANKS! Elizabeth Speith, USGS-Pacific Basin Information Node, espeith@usgs.gov, 984-3716 Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Species...
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What's in my backyard? Invasive Plants and animals of Maui

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Learn about some of the newest invasive plant and animal threats on the island of Maui, and how some of them might be lurking in your backyard. This presentation was originally presented by NBII Pacific Basin Information Node and the Maui Invasive Species Committee to the Pacific Whale Foundation on August 13, 2008.

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What's in my backyard? Invasive Plants and animals of Maui

  1. 1. Invasive plants and animals of Maui Elizabeth Speith, USGS Pacific Basin Information Node Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Species Committee What’s in my backyard? Pacific Basin Information Node https://pbin.nbii.gov
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in your big backyard? </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Plants and Animals in Urban Areas </li></ul><ul><li>What you can do to stop the invasion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hawai’i is special... ...but not just because of scenes like this!
  4. 4. Hawaii is special because of...
  5. 5. Endemism <ul><li>a species is said to be ENDEMIC to an area if it lives exclusively in that area </li></ul><ul><li>usually a LIMITED AREA </li></ul>
  6. 6. Endemic species: terrestrial <ul><li>flowering plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~90% endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>invertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>99.9% endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% mammals endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% forest birds endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>'opae 'ula </li></ul><ul><li>hihiwai </li></ul><ul><li>gobies </li></ul>Endemic species: aquatic
  8. 8. Endemic species: marine <ul><li>fishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~25% endemism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;This is the highest percentage of endemism for warm-water marine fishes.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John E. Randall, Shore fishes of Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
  10. 26. koa
  11. 28. Threats to native Hawaiian species/ecosystems <ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>global warming </li></ul><ul><li>INVASIVE SPECIES </li></ul>
  12. 29. What does this have to do with my backyard?
  13. 30. Less than 4 miles as the bird (or seed) flies. Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
  14. 33. Definitions: INVASIVE SPECIES <ul><li>Any species not native to a particular ecosystem whose intentional or unintentional release into that ecosystem does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health . </li></ul>paraphrased from the U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999
  15. 34. <ul><li>Characteristics of Invasive Species </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Early Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Large Quantities of Seeds/Fruit/Offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Seed Dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Shade </li></ul><ul><li>Allelopathy (growth suppression by one plant on another plant due to the release of inhibitory or toxic chemicals) </li></ul><ul><li>Pest Free </li></ul>
  16. 35. Method of introduction of the 1150 non-native species in California How do they get here? forage, feed, erosion control ornamental seed contaminant unknown aquarium
  17. 36. How do invaders jump the fence? <ul><li>&quot;wind, water, wings&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>...and now: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds and rats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ungulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indirectly (as above)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentional (horticulture, pets)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accidental (e.g. machinery, contaminants)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 37. <ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting and resources </li></ul>
  19. 38. Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Grows in a bunch
  20. 40. Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Red flowers shaped like a bottle-cleaning brush
  21. 42. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Fountain Grass LOOK-ALIKE! Red Fountain Grass (Pennisetum macrostachyum)‏ Molasses grass (Melinus minutiflora)‏
  22. 43. Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! - Star shaped flowers - Red Fruit 1-3 in long
  23. 45. Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Variable leaves
  24. 47. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Ivy Gourd LOOK-ALIKE! Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)‏
  25. 48. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>- Purple funnel shaped flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Glossy leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Produce white latex sap </li></ul>
  26. 50. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  27. 51. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  28. 53. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Rubber Vine LOOK-ALIKE! Purple Alamanda (Allamanda violacea)‏ Brazilian jasmine (Mandevilla sanderi)‏
  29. 54. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  30. 55. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  31. 56. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  32. 60. Coqui LOOK ALIKE! Greenhouse frog ( Eleutherodactylus planirostris )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  33. 61. Bulbul New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Pycnonotus cafer
  34. 62. New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  35. 63. New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  36. 64. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  37. 65. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  38. 66. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Morse Code </li></ul><ul><li>Green “J” Hooks </li></ul>
  39. 67. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Spread by aphids </li></ul>
  40. 68. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Banana Bunchy Top LOOK-ALIKE! Cucumber Mosaic Virus
  41. 70. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  42. 71. LFA Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  43. 72. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  44. 73. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  45. 74. Little Fire Ant LOOK ALIKE! Tropical fire ant ( Solenopsis geminata ) 3-5 mm (1/8-1/4 in) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  46. 75. Alien Algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  47. 76. supersucker Alien algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! SUPER SUCKER
  48. 77. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  49. 78. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  50. 79. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  51. 80. Gorilla ogo
  52. 81. Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Limu manauea (Gracilaria coronopifolia)
  53. 82. Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! limu wawae'iole  (Codium edule)
  54. 83. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  55. 84. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  56. 85. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  57. 86. kappaphychus Alien Algae ( Kappaphycus spp) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
  58. 87. kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Hypnea musciformis
  59. 88. kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!   Acanthophora spicifera
  60. 89. <ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting and resources </li></ul>
  61. 90. BECOME MAUI’S EYES AND EARS!
  62. 91. WWW.REPORTAPEST.ORG
  63. 93. 643-PEST 573-MISC
  64. 95. <ul><li>Don’t plant a pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid planting any plant that may potentially become invasive. Use the HAWAII WEED RISK ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully inspect plants before purchasing to ensure they are free from unwanted pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove invasive plants and animals on your property. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t buy a pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not import, plant, sell, or move invasive plants and animals in, around, or off island. </li></ul><ul><li>Report locations where invasive species are growing or for sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Use non-invasive and native plants in your landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep pets contained. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not release pets into the wild – keep parrots and rabbits caged. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t dump aquarium pets or plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in unwanted aquarium pets or plants to a pet store. </li></ul>What can we do?
  65. 96. What can we do? <ul><li>Protect Hawai‘i. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean your hiking boots, equipment and vehicles before you go into a native area and after hikes in infested areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Share what you learn with your friends and neighbors. </li></ul>
  66. 97. THANKS! Elizabeth Speith, USGS-Pacific Basin Information Node, espeith@usgs.gov, 984-3716 Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Species Committee, miscpr@hawaii.edu, 573-MISC Spread the Word, Not the Weed

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