Hieroglyphics•Over 5000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians wrote things down using a picture writingcalled hieroglyphics. The people who did the actual writing were called scribes.•It was not until quite recently, a mere 200 years ago, that a stone was found in Egypt.This stone had the same short story written on it in Greek, in Demotic, and inhieroglyphics. Scientists could read Greek. Scientists could read Demotic. And now,scientists could begin to read hieroglyphics. They named this famous stone the RosettaStone.
Cartouche•A cartouche was an oval circle with a name written in it, ratherlike a nameplate.•In the early days of ancient Egypt, a cartouche was attached tothe coffins of kings and queens. As time went on, many peoplehired an artist to create a cartouche for their own coffins.•The ancient Egyptians believed that you had to have your namewritten down somewhere, so that you would not disappear whenyou died. By attaching a cartouche to their coffin, people madesure their name was written down in one place at least!
Isis Appearance:Woman with headdress in the shape of a throneA pair of cow horns with a sun diskIsis was a protective goddess. She used powerfulmagic spells to help people in need. Isis was thewife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. Since eachpharaoh was considered the living Horus, Isis wasvery important.Isis is often shown holding Horus on her lap. Isis isassociated with thrones because her lap was thefirst throne that Horus sat upon.
Anubis Appearance:Man with a jackal headA jackalAnubis was the god of embalming and thedead. Since jackals were often seen incemeteries, the ancient Egyptians believedthat Anubis watched over the dead.Anubis Anubis was the god who helped toembalm Osiris after he was killed by Seth.Thus, Anubis was the god who watched overthe process of mummifying people when theydied.Priests often wore a mask of Anubis duringmummification ceremonies.
HorusThe One Far Above Appearance:Man with the head of a hawkA hawkHorus was a god of the sky. He is probablymost well-known as the protector of the rulerof Egypt.The Egyptians believed that the pharaoh wasthe living Horus.The ancient Egyptians had many differentbeliefs about the god Horus. One of the mostcommon beliefs was that Horus was the sonof Isis and Osiris.After Osiris was murdered by his brotherSeth, Horus fought with Seth for the throne ofEgypt.In this battle, Horus lost one of his eyes. Theeye was restored to him and it became asymbol of protection for the ancientEgyptians. After this battle, Horus was chosento be the ruler of the world of the living.
The Four Sons of HorusThe Four Sons of Horus were traditionally the guardians of the internal organs of thedeceased. Each was associated with a particular organ, and also with a different cardinalpoint on the compass. Imsety He was a human headed god, who was depicted as having a body wrapped up like a mummy. Imsety was thought to protect the liver, along with the goddess Isis, which was placed in the canopic jar, near the sarcophagus, on the south cardinal point. Hapi He was a baboon headed deity, who was shown as having a body wrapped up like a mummy. Hapy (Hapi) was believed to be the protector of the lungs, along with the goddess Nephthys. The lungs were placed in the canopic jar, near the sarcophagus, on the north cardinal point.
Duamutef The jackal headed deity, Duamutef (Tuamutef), was shown as having a body wrapped up like a mummy. He was believed to protect the stomach, along with the goddess Nit, which was placed in the canopic jar, near the sarcophagus, on the east cardinal point. His name means "he who praises his mother" or "a star is his mother".QebehsenuefThe falcon headed god, Qebehsenuef(Qebsenuf, Kebehsenuef, Kebhsenuf,Kabexnuf), was depicted as having abody wrapped up like a mummy. Hewas thought to be protector of theintestines, along with the goddessSerqet. The intestines were placed inthe canopic jar, near the sarcophagus,on the west cardinal point.