Question review 17 &


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Question review 17 &

  1. 1. 17. Describe the four Stages ofSpiritual Development AmongIslamic Leader:1. Iman2. Islam,3. Taqwa4. Ihsan
  3. 3. Meaning Of ImanThe Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam)said that Iman is:"To believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books,to believe in meeting Him, to believe in HisMessengers, the Resurrection and thepredestination."[Reported by Bukhari, Muslim and others].
  4. 4. Meaning Of The Iman(Cont’d)And We appointed from among themLeaders giving guidance under Ourcommand so long as they persevered withpatience and continued to have faith in Oursigns. (Sajdah:24)Allah, Most High, says:
  5. 5.  Himself and all his possessions asbelonging to God He will bow his ego His ideas to God His passions to God His thinking to God.
  6. 6.  Not dodge responsibility for his actions, Will continuously emphasize good deeds To reinforce this idea, the Qur’an links iman withgood deeds no less than 60 times.
  7. 7. Meaning of Islam ( cont’d) Islam Building upon iman, Islam is the second layer of the moralpersonality of an Islamic leader Islam means the achievement of peacewith God, within oneself and with thecreation of God, through willingsubmission to Him As Maudoodi (1991) points out so well,“Iman is the seed and Islam is thefruition.”
  8. 8. Meaning of Islam ( cont’d) A leader who practices Islam will neversee himself as supreme Ali Ibn Abu Talib’s (ra) letter to Malik al-Ashtar an-Nukai, the new Governor ofEgypt, stresses this point in thefollowing manner:Malik, you must never forget that if youare a ruler over them, then the Caliph is aruler over you, and God is the supremeLord over the Caliph
  9. 9. Meaning of Islam ( cont’d)“...This day have I perfected yourreligion for you, completed My favorupon you, and have chosen for youIslam as your religion.”( al-Maidah:3)Allah, Most High, says:
  10. 10. Meaning of TaqwaIbn-kathir (2000), the root meaning ofTaqwa is to avoid what one dislikes Al-Sharawi (2004), states that Taqwameans to avoid Allahs punishment bydoing what He commands, and to keepaway from doing what He forbids
  11. 11. Meaning of Taqwa ( Cont’d)“O you who believe! Fear Allâh as He should befeared and die not except in a state of Islam “(Surah Ali-Imran:102)Allah, Most High, says:
  12. 12. Meaning of IhsanO The Prophet Muhammad (saw) describesihsan as follows:“To worship God as if you see Him, and ifyou cannot achieve this state of devotionthen you must consider that He is lookingat you.”O The constant feeling that God is watchingis likely to prompt any leader or followerwith Ihsan to behave at his best.
  13. 13. Meaning of Ihsan ( Cont’d)Ihsan has two stages: the highest one is to worship Allah as ifyou see Him; if you cannot attain thisstatus of worship, then worship Himbeing certain that He sees you and thatHe is All-Aware of your actions anddeeds.Allah knows best.
  14. 14. Meaning of Ihsan ( Cont’d)“Nay, whoever submits his whole self toAllah and is a doer of (Ihsan) good he willget his reward with his Lord; on suchshall be no fear, nor shall they grieve”(al-Baqarah:112)Allah, Most High, says:
  15. 15. 18. Decision-making is one of thedefining characteristics ofleadership. It’s core to the jobdescription. What behavioralindicators can better serve insolving problems and makingdecisions?
  16. 16. Decision makingA decision is a choice between two or morealternatives. If you only have one alternative, youdo not have a decision.Decision-making is one of the definingcharacteristics of leadership. It’s core to the jobdescription.
  17. 17. To make decisions doesn’t by itself make us gooddecision-makers. It takes discipline: discipline to doat least four things all the time and well.1. Realize when and why you need to make a decision.2. Declare the decision: decide what the decision is, how you’llwork it, and who should be involved.3. Work the decision: generate a complete set of alternatives,gather the information you need to understand thepossibilities and probabilities, and ultimately make a choicethat best fits your values.4. Commit resources and act.
  18. 18. The decision-making process involves thefollowing steps:O Define the problem.O Identify limiting factors.O Develop potential alternatives.O Analyze the alternatives.O Select the best alternative.O Implement the decision.O Establish a control and evaluation system.
  19. 19. Define the problemO The decision-making process beginswhen a manager identifies the realproblem. The accurate definition of theproblem affects all the steps that follow; ifthe problem is inaccurately defined, everystep in the decision-making process willbe based on an incorrect starting point.One way that a manager can helpdetermine the true problem in a situationis by identifying the problem separatelyfrom its symptoms.
  20. 20. Identify limiting factorsOO All managers want to make the best decisions. Todo so, managers need to have the ideal resources— information, time, personnel, equipment, andsupplies — and identify any limiting factors.Realistically, managers operate in an environmentthat normally doesnt provide ideal resources. Forexample, they may lack the proper budget or maynot have the most accurate information or anyextra time. So, they must choose to satisfice — tomake the best decision possible with theinformation, resources, and time available.
  21. 21. Develop potentialalternativesO Time pressures frequently cause a manager tomove forward after considering only the first ormost obvious answers. However, successfulproblem solving requires thorough examination ofthe challenge, and a quick answer may not resultin a permanent solution. Thus, a manager shouldthink through and investigate several alternativesolutions to a single problem before making aquick decision.O One of the best known methods for developingalternatives is throughbrainstorming, where agroup works together to generate ideas andalternative solutions.
  22. 22. Analyze the alternativesO The purpose of this step is to decide the relative merits ofeach idea. Managers must identify the advantages anddisadvantages of each alternative solution before making afinal decision.O Evaluating the alternatives can be done in numerous ways.Here are a few possibilities: Determine the pros and cons of eachalternative. Perform a cost-benefit analysis for eachalternative. Weight each factor important in the decision,ranking each alternative relative to its ability to meet eachfactor, and then multiply by a probability factor to provide afinal value for each alternative.
  23. 23. O After a manager has analyzed all thealternatives, she must decide on the bestone. The best alternative is the one thatproduces the most advantages and thefewest serious disadvantages.Sometimes, the selection process can befairly straightforward, such as thealternative with the most pros and fewestcons. Other times, the optimal solution isa combination of several alternatives.
  24. 24. Implement the decisionO Managers are paid to make decisions, butthey are also paid to get results from thesedecisions. Positive results must followdecisions. Everyone involved with thedecision must know his or her role in ensuringa successful outcome. To make certain thatemployees understand their roles, managersmust thoughtfully devise programs,procedures, rules, or policies to help aid themin the problem-solving process.
  25. 25. Establish a control andevaluation systemO Ongoing actions need to be monitored. Anevaluation system should provide feedback onhow well the decision is being implemented,what the results are, and what adjustmentsare necessary to get the results that wereintended when the solution was chosen.O In order for a manager to evaluate hisdecision, he needs to gather information todetermine its effectiveness. Was the originalproblem resolved? If not, is he closer to thedesired situation than he was at the beginningof the decision-making process?