>Ethno from ethnology – study of culture
>Botany- study of plant
>Study of relationship that exist between people and
>Basic aim is to document, describe and explain
complex relationshipps between cultures and uses of
>In A. D. 77 a greek surgeon Dioscorides published “De
Materia Medica”- a catalog of 600 plants in
>In 1542 Leonhart Fuchs, a renaissance artist published
“De Historia Stripium”- cataloged 400 plants native to
Germany and Austria.
>In 1686-1704 John Ray provided the first definition of
“species” in his “Historia Plantarum”.
>In 1753 Carl. Linnaeus wrote “Species Plantarum” which
included information on about 5,900 plants.
>In 1860s to 1890s Edward Palmer collected botanical
specimens from people in the North American West and
it is the study of all form of the vegetable world which aboriginal people
use for food, medicine, textiles, ornaments etc.
>In 19th century Leopold Glueck published work on traditional
medicinal uses of plants by rural people in Bosnia.
This was considered to be the first modern ethnobotanical work.
The term “Ethnobotany” was first used by botanist named John W.
harshberger in 1895.
>Ethnobotany is a shift from raw compilation of data to a
methodological and conceptual reorientation.
>Richard Evans Schultes is considered to b a “father” of this discipline.
>It requires a variety of skills.
>Human are very dependent upon plant life; without it, all would perish.
>Plants are used for food, clothing, paper, shelter, fuel, medicine
Amaranthaceae: Achyranthes aspera L.
Common Names: Puth Kanda, Chaff Plant
>whole plant: Pneumonia, Bronchial infection, Cough,
>Leaves: Pile, boil, stomache, skin eruption, Early stages
of diarrhoea and dysentery, Syphilitic sores, Cough.
>Roots: Stomachic and digestive, Leprosy
>Flower: Snakes and reptiles bites
>Useful for reclamation of wastelands.
>Leaf is consumed as potherb.
>Seeds rich in protein, cooked and eaten.
>Used in religious ceremonies in India
Arecaceae: Phoenix dactylifera L.
Common Names: Khajur, Date
>Seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed
>Oil is suitable for use in soap and cosmetics.
>Processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid.
>Alternative of coffee beans, or as an additive to
>Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms.
>coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.
Traditional medicinal uses
>have a high tannin content and are used medicinal
Cannabaceae: Cannabis sativa L.
Common Names: Bhang, Indian Hemp
>Used to reduce general body inflammation, intoxication,
loss of appetite.
>Seed, chiefly used as caged-bird feed
>Flowers contain psychoactive and physiologically
active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that
are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual
purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers
(marijuana) and leaves and preparations derived from
resinous extract (hashish) are consumed by smoking,
vaporizing and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas,
and ointments have also been common preparations.
Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica L.
Common Names: Aam, Mango
>used in cuisine as in chutneys pickles, or side dishes, or
may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce.
>cooling summer drink
>Mango is used to make juices, ice cream, fruit bars and
sweet chili sauce.
>Nutrients and phytochemicals
Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium album L.
Common Names: Bathu, Goose Foot
> Leaf vegetable and have high levels of oxalic acid.
> Seeds are high in protein, vitamin A ,calcium , phosphorus,
>As a walking stick
Mimosaceae: Cassia fistula L.
Common Names: Amaltas, Golden Shower
>firewood source in Mexico.
>The reddish wood, hard and heavy, strong and durable, is suited for
wheels, mortars, etc.
>The drug "cassia fistula", a mild laxative, is obtained from the
sweetish pulp around the seed.
Mimosaceae: Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.
Common Names: Tali, Rosewood
>Young branches and foliage eaten by livestock.
>the most important cultivated timber tree in India
>planted on roadsides, and as a shade tree for tea plantations.
>first class cabinetry and furniture. It is used for plywood,
agricultural, and musical instruments, carvings, boats, floorings, etc.
>The leaves are used for fodder.
>In the U.S. (Arizona, Florida) it is said to be one of the most
desirable shade trees for streets and backyards.
Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis procera (Aiton)W.T. Aiton
Common Names: Ak, Sodom’s Apple
>The root skin, latex, flowers, leaves and the ksara of ak are used for
>Ak is useful both, internally as well as externally.
>The topical sprinkle of dried leaves powder hastens the wound
>In glandular swellings the topical application of latex reduces the
>The fermentation with its leaves, slightly warmed with thin coat of
castor oil, is beneficial to relieve the abdominal pain.
>The local application of latex is recommended in hairfall and dental
Asphodelaceae: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.
Common Names: Kwargandal,
>Used as moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, body weakness and
in the treatment of pimples or acne, cosmetic, as an ingredient
in commercially available lotion, yogurt, beverages, and
some desserts. >aloe vera is used in products such as tissues,
moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream,
and shampoos makeup.
>Aloe vera is now widely used on face tissues, where it is
promoted as a moisturiser and/or anti-irritant to reduce chafing
of the nose of users suffering hay-fever or cold.
Moraceae: Ficus benghalensis L.
Common Names: Boher, Banyan
Ethnobotanical uses :
>It is astringent to bowels.
>useful in treatment of ulcers, vomiting,, fever, inflammations, leprosy.
According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is tonic,lessens
inflammations, useful in nose-diseases etc.
>The aerial root is used in dysentery, inflammation of liver etc.
>It is planted for soil conservation
>Timber is used for furniture etc.
>Suitable for paper pulp.
>Leaf lopped for fodder
>Fruits are used to prepare Shurbut traditionally in India.
Moraceae: Ficus religiosa L.
Common Names: Pipal, Sacred Fig
Ethnobotanical Uses :
>Bark is cooling and astringent and is useful in inflammations and
glandular swellings of neck.
>Root bark is good for cleaning ulcers and it is astringent.
>The roots were chewed to prevent gum disease.
>The fruit is laxative, promotes digestion, vomiting and are good for
thirst and heart disease.
>The powdered fruit is taken for asthma.
>The seeds are cooling, laxative and refrigerant.