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Building a Virtual Power Station 
One Day Workshop 
By David Lipschitz 
My Power Station Technology 
8th April 2013 
Phone...
Wildpoldsreid 
• Make twice as much energy as you need 
• Clever Energy 
– How? 
• Work together 
• http://www.youtube.com...
Wildpoldsreid 
• A city wide learning centre that makes the 
citizens money and helps everyone 
understand the technology ...
Work Smarter 
• Smarter Grid 
• Distributed Storage 
• Active Participation 
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_J97qpF 
0I...
Introduction 
Setting the context 
Developing the framework for a Virtual Power Station 
Systems Thinking 
(c) My Power St...
Virtual Power Station 
• Power Station (Plant): Producing electricity 
(and heat) 
• Virtual: Simulated(not in one place) ...
Power Supply Today: A Few Power Plants For Many Users 
© Orbital Renewable Energy 
2009 
Downsides: 
Use of un-renewable r...
Power Supply Tomorrow: Many Private Power Producers 
© Orbital Renewable Energy 
2009 
Benefits: 
Use of renewable resourc...
My Power Station 
• My Power Station helps you power your life, 
internally and externally 
• Software, Energy, Power 
• I...
Eskom 49m Energy Saving Campaign 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 10
Why are you here? 
• What would you like to get out of this 
workshop? 
• Why? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 11
Why I’m here 
• I’d like you to leave here with the essential 
toolset to convince yourself and your board of 
directors a...
We’re in trouble!! 
• South Africa 
– No new base load power station build in the past 
20 years 
– vs: China: >1 GW per w...
We’re in trouble!! 
• Can you see where South Africa’s going? 
• New Coal Power Stations: only 10 GW 
– Electricity is alr...
Electricity Build and 
Decommissioning 
2008 Load Shedding 
Spare Capacity 
From White Paper on Renewable Energy, 2003 
(c...
Money 
• Existing or New? 
• Can’t we use existing money to finance our 
new build? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 ...
News on 15th May 2012 
• “Work to begin on 68km R5.2 billion in Nov 
2012 (R5,200,000,000) railway line to supply 
Majuba ...
What happened at Majuba? 
• Majuba built in 1980’s. Majuba coal mine had 
certain geological deficiencies, so coal is 
tru...
BRICS 
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa 
• Page 69: NPC Report (Nov 2011): “Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Sou...
China’s 12th 5-year plan tabled in 2011 
• “Has a striking change from the past” 
• “From 
– A focus on investment-driven,...
Money will be borrowed 
• Reason for the BRICS Development Bank! 
• The BRIC will lend money to the S! 
• The BRIC needs S...
News on 28th March 2012; and 27th March 2013 
• President Jacob Zuma at the BRICS conference 
seeking R1 trillion for the ...
R1 bn = 5,000 houses (VPS & Jobs) 
• What is R1 bn anyway? 
– Electrify 5,000 * 1,200 kWh per month houses 
– 5,000 Smart ...
And 
Only govt loan guarantees are required 
– Supported by the Trevor Manuel and National 
Planning Commission (NPC Plan...
“Breaking the Code of History” 
• Eskom have said (email) that they “will 
support private people working together to 
loo...
Our Environment: GDP 
• World GDP Growth 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 26
Our Environment: Wind 
In 2011 Capacity Installed: China 18GW; Doubled every year 2005 to 2009; 
Total Installed Wind Capa...
Our Environment 
• Photovoltaic (PV) Production 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 28
Video 
We Live in Exponential Times 
• 5 minutes 
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUMf7FW 
GdCw 
• This exponential growt...
The Virtual Power Station / Plant 
• "Virtual power plants represent an ‘Internet of Energy,’" says senior 
analyst Peter ...
The Smart Grid 
• vs The Dumb Grid 
– Doesn’t know what its customers are doing and 
when they will need something 
– Uses...
Systems Thinking 
• What exactly is a system? A system is a group 
of interacting, interrelated, and 
interdependent compo...
Video: A bigger System 
• a: Amory Lovins: a new fire (first 5 mins of 27) 
– We can watch more later in the day if there ...
What benefits do big electricity 
users get? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 34
What benefits do big electricity 
users get? 
• Member of Electricity Intensive User Group 
• High Level Meetings with Esk...
How can these benefits be made 
available to small / all electricity 
users? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 36
How can these benefits be made 
available to small / all electricity 
users? 
• Build a Virtual Power Station 
– a cluster...
Virtual Power Station Videos 
b: conEdison Smart Grid 5 mins 
http://youtu.be/QPWCCz_OTGU 
c: GE 8 mins (perhaps later) 
h...
End of Introduction 
Beginning of Technologies 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 39
Our workshop 
• Looking at electricity as the core missing 
enabler to get our economy moving 
• What tools do we need? 
•...
Riaan Smit 
@ Wind Energy Conference, Cape Town, Tuesday 29th May 2012 
• South Africa needs a 
– “New Future Vision” 
• R...
Thinking Differently 
• Should we think differently? 
– Do we need cars? How many? What sort? Can 
they be shared? 
– Do p...
Our problems 
• Everything going UP 
• Government taxing infrastructure instead of 
growing the economy and getting money ...
Petrol Price Increases since 2002 
Petrol price at pump; Oil = Rand $ in January each year * Brent Crude Converted to litr...
Buying and Producing Electricity 
Graph in Rand per kwh ex VAT 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013
Government’s Problem 
• Get’s large amounts of revenue from 
electricity generation 
• Electricity makes a loss at peak ti...
Ankerlig 
• Near Atlantis 
• 9 x 150 MW Combined Cycle Turbines 
– Can use Diesel or gas; currently diesel 
• 25,000 litre...
What knowledge do you have? 
• Technical Terms 
• Quick Recap? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 48
This is what a Renewable Energy 
System (without batteries) Looks Like … 
The grid is the “battery” (backup) 
Eskom say Gr...
Anti-Islanding 
• Used when the grid supply is shut off: 
– “Since 1999, the standard for anti-islanding 
protection in th...
This is what a Renewable Energy 
System (with batteries) Looks Like … 
Generator 
Inverter / Charger 
(Island System) 
(c)...
Grid Tie Island Schematic 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 52
Battery Only System 
Watch Battery System Installation Video 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY 
(c) My Power Sta...
Terminology 
• Grid Tie: an electrical system that is connected to the 
government electricity grid 
• Reverse Feed / Embe...
The Toolset 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 55
“Night” and Peak Demand 
• Start with “the battery”, the most difficult 
component 
– Because Eskom doesn’t want us to exp...
“Night” 
• What does it cost to build more generation (to 
oversupply) vs how to store and manage 
energy? 
– Ie over gene...
“Night”? 
• For Night and Cloudy Days customers will 
need batteries, energy storage, and will need 
to import electricity...
Toolset: EV – Nissan Leaf 
• Available for $200 a month in Austin, Texas on 
rental 
• Battery pack should last 5 to 7 yea...
Toolset: Pumped Storage 
a large scale battery 
http://www.eskom.co.za/c/article/207/pumped-storage/ 
(c) My Power Station...
Pumped Storage Potential 
• Lesotho Highlands 
– 3GW Pumped Storage Potential 
• USAID Electricity Supply Industry of Leso...
Toolset: Battery 
• CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) 
• Solar Tower 
• Storage: 
– In Salt or Sulphur 
– Electricity produce...
Solar Towers 
http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sun 
Abengoa and Brightsource’s Pale...
Solar Towers 
http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sun 
Abengoa and Brightsource’s Pale...
Toolset: Large Scale Batteries 
• XTremePower 
– eg 36 MW 
• http://www.duke-energy.com/news/releases/2013012301.asp 
• Fl...
Toolset: Water 
• Hydro 
– Large Scale and Micro-Hydro 
• Tidal 
– Eg Siemens 1.2 MW for 1,500 households in 
Northern Isl...
Toolset: Biogas 
e.g.: GE Jenbacher Gas Engines 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 67
Toolset: BioGas 
GE Jenbacher 
• Landfill gas 
– 1 million tons of waste power 1MW plant for 
more than 15 years 
– Waste ...
Toolset: Local Storage 
• “Municipal Energy Companies” 
– Dr Hermann Scheer in The Solar Economy 
– Every industrial busin...
Toolset: “Summer time” 
• Windhoek 1 sun hour West of Durban. Could 
build Solar Tower and PV plants there to 
provide ene...
Toolset: Behaviour Change 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 71
Toolset: Energy Efficiency 
• Examples 
• Calculations 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 72
Energy Efficiency Examples 
• Energy Efficiency is all about not using or 
needing electricity in the first place 
• Eg: 
...
Simple Electricity Meter 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 74
NegaWatts, not MegaWatts 
PV = Photovoltaic System 
EE = Energy Efficiency: Spend to save 
ER = Eskom ESCO Rebate (approxi...
RE Example and Effect of EE 
Figures as at July 2011 
House	Loads 1200 kwh/month Ball	Park	Number	for	Grid	Tie Rand	per	kw...
Haven’t taken into account 
• Potential sales to the City of Cape Town 
• Net Metering through the transformer 
• Retail W...
Toolset: Time of Use Tariffs 
• Give the member of the Virtual Power Station 
the opportunity to get paid to move their 
l...
Cape Town Time of Use Tariffs 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 79
Cape Town Residential Stepped Tariffs 
http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/electricity/Pages/ElectricityTariffs.aspx 
(c) My Pow...
Toolset: Computers 
• Computers and the Internet 
• Allowing the move: 
– ET + IT = EI 
– Energy Technology 
– Internet Te...
Computers: The ISP Model 
• The Backbone 
– Telkom, BCX, Internet Solutions 
– Sells to ISPs 
• The ISP: Internet Services...
The ESP Model 
• ESP = Electricity Services Provider 
• Based on the ISP model 
• Other examples: 
ISMO: Independent Syste...
Smart Metering and Control 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 84
Measure - SMART energy 
"If you can not measure it, you can not improve 
it.", Lord Kelvin 
(c) My Power Station Technolog...
What your electricity measurement 
should do 
• Real time reporting 
• Onboard reporting 
• Long term data collection 
• R...
ESCO Rebates 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 87
ESCO Rebates 
• Standard Product (specific products) 
– Lighting 
– Solar Water Heater (homes) 
– Showerheads 
– Timers 
•...
Demand Response 
• http://www.eskomidm.co.za/demand-response 
• It is a dynamic energy infrastructure management programme...
Demand Response 
• Demand Response is a highly flexible programme that can be customized 
to the individual financial and ...
Demand Response 
• Eskom pays customers to reduce load on 
instruction to balance supply and demand 
• 3 types 
– 1 second...
Some Eskom DR / ESCO Rebates 
• ESCO Incentives 
– 42 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peak 
time 
– 10 cents per...
Demand Response 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 93
Homeowner DR 
• Is it possible? 
• How? 
• TOU and DR 
• PV and DR 
• Taking DR to the people 
(c) My Power Station Techno...
My Suggestion for the VPS DR 
• Standard Time Rate: R1.50 per kWh 
• Peak Time Rate: R3.00 per kWh 
• Off Peak Rate: 20 ce...
Homeowner VPS DR 
• ESCO Rebate 
– 53 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peak 
time 
– 10 cents per kwh for reducin...
Carbon Credits 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 97
Carbon Credits 
• Electricity Producer in “developing” country 
earns carbon credits 
• Paid for by polluter in “developed...
Net Metering (NEM) 
• Normal 
– Buy and sell at the same rate, eg R1.50 per kWh 
– Bank excess electricity used during the...
Net Metering (NEM) 
• Avoided Costs 
• Incl: the sum of all costs that the utility avoids as a result of customer generati...
Countries with Net Metering 
• 13 Countries + 42 USA States 
• More than 20 years experience 
– Were already running in 19...
The Grid 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 102 
From Eskom Annual 
Report 2009
Quick Summary 
• We can do all of this without residential and 
other end user PV 
• Although we should allow the utility ...
Renewable Energies 
• Solar: SWH, PV, CSP, Solar Tower. + with storage 
• Water: ocean, tidal, river, wave, pumped storage...
What is PV? 
Photovoltaic Panels 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 105
Can we produce electricity cheaper 
than we can buy it? 
Whiteboard / Word 
• Assumptions: 
– City of Cape Town 
– Borrowi...
The real savings in being energy 
independent (kw vs kwh) 
• If you spend R1m a year on electricity 
• And you can install...
The Cherry on Top 
• Once you’ve paid off the system, it is YOURS 
• Your electricity cost doesn’t increase every 
year … ...
Buying and Producing Electricity 
Graph in Rand per kwh ex VAT 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013
Fix your price and save 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 110
Discussion 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 111
Trust & Expectations 
• Can we rely on the system? 
• Should we rely on the system? 
• What is “the system”? 
• Customers ...
Opportunity to sell electricity 
• To Cities, Eskom, other users 
• Especially at peak time 
– Average electricity cost to...
How to get started? 
• “Mandelaton” CID 
– Community Improvement District 
• Milnerton Proper; Woodbridge Island; Lagoon B...
Mandelaton CES 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 115
VPS Mandelaton Prezi 
http://prezi.com/p0j3paibfy6j/echo- 
2/?auth_key=20848266276fdb23f7d16535f3ceb50b9136f3f0&kw=view-p0...
Discussion 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 117
Social and Technical Factors 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 118
Social and Technical Factors 
• Social 
– “Belief” 
– “Myth” 
• Technical 
– Prices are dropping 10 to 20% per annum 
– En...
Energy Literacy 
• How literate are South Africans about their 
energy choices? 
• The USA has 
http://www1.eere.energy.go...
Do we know the risks & costs? 
• Of Fossil Fuel Energy 
– No, even after 150 years of building power 
stations 
– Kusile a...
The Risks 
• Mainly our 20th Century assumptions 
• Compare wind and nuclear risks 
• Donor assistance risks 
(c) My Power...
Assumptions 
• Our economy has an assumption built into it 
– Cheap and reliable Electricity ?? 
• But 150% increase over ...
Risks continued 
• Environmental Risks 
– Water, health, pollution, jobs, GDP growth 
• Security of Supply 
– Coal, oil, n...
Risks 
IRP2010 v8 (nothing re PV; nothing re Net Metering) 
Cheap? 
Reliable? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 125
Risks: The “Nuclear Fleet” Cost 
• 9.6 GW 
• What’s it going 
to cost? 
• With such widely 
varying costs, would 
you do t...
Risk of “old thinking” 
• South Africa might miss out on the 21st 
Century “Gold Rush” 
(c) My Power Station Technology 20...
Risks Section – New Build 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 128
World Energy Growth Rates by Source 
Percent Annual Average Growth 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 129
Solar Insolation Map 
Germany: 2.4 ave peak sun hours per day; SA 5.9 (5 after derate factor) 
(c) My Power Station Techno...
Risks Section - Wind Power 
http://www.earth-policy.org/data_highlights/2013/highlights37 
(c) My Power Station Technology...
Risk Section – Chinese Wind vs 
Nuclear Generation 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 132
Risk Thinking – Chinese Wind 
Power Potential 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 133
The Big Energy Myth 
• From Dr Hermann Scheer’s Book 
– “The Solar Economy” pp 169 to 170 
– “Once the fear of the small s...
Seven Crises(video) 
- caused by our energy system 
• Climate crisis 
• Fossil fuel availability crisis 
• Social (3rd Wor...
Show Dr Scheer Video 
http://youtu.be/w_KZ01ps6gI 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 136
Crises / Risks of the Fossilised Fuel Industry 
Dr Scheer at Retech Conference, February 2009, Las Vegas, USA 
• [3rd worl...
The [3rd world] 
My brackets ([]) 
• The so called “third world” is where the new 
empires are starting 
– Where developme...
The “Downturn” 
• Is it possible that we’re creating it ourselves? 
– By focusing on cost savings instead of growth? 
• Ju...
What’s electricity for anyway? 
• It’s like ICT, except ICT depends on Electricity 
• It’s an enabler to get the country m...
Donor Assistance Risks (DAR) 
BRICS Dev Bank? 
• What are the risks? 
– Dependence on outside funding 
– If the exchange r...
Some of the Rules 
• See application Form – Embedded Generation for 
City of Cape Town’s rules 
(c) My Power Station Techn...
Government and Citizens 
• Is making our own electricity legal? 
• “Embedded Energy” Generation Legislation 
Already Exist...
Red Tape 
• City of Cape Town 
– Red Tape to Red Carpet Process 
• South Africa 
– 15 laws; 10 standards; 10 documents 
– ...
How to convince Govt 
of The Five Winners? 
• The Five Winners http://youtu.be/I7W6kn9M8pI 
– Customers 
• eg the homeowne...
Reaching Grid Parity 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 146
Reaching Grid Parity 
• Feed in Tariffs and their purpose 
• Rebates and their purpose 
• Net Metering 
(c) My Power Stati...
Why FITs? Why any kind of incentive? 
• Introduced in Germany in 1991 
– In 1993, the FIT was $1.34 per kWh 
– In 1993 Ran...
So what did FITs do? 
• Brought down the cost of Renewable Energy 
• Note that the FIT contract is similar to the 
contrac...
What do Rebates do? 
• Kickstarted Renewable Energy 
• Benchmark: 30% 
– A utility’s “avoided cost” 
• Germany: 50% 
– Hig...
EQUALITY 
• How did we get to Equality (Grid Parity)? 
• Who helped? 
– Germany (G): Feed In Tariffs since 1991 
– Still t...
Retail Wheeling 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 152
Retail Wheeling 
• Selling electricity across the grid 
• Similar to 
– Airways 
– Railways 
– Telecommunications 
• Pay t...
Next Steps 
• Contact me for training, consulting and to set 
up Virtual Power Stations 
• Contact me for Financial ICT So...
Contacts 
• David Lipschitz, My Power Station 
– Phone 
• 021 551 9935 (W); 074 119 3246 (C) 
– Email 
• david@mypowerstat...
• End of presentation 
• The rest is for reference 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 156
Virtual Power Station Agenda 
• See hand out 
• I’d like us to brainstorm and develop a solution 
• We will consider: 
– S...
Agenda continued 
– Rebates and their purpose 
– Net Metering 
– Time of Use Tariffs 
– Demand Response 
– Energy Efficien...
Agenda Continued 
– Types of technologies that can be used in a Virtual 
Power Station 
• Photovoltaic Systems; Concentrat...
Agenda 
• Electricity Generation; Assumptions & Risks 
• Electricity and Infrastructure Challenges 
• Some Questions & Myt...
The Numbers 
• How to understand the really big numbers? 
• Should we think differently? 
– Do we need cars? How many? Wha...
R2.3 trillion 
R2,300,000,000,000 
• Repayments 
– At 10% over 20 years 
– R23,000,000,000 per month 
• R23 billion per mo...
R125 billion for Kusile 
R125,000,000,000 
• 12,500,000 * R10,000 Solar Water Heaters 
– i.e. : 12.5 million R10,000 Solar...
Electricity Challenges 
• For City Dwellers without electricity, NO: 
– Water, Banking, Petrol, Transport, Food, Life 
– O...
Some Questions 
• http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/NetMeterin 
g-2012-12-22 
• If you could make your own electricity 
cheape...
Global Energy Resources 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 166 
10 TWH in 1990 
30 TWH in 2030 
The sun 
provides 
5,00...
How long do we have? 
At 3% electricity consumption growth 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 167
Buying and Selling Electricity 
• Normally 
– We buy electricity 
• From Eskom 
• From the Cities, who buy from Eskom 
• N...
Producing Electricity (Energy) 1 
• History 
– Before Electricity 
• Windmills; Pumps;Water-Mills; Steam 
– “Base Load” (a...
Producing Electricity (Energy) 2 
• History 
– Benefits and Costs 
• Base load electrical systems dramatically reduced our...
Reliability of equipment 
• What happens when there is a problem? 
• Disruption in power supply 
– Unplanned and prolonged...
David Lipschitz 
• BSc (Honours) MBA 
• My Power Station Technology: Energy Expert, Software Developer 
• Grid-Tied Photov...
Designs 
• We charge R6,800 plus VAT for a design for a private houses and for systems up to 
10KW. Above 10 KW we charge ...
Research 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 174
Do wind turbines kill birds? 
(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 175
Bibliography - Mindmaps 
• Renewables and Sustainability Mindmap by David 
Lipschitz: 
https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/sh...
Project Video and Example 
• Gecko Rock 
– Specification: 
http://mypowerstation.co.za/2010/09/16/my-power- 
station-compl...
Other Resources 
• Total Installed Electricity Capacity Worldwide: 
http://www.steamtablesonline.com/electricity 
/electri...
Other Resources 
• Books 
– Hot, Flat and Crowded by Thomas Friedman 
• 2008 
– Bending the Curve by Robert Zipplies 
• 20...
Country Production Graphs 
• Germany 
– http://www.agora-energiewende. 
de/service/aktuelle-stromdaten/ 
stromerzeugung-un...
Germany Net Exporter of 
Electricity 
• http://www.pv-magazine. 
com/news/details/beitrag/germany- 
-power-exporter-even-w...
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  1. 1. Building a Virtual Power Station One Day Workshop By David Lipschitz My Power Station Technology 8th April 2013 Phone: 021 551 9935; 074 119 3246 Email: david@mypowerstation.biz; skype: MyPowerStation (c) My Power Station Technology (Pty) Ltd 2013 Permission is given to copy parts of this presentation as long as the Author is referenced 1
  2. 2. Wildpoldsreid • Make twice as much energy as you need • Clever Energy – How? • Work together • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tzc77Lqkl dk (aa1) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 2
  3. 3. Wildpoldsreid • A city wide learning centre that makes the citizens money and helps everyone understand the technology and its social impact • Storage – Hydrogen (H) + CO2 = Methane CH4 & Oxygen (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 3
  4. 4. Work Smarter • Smarter Grid • Distributed Storage • Active Participation • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_J97qpF 0I4 (aa2) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 4
  5. 5. Introduction Setting the context Developing the framework for a Virtual Power Station Systems Thinking (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 5
  6. 6. Virtual Power Station • Power Station (Plant): Producing electricity (and heat) • Virtual: Simulated(not in one place) • Power Station – Centralised • Virtual Power Station – Decentralised; integrated; smart (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 6
  7. 7. Power Supply Today: A Few Power Plants For Many Users © Orbital Renewable Energy 2009 Downsides: Use of un-renewable resources Air pollution Ozone hole Global warming More natural disasters Health risks Loss of life quality Dependence on OPEC, governments and corporations Nuclear danger Nuclear waste High costs for governments and end-users due to results of natures’ abuse
  8. 8. Power Supply Tomorrow: Many Private Power Producers © Orbital Renewable Energy 2009 Benefits: Use of renewable resources No air pollution Turn around of global warming Healing of the planet Creating a future No health risks Enhancement of life quality No dependence on OPEC, governments & corporations No nuclear danger No nuclear waste Affordable, healthy and environmentally friendly energy for everybody, everywhere
  9. 9. My Power Station • My Power Station helps you power your life, internally and externally • Software, Energy, Power • Internal Energy – What keeps us going internally – Sport, Exercise, Learning, Health, Family – Power comes from sharing, trusting and working together • External Energy – External inputs to ourselves; Money, Work, Jobs (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 9
  10. 10. Eskom 49m Energy Saving Campaign (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 10
  11. 11. Why are you here? • What would you like to get out of this workshop? • Why? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 11
  12. 12. Why I’m here • I’d like you to leave here with the essential toolset to convince yourself and your board of directors and customers of the possibility of solving our electricity crisis – And reducing our cost of living • For ourselves • For our home, planet earth – And making money and profits, sustainably • What electricity crisis? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 12
  13. 13. We’re in trouble!! • South Africa – No new base load power station build in the past 20 years – vs: China: >1 GW per week added to their grid!!! – China installed 18 GW of Wind in 2011; 40 GW was installed worldwide. Zero in South Africa – By end of 2012, China had 75.5 GW of Wind (growing 80% per annum since 2007) – In 2012 China produced more wind energy (100 TWh) than Nuclear (98 TWh) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 13
  14. 14. We’re in trouble!! • Can you see where South Africa’s going? • New Coal Power Stations: only 10 GW – Electricity is already sold!! – 10.5 GW will be decommissioned in 2020’s (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 14
  15. 15. Electricity Build and Decommissioning 2008 Load Shedding Spare Capacity From White Paper on Renewable Energy, 2003 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 15
  16. 16. Money • Existing or New? • Can’t we use existing money to finance our new build? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 16
  17. 17. News on 15th May 2012 • “Work to begin on 68km R5.2 billion in Nov 2012 (R5,200,000,000) railway line to supply Majuba Power Station with 14 million tons of Coal per annum” (Actual Start March 2013?) – http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/work-on-r52bn-majuba-rail-line-to-begin-in-nov- eskom-2012-05-14 • R100 billion being spent on new coal mines • At least R2 Trillion on New Power Stations – & R166 bn on The Grid (Eskom Transmission Plan) • 5,000 x 1,200 kWh per month houses can be permanently “removed” from the grid per R1bn, so R2 Trillion is at least 10 million houses (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 17
  18. 18. What happened at Majuba? • Majuba built in 1980’s. Majuba coal mine had certain geological deficiencies, so coal is trucked in from up to 68 km away. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 18 Photo from Bloomberg
  19. 19. BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa • Page 69: NPC Report (Nov 2011): “Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea and Russia will account for more than half of all global growth, growing by an average of 4.7% a year to 2025, by which time their share of global GDP will have grown from 36% to 45%.” – My Comment: [It is time for South Africa and Africa to shed its association with its colonial masters, England, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and the USA, which are part of the dying Western Empire, and change to a much closer association with the Asian Tigers, BRICS (China (9.5%)), Indonesia, South Korea, and of-course the African Tigers: Ghana (13.5%) (2nd highest), Mozambique (7.2%), Ethiopia (7.5%), Nigeria (6.9%), Botswana (6.2%), South Africa (3.4%). 36 Africa countries growing faster than the RSA. – Qatar (18.7%), India (7.8%), Russia (4.3%), Brazil (2.8%), Germany (2.7%), USA (1.5%), UK (1.1%), Portugal (-2-2%), Greece (-6%)] – Growth rates in % are net growth after inflation. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 19
  20. 20. China’s 12th 5-year plan tabled in 2011 • “Has a striking change from the past” • “From – A focus on investment-driven, high energy and low-cost manufacturing” • “To South Africa is still stuck here! Note that the Chinese quote comes from the NPC document! Page 69, NPC Plan 2020 – Low-carbon industries, new energy, next generation information technology and high-end manufacturing – China’s goal is to achieve 15% global share of these industries, compared with 3% now(in 2011)” (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 20
  21. 21. Money will be borrowed • Reason for the BRICS Development Bank! • The BRIC will lend money to the S! • The BRIC needs South Africa’s resources • A no-brainer for them • But the resource curse for us: – The resource curse (Paradox of Plenty) refers to the paradox that countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources, specifically point-source non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_curse (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 21
  22. 22. News on 28th March 2012; and 27th March 2013 • President Jacob Zuma at the BRICS conference seeking R1 trillion for the next 20 years infrastructure expansion program • Other BRICS countries growing at 10% per annum after inflation; SA at 2% – 10% + 5% inflation = R450 billion this year! • Does government need to borrow this R1 trillion with us citizens (and countryside) as surety? – 1 million new jobs; R1,000,000 debt per job! – 50 mil to 57 mil people by 2020: need 3.15 mil jobs! • Is there a better way? Using VPS Ideas? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 22
  23. 23. R1 bn = 5,000 houses (VPS & Jobs) • What is R1 bn anyway? – Electrify 5,000 * 1,200 kWh per month houses – 5,000 Smart Electricity Meters – 5,000 inverters – 5,000 solar water heaters – 200,000 solar panels (Photovoltaic PV) – Circuit Breakers; Cable; Fuses; Grounding Rods – People • 250 installers per year for the PV – 25,000 installers employed for at least 20 years for entire country • Manufacturers; designers; support people; etc (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 23
  24. 24. And Only govt loan guarantees are required – Supported by the Trevor Manuel and National Planning Commission (NPC Plan 2030) No subsidies No government borrowing No new regulations, in fact deregulation is required And best of all: – Electricity plus People plus Resources enables: • Clean Economic GROWTH -> more money for govt • Massive Employment (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 24
  25. 25. “Breaking the Code of History” • Eskom have said (email) that they “will support private people working together to look like a big customer to Eskom.” This customer can be called a Virtual Power Station. • For fast growth, an economy needs: • By David Murrin in “Breaking the Code of History” book – Population Growth – Resources – Electricity – South Africa has the first two, but the 3rd is stagnant (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 25
  26. 26. Our Environment: GDP • World GDP Growth (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 26
  27. 27. Our Environment: Wind In 2011 Capacity Installed: China 18GW; Doubled every year 2005 to 2009; Total Installed Wind Capacity Worldwide in 2011: 41,000 MW! World Wide Wind Total Installed Capacity: 238,000 MW (238 GW) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 27
  28. 28. Our Environment • Photovoltaic (PV) Production (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 28
  29. 29. Video We Live in Exponential Times • 5 minutes • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUMf7FW GdCw • This exponential growth depends on exponential availability of inexpensive electricity – For reference: watch later (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 29
  30. 30. The Virtual Power Station / Plant • "Virtual power plants represent an ‘Internet of Energy,’" says senior analyst Peter Asmus of Pike Research. "These systems tap existing grid networks to tailor electricity supply and demand services for a customer. VPPs maximize value for both the end user and the distribution utility using a sophisticated set of software-based systems. They are dynamic, deliver value in real time, and can react quickly to changing customer load conditions.” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_power_plant • Estimated growth $5.2 billion worldwide in 2010 to between $7.4 billion and $12.7 billion by 2015 • IT + ET = EI (Information Technology + Energy Tech = Energy Internet) – Thomas Friedman, in Hot, Flat and Crowded (pg 224 onwards) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 30
  31. 31. The Smart Grid • vs The Dumb Grid – Doesn’t know what its customers are doing and when they will need something – Uses historical information gathering • The Grid interacts with its stakeholders – “knows” the future • Re customers • Re suppliers • Re pricing (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 31
  32. 32. Systems Thinking • What exactly is a system? A system is a group of interacting, interrelated, and interdependent components that form a complex and unified whole – http://www.pegasuscom.com/systems-thinking.html • We need to consider the big picture, not just parts of it (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 32
  33. 33. Video: A bigger System • a: Amory Lovins: a new fire (first 5 mins of 27) – We can watch more later in the day if there is time – Video available on TED • http://www.ted.com/talks/amory_lovins_a_50_year_pl an_for_energy.html (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 33
  34. 34. What benefits do big electricity users get? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 34
  35. 35. What benefits do big electricity users get? • Member of Electricity Intensive User Group • High Level Meetings with Eskom • Involved in Daily Eskom Scheduling • Time of Use Tariffs • ESCO Rebates; Demand Response • Lower Electricity Charges • Ability to export energy to the grid (Mondi) • They are taken seriously by Eskom. They have power (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 35
  36. 36. How can these benefits be made available to small / all electricity users? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 36
  37. 37. How can these benefits be made available to small / all electricity users? • Build a Virtual Power Station – a cluster of small users which looks like a big customer to Eskom • The Nine Dots Model – Solving the “Reverse Feed Problem” – EV’s to “soak up” excess production and to provide electricity at peak time (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 37
  38. 38. Virtual Power Station Videos b: conEdison Smart Grid 5 mins http://youtu.be/QPWCCz_OTGU c: GE 8 mins (perhaps later) http://youtu.be/ztw3aYLX4_U d: Duke 4 mins http://youtu.be/E1Jrdt1OV8s (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 38
  39. 39. End of Introduction Beginning of Technologies (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 39
  40. 40. Our workshop • Looking at electricity as the core missing enabler to get our economy moving • What tools do we need? • What types of technologies are available? • How can benefits that big business get be made available to small business? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 40
  41. 41. Riaan Smit @ Wind Energy Conference, Cape Town, Tuesday 29th May 2012 • South Africa needs a – “New Future Vision” • Riaan is Chief Engineer in National Planning at Eskom (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 41
  42. 42. Thinking Differently • Should we think differently? – Do we need cars? How many? What sort? Can they be shared? – Do people need to go to work or can they telework? – Should our systems stay centralised or can they be decentralised? – How would we design the system if there was no coal or nuclear energy? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 42
  43. 43. Our problems • Everything going UP • Government taxing infrastructure instead of growing the economy and getting money from taxation • Infrastructure – Electricity; water; rates; fuel taxes; transport – E-tolls; carbon taxes; electricity levies – Exporting raw materials; importing finished goods • Bad balance of payments / rand depreciation / inflation (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 43
  44. 44. Petrol Price Increases since 2002 Petrol price at pump; Oil = Rand $ in January each year * Brent Crude Converted to litres (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 44
  45. 45. Buying and Producing Electricity Graph in Rand per kwh ex VAT (c) My Power Station Technology 2013
  46. 46. Government’s Problem • Get’s large amounts of revenue from electricity generation • Electricity makes a loss at peak time – Eg Ankerlig: R4 to R13 per kWh – Eg City of Cape Town Peak Demand: 72c (to R2.47) per kWh + Demand Charge – Means all Eskom’s rebates are based on removing peak load so that they can be more profitable – PV doesn’t fit into this! Or does it? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 46
  47. 47. Ankerlig • Near Atlantis • 9 x 150 MW Combined Cycle Turbines – Can use Diesel or gas; currently diesel • 25,000 litres of diesel per minute – X 60 minutes * R12 per litre = R18 million per hour • R18 million / 1,350,000 MW • = R13 per kWh! Photo: ESBi Engineering (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 47
  48. 48. What knowledge do you have? • Technical Terms • Quick Recap? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 48
  49. 49. This is what a Renewable Energy System (without batteries) Looks Like … The grid is the “battery” (backup) Eskom say Grid Tie is unsafe because what if there is load shedding or if the grid is switched off? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 49 Start here … PV Array Combiner Box Grid Tie Inverter DB Board Mains Utility [Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]
  50. 50. Anti-Islanding • Used when the grid supply is shut off: – “Since 1999, the standard for anti-islanding protection in the United States has been UL 1741, harmonized with IEEE 1547. Any inverter which is listed to the UL 1741 standard may be connected to a utility grid without the need for additional anti-islanding equipment, anywhere in the United States or other countries where UL standards are accepted.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_inverter (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 50
  51. 51. This is what a Renewable Energy System (with batteries) Looks Like … Generator Inverter / Charger (Island System) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 51 Start here … PV Array Combiner Box Solar Charge Controller Battery Bank DB Board Mains DB Board Backup Loads Utility [Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]
  52. 52. Grid Tie Island Schematic (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 52
  53. 53. Battery Only System Watch Battery System Installation Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 53
  54. 54. Terminology • Grid Tie: an electrical system that is connected to the government electricity grid • Reverse Feed / Embedded Generation: where someone besides Eskom sells electricity to the Grid • Net Metering: where the consumer buys and sells electricity at the same price • Feed In Tariff: where the Grid Operator / Utility pays the “Embedded Generator” a higher rate to feed the grid • Time of Use Metering: where electricity is bought (and sold) at different rates depending on grid demand (during off-peak, standard time, and peak-time, or in the future on a second by second basis) • Inverter / Grid Tied Inverter: Changes DC to AC electricity • Island: allows a grid-tie inverter to operate during a power failure, whilst isolating it from the grid (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 54
  55. 55. The Toolset (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 55
  56. 56. “Night” and Peak Demand • Start with “the battery”, the most difficult component – Because Eskom doesn’t want us to export energy – They and the Cities allow “Parallel Feed” which is essentially what Solar Water Heaters (and heat pumps) do, except that Solar Water Heaters remove peak demand. Same for Timers and Demand Response (DR). (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 56
  57. 57. “Night” • What does it cost to build more generation (to oversupply) vs how to store and manage energy? – Ie over generation vs energy storage – This might change due to storage costs coming down, carbon taxes, environmental legislation – http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/04/e nergy-storage-series-why-we-need-it-and-why-we-dont (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 57
  58. 58. “Night”? • For Night and Cloudy Days customers will need batteries, energy storage, and will need to import electricity from the Eskom / Munipalities, preferably at “off peak time” • We need Behaviour Change (Toolset) • AND we need Energy Efficiency (Toolset) • Customers can save up to 77% of their electricity requirement – and Eskom has incentives for this (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 58
  59. 59. Toolset: EV – Nissan Leaf • Available for $200 a month in Austin, Texas on rental • Battery pack should last 5 to 7 years in Austin • 4.7km per kWh at R1.50 per kWh or 31 cents per km in Cape Town • 14 km per litre for 1.4 litre car at R12.73 per litre or 91 cents per km • Nissan Leaf is 1/3rd of the cost to run. Repayments are about the same per month. EV = Electric Vehicle (there are also Hybrids) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 59
  60. 60. Toolset: Pumped Storage a large scale battery http://www.eskom.co.za/c/article/207/pumped-storage/ (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 60
  61. 61. Pumped Storage Potential • Lesotho Highlands – 3GW Pumped Storage Potential • USAID Electricity Supply Industry of Lesotho General Information for Potential Investors report in May 2008 • Palmiet / Steenbras Dam (near Cape Town) – 2 x 200 MW reversible Francis pump/turbines • Generator manufactured by Fuji of Japan • Turbine manufactured by Voith of Germany – Construction started 1983 – Commissioned 1988 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 61
  62. 62. Toolset: Battery • CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) • Solar Tower • Storage: – In Salt or Sulphur – Electricity produced in the normal way via steam and turbines • From sun during the day, or molten salt at night • Needs external energy to keep the salt “wet” (liquid) – Runs for 16 hours a day in Spain, eg 5am to 9pm, covering the morning and evening peaks in South Africa (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 62
  63. 63. Solar Towers http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sun Abengoa and Brightsource’s Palen Solar Tower Project, California (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 63
  64. 64. Solar Towers http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sun Abengoa and Brightsource’s Palen Solar Tower Project, California (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 64
  65. 65. Toolset: Large Scale Batteries • XTremePower – eg 36 MW • http://www.duke-energy.com/news/releases/2013012301.asp • Flywheel • Ultra-capacitors • Global Key Players – Generalists: ABB, Alstom, GE, S&C Electric, Schneider Electric, Siemens – Purists: A123, BYD, Panasonic, Toshiba, Xtreme Power, ZBB Technologies, etc http://zpryme.com/news-room/asian-grid-scale-energy-storage-market-364b-by-2020-zpryme-smart-grid-insights-reports.html (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 65
  66. 66. Toolset: Water • Hydro – Large Scale and Micro-Hydro • Tidal – Eg Siemens 1.2 MW for 1,500 households in Northern Island • Wave • Ocean Currents – Benguela and Agulhas Currents flowing at up to 3m/s (10km/h), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 66 Also: Desalination
  67. 67. Toolset: Biogas e.g.: GE Jenbacher Gas Engines (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 67
  68. 68. Toolset: BioGas GE Jenbacher • Landfill gas – 1 million tons of waste power 1MW plant for more than 15 years – Waste from US city of 1 million can power 8MW plant • Sewerage – Waste water from city of half a million powers 1MW plant; 100% of energy needed for the plant! • BioGas – 5000 cows can power 1 MW plant (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 68
  69. 69. Toolset: Local Storage • “Municipal Energy Companies” – Dr Hermann Scheer in The Solar Economy – Every industrial business is also an energy business – Local integration • Local jobs & a stronger local economy – Lower costs with decentralised systems – CHP: Combined Heat and Power, easier because of local electricity production (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 69
  70. 70. Toolset: “Summer time” • Windhoek 1 sun hour West of Durban. Could build Solar Tower and PV plants there to provide energy to Durban for the evening peak. • World's largest solar towers being built: 2 at 250 MW each in the Californian Desert. Currently the largest tower is in Abu Dhabi and it is 100 MW. The new design uses 50% less water and 13% less land for a similar Solar Tower plant, and 33% less land than a PV plant. Solar Towers also provide for energy storage and already run for 16 hours a day in Spain. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 70
  71. 71. Toolset: Behaviour Change (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 71
  72. 72. Toolset: Energy Efficiency • Examples • Calculations (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 72
  73. 73. Energy Efficiency Examples • Energy Efficiency is all about not using or needing electricity in the first place • Eg: – Electricity Meter – Insulation • Ceiling, window, pool cover – Heating / Cooling • Solar Water Heater; Ice Cooler – Energy Efficient Appliances (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 73
  74. 74. Simple Electricity Meter (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 74
  75. 75. NegaWatts, not MegaWatts PV = Photovoltaic System EE = Energy Efficiency: Spend to save ER = Eskom ESCO Rebate (approximate) Price Per Total Monthly %tage watts watt Price Repayments kwh price per kwh Inc VAT PV 100% 8,000 R20.00 R160,000.00 R1,600.00 1,200 R1.33 R1.52 EE 0% 8,000 R20.00 R0.00 PV 30% 8,000 R20.00 R48,000.00 EE 70% 8,000 R12.00 R67,200.00 R115,200.00 R1,152.00 1,200 R0.96 R1.09 ER R290.00 R862.00 1,200 R0.72 R0.82 NegaWatts = Negative Watts (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 75
  76. 76. RE Example and Effect of EE Figures as at July 2011 House Loads 1200 kwh/month Ball Park Number for Grid Tie Rand per kwh Peak Average Sun Hours 5 h with Battery Backup R 60.00 R 1.06 Estimated W installed 7890 Electricity Cost pa R 15,264.00 Estimated Rand Value R 473,424.66 kwh/pa 14400 New Electricity Use Efficiency Electrical Cost Saving Equipment Savings Water Savings Savings pa Awareness R 899.00 15% R 71,013.70 pa R 2,289.60 Insulation - roof / ceiling R 3,000.00 10% R 47,342.47 R 1,526.40 Insulation - pool cover R 36,000.00 7% R 30,772.60 R 1,869.60 R 992.16 Pool Pumps R 3,000.00 10% R 46,800.00 R 1,508.91 Fridge R 5,000.00 4% R 16,800.00 R 541.66 SWH R 30,000.00 25% R 118,356.16 R 3,816.00 Gas cooking Totals R 77,899.00 70% R 331,084.93 R 10,674.73 New Rands New W Rqd New Estimate 473-331k+78k R 220,238.73 R 142,339.73 2372.3 New pool cover every 5 years; Pool Size: 50 sq m; Roof Size: 100 sq m; Elec savings higher if inflation included Inverters life expectancy is 15 yrs. Replacement Not included. Gas Cooking: probably no savings, but reduces peak electricity demand. Battery Inefficiency = 20%; Grid Tie Inefficiency = 6%. R60 per watt incl inefficiencies. For 20 years 20kl Water Usage for Pool Per Month for 6 Months @ R15.58 R 1,869.60 R 37,392.00 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 76
  77. 77. Haven’t taken into account • Potential sales to the City of Cape Town • Net Metering through the transformer • Retail Wheeling • Time of Use Tariffs • Carbon Credits • Eskom ESCO rebate • DR (Demand Response) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 77
  78. 78. Toolset: Time of Use Tariffs • Give the member of the Virtual Power Station the opportunity to get paid to move their loads outside Peak Time • The member also gets the opportunity to sell electricity at peak time – We’ll see this when we discuss Net Metering (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 78
  79. 79. Cape Town Time of Use Tariffs (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 79
  80. 80. Cape Town Residential Stepped Tariffs http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/electricity/Pages/ElectricityTariffs.aspx (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 80
  81. 81. Toolset: Computers • Computers and the Internet • Allowing the move: – ET + IT = EI – Energy Technology – Internet Technology – The Energy Internet • Eg: Homeowner tells the utility that she needs the oven for 1 hour during the day • Work Smart (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 81
  82. 82. Computers: The ISP Model • The Backbone – Telkom, BCX, Internet Solutions – Sells to ISPs • The ISP: Internet Services Provider – Sells to the public • A relatively small number of backbone suppliers • A large number of public users (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 82
  83. 83. The ESP Model • ESP = Electricity Services Provider • Based on the ISP model • Other examples: ISMO: Independent System and Market Operator = electricity middleman 1998 Electricity White Paper – Railway grid in Europe – Aviation grids – Telecommunications grid – All shared. Paid for by whom? • Capex payments • Utilisation payments re ISMO & Competition 2003 RE White Paper re Competition ISMO Bill Update in Business Report on 27th March 2013: http://www.iol.co.za/business/business-news/new-electricity-middleman-nears-lift-off-as-ismo-bill-is-finalised-1.1492346#.UVlfEGnlw9B (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 83
  84. 84. Smart Metering and Control (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 84
  85. 85. Measure - SMART energy "If you can not measure it, you can not improve it.", Lord Kelvin (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 85
  86. 86. What your electricity measurement should do • Real time reporting • Onboard reporting • Long term data collection • RS-232 communication to database via GSM, Wifi or Ethernet modules • SMART control for geyser heating and pool pumps • Load shifting and DR • SMART geyser element management (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 86
  87. 87. ESCO Rebates (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 87
  88. 88. ESCO Rebates • Standard Product (specific products) – Lighting – Solar Water Heater (homes) – Showerheads – Timers • Standard Offer (projects) – 70c per kWh deemed rebate for SWH – R1.20 per kWh for first 10MW of NM PV – Eskom IDM Web Site • Other (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 88
  89. 89. Demand Response • http://www.eskomidm.co.za/demand-response • It is a dynamic energy infrastructure management programme designed to support the stability of the national electricity grid, and meet South Africa’s growing demand for energy with the assistance of large and very large energy users – in both the industrial and commercial sectors – who agree to switch off certain production processes or turn down certain electrical loads during periods of peak demand. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 89
  90. 90. Demand Response • Demand Response is a highly flexible programme that can be customized to the individual financial and energy usage objectives of participating companies. The programme offers: – Energy and capacity incentive payments; – Seamless business continuity; – Information on energy cost reduction; and – Recognition for supporting the national grid and, therefore, the stability of electricity supply to South Africa and its people. • Utilising ground breaking software, hardware and support services that reduce the demand for energy of participating companies, Demand Response allows large and very large energy users to participate for free and, most importantly, without operational interruptions. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 90
  91. 91. Demand Response • Eskom pays customers to reduce load on instruction to balance supply and demand • 3 types – 1 second notice: up to 10 mins – 10 min notice: up to half an hour – 30 min notice: up to 2 hours • Needs “Aggregator” & Customer Services Provider • Eskom pays for measuring and other equipment plus monthly fees • Eskom looking for 500 MW short term and 2 GW long term (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 91
  92. 92. Some Eskom DR / ESCO Rebates • ESCO Incentives – 42 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peak time – 10 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at off-peak time – 70 cents per kwh for water heating – For customers with more than 100 kW to save – Note that I am unsure what the latest numbers are for these rebates (as at 3rd April 2013) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 92
  93. 93. Demand Response (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 93
  94. 94. Homeowner DR • Is it possible? • How? • TOU and DR • PV and DR • Taking DR to the people (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 94
  95. 95. My Suggestion for the VPS DR • Standard Time Rate: R1.50 per kWh • Peak Time Rate: R3.00 per kWh • Off Peak Rate: 20 cents to 75 cents per kWh • Prices including VAT • And • Using Net Metering – Incentivises people to minimise use at peak time and to try to sell at peak time. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 95
  96. 96. Homeowner VPS DR • ESCO Rebate – 53 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peak time – 10 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at off-peak time • Homeowner assumption (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 96
  97. 97. Carbon Credits (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 97
  98. 98. Carbon Credits • Electricity Producer in “developing” country earns carbon credits • Paid for by polluter in “developed” country • ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds) – Allows one to trade Carbon Credits (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 98
  99. 99. Net Metering (NEM) • Normal – Buy and sell at the same rate, eg R1.50 per kWh – Bank excess electricity used during the day – Buy back at night • Other – 1: Buy at the normal rate; Sell at a lower rate • In South Africa, this would get NEM going – 2: Sell at the normal rate; Buy at a higher rate • Great for users who can make more electricity than they need. The Jargon: http://www.thegreentimes.co.za/stories/energy/item/1130-net-metering-buzz-words (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 99
  100. 100. Net Metering (NEM) • Avoided Costs • Incl: the sum of all costs that the utility avoids as a result of customer generation to the grid, including: energy purchases; generation capacity or resource adequacy; line losses; transmission and distribution capacity; air pollution permits and offsets; ancillary services; renewable energy purchases (E3, Net Metering Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation, Jan 2000, California Public Utilities Commission) • Facilities Private Investment • If we are at Grid Parity it makes sense • Facilitates Job Growth which in the USA is 10x faster than the economy as a whole; 75% are installation Jobs which are local and cannot be exported (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 100
  101. 101. Countries with Net Metering • 13 Countries + 42 USA States • More than 20 years experience – Were already running in 1991 • Government’s White Paper on RE – Nov 2003 – “Government is committed to the introduction of greater levels of competition in electricity markets – The production and distribution of energy should be sustainable and lead to an improvement in standard of living of citizens – Barriers to entry should be lowered” (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 101
  102. 102. The Grid (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 102 From Eskom Annual Report 2009
  103. 103. Quick Summary • We can do all of this without residential and other end user PV • Although we should allow the utility to buy energy at peak time, eg from battery backup and/or EV’s and/or generators, etc • And the utility and municipality should make TOU tariffs available to small users (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 103
  104. 104. Renewable Energies • Solar: SWH, PV, CSP, Solar Tower. + with storage • Water: ocean, tidal, river, wave, pumped storage • Other: Wind, Geo-thermal, Biogas, Sewerage to Gas • Storage: battery, fuel-cell, water, salt, Sulphur, Hydrogen • Non-renewable: coal, oil, gas, nuclear Riverside Renewable Energy Holt Logistics Gloucester Marine Terminal New Jersey, USA • 9MW Roof Top PV • $42m • ~ 110,000 square meters • 80% of energy requirement (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 104
  105. 105. What is PV? Photovoltaic Panels (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 105
  106. 106. Can we produce electricity cheaper than we can buy it? Whiteboard / Word • Assumptions: – City of Cape Town – Borrowing at 10% interest rate over 20 years – Rooftop PV Systems – 3 bedroom, 4 person household using 1,200 kwh per month • Homeowner – R1.29 per kwh 16% R1.50 • Business owner – R1.02 per kwh 16% R1.18 + 1 cent (additional) levy + R120 per ton carbon tax, ie 12 cents per kwh R1.31 28% • More Info: R1,800; R182,400; 8 KW; R22.80; R182,400; R20 per watt? How? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 106
  107. 107. The real savings in being energy independent (kw vs kwh) • If you spend R1m a year on electricity • And you can install your own system for R900,000 per year • What would you prefer? • If you buy your own system, then at 10% per annum over 20 years, the R900,000 equates to a capital cost of R7.5M (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 107
  108. 108. The Cherry on Top • Once you’ve paid off the system, it is YOURS • Your electricity cost doesn’t increase every year … ☞ … which means that you can plan for the future! • And: you can save 70%+ of your electricity cost over 20 years (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 108
  109. 109. Buying and Producing Electricity Graph in Rand per kwh ex VAT (c) My Power Station Technology 2013
  110. 110. Fix your price and save (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 110
  111. 111. Discussion (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 111
  112. 112. Trust & Expectations • Can we rely on the system? • Should we rely on the system? • What is “the system”? • Customers expect – The system to be up – Maybe we expect “load shedding” because of what happened in 2008 – Many private people and businesses installed generators to give themselves security of supply (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 112
  113. 113. Opportunity to sell electricity • To Cities, Eskom, other users • Especially at peak time – Average electricity cost to City of Cape Town is 55 cents per kwh – E.g.: Ankerlig near Atlantis produces 1,350 MW, uses 25,000 litres of diesel per minute, at a cost of between R4 and R13 per kwh – So, we can produce at R1.32 per kwh and sell at R3 per kwh! (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 113
  114. 114. How to get started? • “Mandelaton” CID – Community Improvement District • Milnerton Proper; Woodbridge Island; Lagoon Beach; Joe Slovo / Phoenix; Sunset Beach • Measure: 2,000 meters * R6,000 each installed – Incl, Voltage, Current, Peak Demand, – Can tell what’s running by looking at “profiles” – Can control Geyser – Can switch loads on and off (DSM and rebates) – Is Wireless, so user needs internet connection • Design, Finance, Implement, Insure, Maintain (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 114
  115. 115. Mandelaton CES (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 115
  116. 116. VPS Mandelaton Prezi http://prezi.com/p0j3paibfy6j/echo- 2/?auth_key=20848266276fdb23f7d16535f3ceb50b9136f3f0&kw=view-p0j3paibfy6j&rc=ref- 15959272 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 116
  117. 117. Discussion (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 117
  118. 118. Social and Technical Factors (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 118
  119. 119. Social and Technical Factors • Social – “Belief” – “Myth” • Technical – Prices are dropping 10 to 20% per annum – Energy Storage is possible; cheaper than running peaking power stations – RE allows non-degreed installation and maintenance personnel, appropriate for RSA (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 119
  120. 120. Energy Literacy • How literate are South Africans about their energy choices? • The USA has http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/ener gy_literacy.html and http://www.need.org/ (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 120
  121. 121. Do we know the risks & costs? • Of Fossil Fuel Energy – No, even after 150 years of building power stations – Kusile and Medupi: budgetted to cost R79 billion for 4.8 GW each; now R125 billion each and rising – Coal and other fossil fuel costs rising faster than expected • Of Renewable Energy – Yes, and they are decreasing (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 121
  122. 122. The Risks • Mainly our 20th Century assumptions • Compare wind and nuclear risks • Donor assistance risks (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 122
  123. 123. Assumptions • Our economy has an assumption built into it – Cheap and reliable Electricity ?? • But 150% increase over the past 5 years – Cheap build ?? • But R79 bn quote: R125 bn now; 12 months behind schedule – Cheap raw materials ?? – Reliable Distribution Systems ?? • Transformer life: was 35 years -> now 12.5 years • Decreasing Costs works for IT ✔ – Lets find out if it can work for electricity? • How risky are our assumptions? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 123
  124. 124. Risks continued • Environmental Risks – Water, health, pollution, jobs, GDP growth • Security of Supply – Coal, oil, nuclear: Wind, sun: • Cost of Supply – Coal, oil, nuclear: Wind, Sun: • The Cost of Unserved Energy – Energy Security; what is the cost of being out of action? • For a business; for a homeowner who doesn’t know they are off? – R75 per kWh • Nuclear Waste Management (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 124
  125. 125. Risks IRP2010 v8 (nothing re PV; nothing re Net Metering) Cheap? Reliable? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 125
  126. 126. Risks: The “Nuclear Fleet” Cost • 9.6 GW • What’s it going to cost? • With such widely varying costs, would you do this project? • Can we remove 9.6 GW from the grid at peak / any time? • How? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 126
  127. 127. Risk of “old thinking” • South Africa might miss out on the 21st Century “Gold Rush” (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 127
  128. 128. Risks Section – New Build (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 128
  129. 129. World Energy Growth Rates by Source Percent Annual Average Growth (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 129
  130. 130. Solar Insolation Map Germany: 2.4 ave peak sun hours per day; SA 5.9 (5 after derate factor) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 130
  131. 131. Risks Section - Wind Power http://www.earth-policy.org/data_highlights/2013/highlights37 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 131
  132. 132. Risk Section – Chinese Wind vs Nuclear Generation (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 132
  133. 133. Risk Thinking – Chinese Wind Power Potential (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 133
  134. 134. The Big Energy Myth • From Dr Hermann Scheer’s Book – “The Solar Economy” pp 169 to 170 – “Once the fear of the small scale has been dispelled, once RE has demonstrated that it can replace fossil energy in its entirety, then the aura of the centralised nuclear/fossil industry will quickly fade. While fossil mythology remains unchallenged, humanity is faced with the absurd prospect of choosing death over a solution it is afraid to embrace. … Ordinary people are caught up in the myth of big technology … We need an active and engaged society” (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 134
  135. 135. Seven Crises(video) - caused by our energy system • Climate crisis • Fossil fuel availability crisis • Social (3rd World) crisis • Health crisis • Nuclear crisis • Water crisis • Food (agricultural) crisis Dr Hermann Scheer, Member of the German Government, President of EUROSOLAR, General Chairman World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE) Photo: “For Work and Environment”, from Dr Scheer’s Facebook Page. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 135
  136. 136. Show Dr Scheer Video http://youtu.be/w_KZ01ps6gI (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 136
  137. 137. Crises / Risks of the Fossilised Fuel Industry Dr Scheer at Retech Conference, February 2009, Las Vegas, USA • [3rd world]: – 40 countries are unable to pay their energy bill – Their oil import bill is more than their total export earnings • COP 17 and global treaties – How do we organise the technological revolution? – Which technological revolution happened as a result of a global treaty? Not One! • We should do it because it is an advantage of us (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 137
  138. 138. The [3rd world] My brackets ([]) • The so called “third world” is where the new empires are starting – Where development is happening • The “third world” – Has population growth – Has resources • Most of the Developed World is stagnating – Has growth potential • The Developed (1st) world – Stuck in an old paradigm? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 138
  139. 139. The “Downturn” • Is it possible that we’re creating it ourselves? – By focusing on cost savings instead of growth? • Just something to think about – I’m not saying we’ve created our recession, but I wonder if its in our minds, as a self-fulfilling prophesy – Also in South Africa: • One has to do the same thing over and over again • A huge waste of resources, time and energy (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 139
  140. 140. What’s electricity for anyway? • It’s like ICT, except ICT depends on Electricity • It’s an enabler to get the country moving • Fast, cheap, reliable pathways from a to b will get our economy going – Communications (Infrastructure) – Electricity, Population Growth, Resources • David Murrin: “Breaking the Code of History” • Can the “Energy Internet” finally happen? – Thomas Friedman in “Hot, Flat and Crowded” (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 140
  141. 141. Donor Assistance Risks (DAR) BRICS Dev Bank? • What are the risks? – Dependence on outside funding – If the exchange rate weakens, repayments get higher – Little capacity building – An expected “repayment” for donor assistance • What chance is there that we can build our future infrastructure needs without DAR? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 141
  142. 142. Some of the Rules • See application Form – Embedded Generation for City of Cape Town’s rules (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 142
  143. 143. Government and Citizens • Is making our own electricity legal? • “Embedded Energy” Generation Legislation Already Exists • SABS: NRS 097-01-2010 (December, 2010) • NERSA: Embedded Generation (2011) • Waiting for: – Eskom adoption – City adoption – Business and Homeowner adoption (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 143
  144. 144. Red Tape • City of Cape Town – Red Tape to Red Carpet Process • South Africa – 15 laws; 10 standards; 10 documents – Just for “parallel feed”! • USA – 2 laws; 3 standards; 1 document • Germany – Install; inspect; FITs 8 days later (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 144
  145. 145. How to convince Govt of The Five Winners? • The Five Winners http://youtu.be/I7W6kn9M8pI – Customers • eg the homeowner (electricity generator & consumer) • Eg the business owner (and employees) – Suppliers • Installers; Designers; Maintenance People; Call Centres; Inspectors; Manufacturers – Cities – Eskom – The Environment • Fast economic growth. “Base Load” can’t keep up! (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 145
  146. 146. Reaching Grid Parity (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 146
  147. 147. Reaching Grid Parity • Feed in Tariffs and their purpose • Rebates and their purpose • Net Metering (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 147
  148. 148. Why FITs? Why any kind of incentive? • Introduced in Germany in 1991 – In 1993, the FIT was $1.34 per kWh – In 1993 Rands, this was R4.57 per kWh – In 2012 Rands, this was R11.32 per kWh – In 2001 in South Africa: • Per kWh: Domestic 24.59c; Manu and Mining 12.32c • The FIT had three principles – The Utility must connect anyone to the grid – They must buy all the energy that is produced – They must buy at a fixed price for the length of the contract, ie 15 to 20 years (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 148
  149. 149. So what did FITs do? • Brought down the cost of Renewable Energy • Note that the FIT contract is similar to the contract the government signs with Eskom to build a power station – An agreement to buy a certain amount of electricity – At a certain price – For a certain period of time • There are “FITs” in our car production system – Government gives R5 billion of incentives to car companies annually – The Joule needed R9.5 billion. And South Africa would have had its own electrical car! (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 149
  150. 150. What do Rebates do? • Kickstarted Renewable Energy • Benchmark: 30% – A utility’s “avoided cost” • Germany: 50% – Higher incentive • Different kinds – Rebate – Tax Credit (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 150
  151. 151. EQUALITY • How did we get to Equality (Grid Parity)? • Who helped? – Germany (G): Feed In Tariffs since 1991 – Still the largest installed base of PV panels (roof top, building integrated, farm, etc) – 370,000 people employed in RE in G in 2010 – Targeted 20% RE by 2020 • Achieved this in 2011! • Now targeting 35% by 2020 • Solved the “Grid Destabilisation” problem in 2011 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 151
  152. 152. Retail Wheeling (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 152
  153. 153. Retail Wheeling • Selling electricity across the grid • Similar to – Airways – Railways – Telecommunications • Pay the Grid Operator a Wheeling Tariff for using the grid • Needs an Independent System Operator? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 153
  154. 154. Next Steps • Contact me for training, consulting and to set up Virtual Power Stations • Contact me for Financial ICT Solutions (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 154
  155. 155. Contacts • David Lipschitz, My Power Station – Phone • 021 551 9935 (W); 074 119 3246 (C) – Email • david@mypowerstation.biz – Web • http://www.mypowerstation.biz (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 155
  156. 156. • End of presentation • The rest is for reference (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 156
  157. 157. Virtual Power Station Agenda • See hand out • I’d like us to brainstorm and develop a solution • We will consider: – Systems Thinking – What benefits do big electricity users get? – How can these benefits be made available to small / all electricity users? – Reaching Grid Parity – how did we get here – Feed In Tariffs and their purpose (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 157
  158. 158. Agenda continued – Rebates and their purpose – Net Metering – Time of Use Tariffs – Demand Response – Energy Efficiency – Smart Metering – Social Factors – Technical Factors (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 158
  159. 159. Agenda Continued – Types of technologies that can be used in a Virtual Power Station • Photovoltaic Systems; Concentrated Solar Power; CSP Tower; BioGas • Pumped Storage • Battery, ultra-capacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel-cell – Dealing with peak demand – What about rainy days and night? – Government’s role. NRS 097-2-1:2010 and NERSA. Embedded Generation and its Rules. Laws, Policy. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 159
  160. 160. Agenda • Electricity Generation; Assumptions & Risks • Electricity and Infrastructure Challenges • Some Questions & Myths • Our Environment – We live in Exponential Times • Electricity & “The Grid” – Can we rely on The Grid? – Can we make electricity ourselves cost effectively? • How to get started? • Q&A (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 160
  161. 161. The Numbers • How to understand the really big numbers? • Should we think differently? – Do we need cars? How many? What sort? Can they be shared? – Do people need to go to work or can they telework? – Should our systems stay centralised or can they be decentralised – How would we design the system if there was no coal or nuclear energy? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 161
  162. 162. R2.3 trillion R2,300,000,000,000 • Repayments – At 10% over 20 years – R23,000,000,000 per month • R23 billion per month is what the people of South Africa will be paying for their new electricity fleet if we follow the old 20th Century technology path – 50 million people; 7 million taxpayers • R3,285 per taxpayer per month – for capex repayments only (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 162
  163. 163. R125 billion for Kusile R125,000,000,000 • 12,500,000 * R10,000 Solar Water Heaters – i.e. : 12.5 million R10,000 Solar Water Heaters • Kusile – 4.8GW – 12,500,000 SWH need 20 GW of electricity • SWH can be used to – Heat water & air – Cool water & air – R46 billion (58%) over budget already (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 163
  164. 164. Electricity Challenges • For City Dwellers without electricity, NO: – Water, Banking, Petrol, Transport, Food, Life – Only 4 days of food in the supply chain • Everything we do depends on electricity – We need security of supply – We need price certainty • Therefore we need a game plan to make this a reality (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 164
  165. 165. Some Questions • http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/NetMeterin g-2012-12-22 • If you could make your own electricity cheaper than you could buy it, would you want to do this? • Do you know what Net Metering is? • Do you want to make money and conserve the environment? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 165
  166. 166. Global Energy Resources (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 166 10 TWH in 1990 30 TWH in 2030 The sun provides 5,000 times the amount of energy required by the entire planet
  167. 167. How long do we have? At 3% electricity consumption growth (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 167
  168. 168. Buying and Selling Electricity • Normally – We buy electricity • From Eskom • From the Cities, who buy from Eskom • Now – We can produce electricity • We can use it ourselves • We can sell it to The Grid • We can sell it to our own customers! (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 168
  169. 169. Producing Electricity (Energy) 1 • History – Before Electricity • Windmills; Pumps;Water-Mills; Steam – “Base Load” (after electricity “invented”) • Coal, Nuclear, Hydro-electric (3) – Now • Sun, wind, river, tide, ocean-current, geo-thermal (6) • Sun: PV, CSP, Tower, Solar Water Heating (+3) – PV = Photovoltaics (like the leaves of a tree) – CSP = Concentrated Solar Power (with or without storage) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 169
  170. 170. Producing Electricity (Energy) 2 • History – Benefits and Costs • Base load electrical systems dramatically reduced our costs and allowed the industrial revolution to happen • But this assumed unlimited, cheap, supply of equipment and raw materials (coal, etc) • But: population growth and industrial growth have put huge constraints on the systems • And: at the same time, maintenance costs have been rising rapidly for power stations, transmission and distribution systems (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 170
  171. 171. Reliability of equipment • What happens when there is a problem? • Disruption in power supply – Unplanned and prolonged downtimes – Destruction of equipment – Sudden cut offs • No proper shutdowns • Customer dissatisfaction/frustration Uni of Joburg talk at Transformer and SwitchGear Conference Joburg April 2012 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 171
  172. 172. David Lipschitz • BSc (Honours) MBA • My Power Station Technology: Energy Expert, Software Developer • Grid-Tied Photovoltaics Course: Feb 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA • NABCEP Level 1 Certification – North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners • Additional related technical training • Spoke / Chaired Energy Efficiency conference 2010 • Spoke at Various other Energy Conferences • Presented in Parliament re. Climate Change Hearings • Presented to Parliament re. IRP2010 Hearings • Presented at Powering Africa Strategy Summit in November 2011 • Contact Details: – 021 551 9935 (Office) – 074 119 3246 (Cell/Mobile/iPhone) – david@mypowerstation.biz – Mypowerstation (Skype) – http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidlipschitz (LinkedIn) (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 172
  173. 173. Designs • We charge R6,800 plus VAT for a design for a private houses and for systems up to 10KW. Above 10 KW we charge R50,000 plus VAT, excludes EIAs, Engineering or Architect Fees. • Why we charge for designs? – A design includes a site visit, a formal design with a parts list, an Efergy electricity meter so that the client can become aware of their electricity use and reduce it, and an energy efficiency exercise – If the client buys a system from us and the value of the system is over R80,000, we discount their installed price by the fee. – This is fair as the design requires experience and designs in IT, Architecture, etc, aren’t free. Designs can take up to 3 days. All prices and equipment needs to be checked. If we do 10 designs and then someone buys from us, we need to constantly increase the prices of the systems to recover our sales cost investment; this means that we either go out of business or run at a loss, which isn’t in our or our clients bests interests – We need to recover our investment of over R4 million so far in ensuring that we install systems that meet electricity needs, are properly grounded, cable sizes are correct, the proper circuit breakers and fuses are used, etc. At the moment we follow the USA NEC article 690 RE guidelines as far as possible as there aren’t guidelines in South Africa, although there are DC guidelines. – Update November 2011: NERSA have published RFD Embedded Generation which refers to NRS 097-2-1:2010 (Grid Interconnection Of Embedded Generation). We are now waiting for implementation by Eskom and the Cities. (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 173
  174. 174. Research (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 174
  175. 175. Do wind turbines kill birds? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 175
  176. 176. Bibliography - Mindmaps • Renewables and Sustainability Mindmap by David Lipschitz: https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/13046747 • Domestic Energy Independence by David Lipschitz: https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/47331785 • Living Without Grids – a survival mechanism by David Lipschitz: https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/14204830 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 176
  177. 177. Project Video and Example • Gecko Rock – Specification: http://mypowerstation.co.za/2010/09/16/my-power- station-completes-installation-of-power-station- at-gecko-rock-press-release-16th-september- 2010/ – Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 177
  178. 178. Other Resources • Total Installed Electricity Capacity Worldwide: http://www.steamtablesonline.com/electricity /electricity-installed-capacity.aspx • Eco Economy Indicators: http://www.earth-policy. org • Insolation Map: http://www.earth-policy. org/indicators/C49/wind_power_2012 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 178
  179. 179. Other Resources • Books – Hot, Flat and Crowded by Thomas Friedman • 2008 – Bending the Curve by Robert Zipplies • 2008 – Screw Business as Usual by Richard Branson • 2011 – Breaking the Code of History by David Murrin • 2010 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 179
  180. 180. Country Production Graphs • Germany – http://www.agora-energiewende. de/service/aktuelle-stromdaten/ stromerzeugung-und-verbrauch/ • Portugal – http://www.centrodeinformacao.ren.pt/PT/Inform acaoExploracao/Paginas/EstatisticaDiariaDiagrama .aspx (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 180
  181. 181. Germany Net Exporter of Electricity • http://www.pv-magazine. com/news/details/beitrag/germany- -power-exporter-even-with-fewer-nuclear-plants_ 100010756 (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 181

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