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- 1. HOW TO DETERMINE RATE OF REACTION FROM GRAPH AVERAGE RATE OF REACTION INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF REATION
- 2. AVERAGE RATE OF REACTION For the whole exp From X min to Y min On the X min (2 nd ) ( from 2 nd to 1 st ) For first x (3) min ( from 0 to 3rd )
- 3. INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF REACTION ( rate of reaction at that time) Draw tangent to the graph Y X Rate = Y/X
- 4. b) Example from the graph, determine: <ul><li>i) The rate of reaction at 120 s </li></ul>Instantaneous rate of reaction = Draw tangent to the graph
- 5. = 56 – 20 = 0.176 cm 3 s -1 222-18
- 6. Changes to the graph
- 7. Changes to the CURVE part of graph II I III Volume of gas Time Use negative catalyst Decrease temperature Decrease TSA <ul><li>Use positive catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Increase temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Increase total surface area </li></ul>
- 8. Changes to the FLAT part of graph
- 9. d) Curve I represents the result of the experiment using excess zinc powder and 50cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 dilute hydrochloric acid II I III Volume of gas/ cm 3 Time/s <ul><li>Use positive catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Increase temperature of reactant </li></ul>Lower concentration of hydrochloric acid
- 10. Collision theory <ul><li>Theory that explains how factors affect rate of reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Before reaction can occur, particles must first collide </li></ul><ul><li>Particles collide so that bonds are broken and new bonds can form </li></ul>
- 11. Collision theory <ul><li>Collision of particles must be effective collisions to produce result </li></ul><ul><li>Effective collisions are collisions which </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produce enough energy to overcome energy of activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>correct orientation </li></ul></ul>
- 12. Collision theory <ul><li>Activation energy is the minimum energy the colliding particles must overcome so that reaction occur </li></ul><ul><li>In order for particles to overcome the activation energy, several factors involve </li></ul>
- 13. How factors affect rate of reaction according to collision theory <ul><li>Size of reactant for solid reactant </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature of reactant mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of solution reactant </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of catalyst </li></ul>
- 14. How Collision theory explain factor of size of solid reactant <ul><li>The smaller the size of reactant , the larger the total surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Effective collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore rate of reaction also increase </li></ul>
- 15. How Collision theory explain factor of concentration <ul><li>The higher the concentration of reactant solution , the higher the number of particles per unit volume </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Effective collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore rate of reaction also increase </li></ul>
- 16. How Collision theory explain factor of temperature <ul><li>The higher the temperature of reactant solution , the higher the kinetic energy of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Effective collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore rate of reaction also increase </li></ul>
- 17. Collision theory explain factor of catalyst <ul><li>Presence of catalyst provide an alternative path </li></ul><ul><li>This alternative path has a lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>More colliding particles can overcome this lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Effective collisions between particles increase </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore rate of reaction also increase </li></ul>

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