Successfully reported this slideshow.

Chemistry revision form 5=form 5 topics

12,483 views

Published on

basic concepts on chemistry

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Chemistry revision form 5=form 5 topics

  1. 1. Chemistry Revision Form 5 on topics: consumer, rate of reaction, carbon compound and thermo chemistry
  2. 3. STRUCTURE OF SOAP PARTICLE <ul><li>the organic part </li></ul><ul><li>the ionic part </li></ul><ul><li>the hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>part </li></ul><ul><li>the hydrophilic part </li></ul><ul><li>the head part </li></ul><ul><li>the tail part </li></ul>
  3. 4. d)Compare and contrast the cleansing action of soap and detergents animal plant Property Soap Detergent 1 sources Made from ……………… or ……………… Made from petroleum fractions
  4. 5. Alkyl group Property Soap Detergent 2 Molecular structure R – COO – Na + Where R is …………… R SO 3 – or
  5. 6. SCUM Property Soap Detergent 3 Effectiveness in hard water Forms ………………… with hard water Does not form scum with hard water
  6. 7. INSOLUBLE FATTY ACID Property Soap Detergent 4 Effectiveness in acidic water Forms …………… . with acidic water Does not form precipitate with acidic water
  7. 8. MORE Property Soap Detergent 5 Cleaning power Less powerful …………… powerful
  8. 9. POLLUTION Property Soap Detergent 6 Effect to the environment Biodegradable and do not cause any …………… Some detergents are non biodegradable and kill aquatic lives
  9. 10. What does hard water contains? <ul><li>Hard water contains calcium ion, Ca 2+ or magnesium ion, Mg 2+. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Food additives DYES PRESERVATIVES FLAVOURING AGENTS ANTI OXIDANTS STABILIZERS AND THICKENING
  11. 12. TYPES OF FOOD ADDITIVES AND EXAMPLES
  12. 13. DYES PRESER VATIVES EXAMPLES TYPE 1) AZO COMPOUNDS 2) SODIUM NITRITE, SODIUM BENZOATE
  13. 14. FLAVOURING AGENTS ANTI OXIDANTS STABILIZERS & THICKENING AGENTS EXAMPLES TYPE 3) MONO SODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG) 4) ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C) 5) ACACIA GUM
  14. 15. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES
  15. 19. <ul><li>Modern medicine </li></ul>2. ANTIBIOTICS 1. ANALGESICS 3. PSYCHO THERAPEUTIC MEDICINES Relieves pain without affecting onsciousness Kill or inhibit growth of infectious bacteria Control symptoms of mental illness
  16. 20. <ul><li>Modern medicine </li></ul>2. ANTIBIOTICS 1. ANALGESICS 3. PSYCHO THERAPEUTIC MEDICINES Aspirin, codeine paracetamol penicillin Stimulant ANTIDEPRESSANT ANTIPSYCHOTIC –
  17. 21. REVISION QUESTIONS
  18. 23. SAPONIFICATION ESTER TO PRECIPITATE SOAP PRODUCED
  19. 24. POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE
  20. 25. Water that contains Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ Soap react with Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ to form scum Detergent does not form scum in hard water.
  21. 26. Inhibit growth of microorganisms Antioxidants
  22. 27. burning sensations in the back, neck, chest; paralysis; numbness in the same areas; tingling or warmth in the face, arms or back; nausea; facial tightness; rapid heartbeat; chest pains, asthma attacks; drowsiness or cravings for other foods.
  23. 29. -Factors that influence rate of reaction <ul><li>Size of substance or its Total surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature of reactant solution </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of the reactant solution </li></ul><ul><li>catalyst </li></ul>
  24. 30. -collision theory <ul><li>Before a reaction happens particles must first collide </li></ul><ul><li>This is to overcome bonds between particles and to form new bonds </li></ul><ul><li>But simple collision does not break bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Only effective collision or collision with CORRECT ORIENTATIONS and enough energy to overcome activation energy is able to form products </li></ul>
  25. 31. Activation energy <ul><li>Is the minimum energy needed for the colliding particles to form new products </li></ul><ul><li>The energy needed is also to overcome bonds between particles and to form new bonds </li></ul><ul><li>For every reaction , the activation energy is fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Only catalyst can provide alternative path which has a lower activation energy </li></ul>
  26. 33. a ) Graph 9 shows the results of Experiment I and Experiment II to investigate the factor of catalyst in the reaction of zinc and hydrochloric acid. Volume of hydrogen gas (cm 3 ) Time(s) Experiment II Experiment I
  27. 34. (i) Which experiment used catalyst? State the name of the catalyst used. [ 2 marks] <ul><li>Experiment I </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst used : </li></ul><ul><li>Copper(II) sulphate solution </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>(ii) The reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid releases energy. Draw an energy profile diagram for both reactions in Experiment I and Experiment II. </li></ul><ul><li>Label Ea for the activation energy without a catalyst and E’a for the activation energy with a catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li> [4marks] </li></ul>
  29. 37. (iii) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction between Exp I and Exp II based on the collision theory. [4marks] <ul><li>Rate of reaction Experiment I is higher than experiment II. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of catalyst in exp 1 will provide an alternative path with lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>More colliding particles are able to overcome the lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of effective collision increase and so rate of reaction also increase </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>(a) Diagram 10 show the energy level of Reaction I and Reaction II. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Diagram 10, compare the energy level diagram between Reaction I and Reaction II. </li></ul>Energy N 2 (g)+ 2O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) H = +66 kJ mol -1 Energy KCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + KNO 3 Reaction I Reaction II
  31. 39. <ul><li>Reaction I is an endothermic reaction while reaction II is an exothermic reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>In reaction 1, Heat energy is absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>In reaction II, heat energy is released </li></ul><ul><li>In reaction I, energy of reactants is lower than the energy of products while In reaction II, energy of reactants is higher than the energy of products </li></ul>
  32. 40. b) Table 10 shows the molecular formula and the heat of combustion for propanol and butanol. Based on the information in Table 10, compare the heat of combustion between propanol and butanol. Explain why there is a difference in the values of the heat of combustion between propanol and butanol. [3 marks] Alcohol Molecular Formula Heat of combustion/ kJ mol -1 Propanol C 3 H 7 OH -2100 Butanol C 4 H 9 OH -2877
  33. 41. <ul><li>Heat of combustion for butanol is higher than in propanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the number of carbon atom and hydrogen atoms per molecule in butanol is higher than in propanol. </li></ul><ul><li>So, more heat energy is released to form carbon dioxide and water in butanol than heat released in propanol </li></ul>
  34. 42.       5) Carbon compound Diagram shows the structural formula of two organic compounds K and L.
  35. 43. Compound K Compound L Compound K and L belong to two different homologous series.
  36. 44. ( a ) Write the general formula for the homologous series of compound K. C n H 2n+1 COOH ( b ) Name compound L. methyl propanoate
  37. 45. <ul><li>Compare two physical properties of </li></ul><ul><li>compounds K and L by completing </li></ul><ul><li>the following table: </li></ul>soluble in water Sharp smell Sweet and Fruity smell Not soluble in water Physical property Compound K Compound L odour Solubility
  38. 46. 6) Thermo chemistry example of paper 3 Plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between the molar mass of alcohols on the heat of combustion of alcohols. Your planning should include the following:
  39. 47. (a) Statement of problems Does an alcohol with a higher molar mass have a higher heat of combustion of alcohols? What is the relationship between the molar mass of alcohols and the heat of combustion of alcohols?
  40. 48. (b) All the variables Manipulated : variable Responding : Variable Constant : Variables Different types of Alcohols Heat of combustion volume of water, copper can
  41. 49. (c) Statement of hypothesis The higher the molar mass of alcohol, The higher the heat of combustion of alcohol
  42. 50. (d) List of substances and apparatus Substances : Methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, and butan-1-ol, water Apparatus : Copper can, measuring cylinder, Thermometer, spirit lamp, Bunsen burner, Tripod stand, wooden block, Wind shield, electronic balance
  43. 51. (e) Procedure of the experiment <ul><li>Measure 100cm 3 of water using a </li></ul><ul><li>measuring cylinder. Pour it into a </li></ul><ul><li>copper can </li></ul><ul><li>Place the copper can on a tripod stand </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 minutes, measure and record </li></ul><ul><li>the initial temperature of water </li></ul><ul><li>Pour 50cm 3 of methanol into a spirit </li></ul><ul><li>lamp and weigh it </li></ul><ul><li>Place the lamp on wooden block under </li></ul><ul><li>the copper can </li></ul>
  44. 52. 6.Light up the wick of the lamp immediately 7.Stir the water continuously using a thermometer while observing the increase in temperature 8.Once the temperature has increased to 30 o C, put out the flame immediately 9.Record the highest temperature of water
  45. 53. 10.Weigh the spirit lamp with methanol again 11.Repeat step 1-10 by using ethanol, propan-1-ol, and butan-1-ol to replace methanol
  46. 54. (f) Tabulation of data Type of Alcohols Methanol Ethanol Initial temp of water ( o C) Highest temp of water( o C) Mass of spirit lamp before combustion(g) Mass of spirit lamp after combustion (g)
  47. 55. (f) Tabulation of data Type of Alcohols propanol butanol Initial temp of water ( o C) Highest temp of water( o C) Mass of spirit lamp before combustion(g) Mass of spirit lamp after combustion (g)

×