Proverb Is a short traditional saying in general use ,it usually express some- obvious truth or familiar experience Proverbs are short, but memorable sayings, based on an important- fact of experience that is considered true by many people A proverb is a short popular saying expressing an obvious truth- (Websters New World Dictionary). Proverbs are based on collective folk wisdom and have been among us for thousands of years as guidelines for life. Theyre delightfully familiar reminders of childhood, and very often convenient conversational shorthand Examples of Proverbs African Proverbs (Across the vast continent of Africa, many African nations disseminated proverbs that were meant to educate and inspire those who used them.) Here are a few examples of African proverbs. “A tree is known by its fruit”(this means that success is shown by the deeds.) “I have been bitten by a tsetse fly” (of Tanzanian origin – this means that a person will continuously be apest until you pay off a debt.) “The word of friend makes you cry – the word of an enemy makes youlaugh” (of Algeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger – this means thata friend will tell you the truth and sometimes the truth hurts, whereas anenemy will only lead you down the wrong path by giving you advice thatseems good but is not.)
Asian Proverbs Some examples of Asian proverbs : “The old horse in the stable still yearns to run” (This means that those who are older still have things they would liketo accomplish.) “A spark can start a fire that burns the entire prairie” (This means that a small problem can snowball into a huge problem thatcan cause major damage.) “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish andyou feed him for a lifetime” (This means that teaching people is better in the long run because itgives them the skills to provide for themselves as opposed to you doingthings for them.) American Proverbs Some examples of American based proverbs include: "Absence makes the heart grow fonder” (This means that when you separate from someone that you love byputting distance between you that you will inevitably love them moreand yearn to see them.) "All that glitters is not gold”(This means that just because something looks good, does not necessarilymean that it is good.) "A monkey in silk is a monkey no less”(This means that just because someone dresses fancy does not necessarilymean that they are fancy or of good character.)
Idiom-Most often refers to a phrase or expression that cannot be understood byknowing what the individual words in the phrase mean-An idiom is a group of words with a meaning that is different from theindividual parts.Some examples "The fats in the fire" (The damage is already done.) "A flash in the pan" (Something that looks like it will be a big success, but does not work out). "Hat trick" (Scoring consecutively three times in a game). "In a pickle" (In an awkward or embarrassing situation.) "The nick of time" (Just before time is up.) "Pull the wool over someones eyes" (Trick or deceive). "Bite off more than you can chew" (Take on more than one can handle.) "Fill someones shoes" (Take someone elses place.)
Metaphor-A figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between twounlike things that actually have something in common.-Metaphors are comparisons that show how two things that are notalike in most ways are similar in one important way.-Definition: Metaphor is when you use two nouns and compare orcontrast them to one another. Unlike simile, you dont use "like" or"as" in the comparison.There are 3 special types of metaphors:1-Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates animportant attribute of the subject.2-Catachresis: A mixed metaphor used by design and accident.3-Parable: An extended metaphor narrated as an anecdote illustratingand teaching a moral lesson.Examples - "I am a rainbow"(Because it is comparing two nouns, a person, and a rainbow, but doesnot use like or as.) - "My girlfriend is a jewel." - "Her home was a prison"
Collocation-To place together or in proper order; arrange side by side. -A collocation is made up of two or more words that are commonly used together in English.There are several different types of collocation. Collocations can beadjective + adverb, noun + noun, verb + noun and so on. Below youcan see seven main types of collocation in sample sentences.1. adverb + adjective • Invading that country was an utterly stupid thing to do. • We entered a richly decorated room. • Are you fully aware of the implications of your action?2. adjective + noun • The doctor ordered him to take regular exercise. • The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage. • He was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.3. noun + noun • Lets give Mr Jones a round of applause. • The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11am. • Id like to buy two bars of soap please.4. noun + verb • The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking. • Snow was falling as our plane took off. • The bomb went off when he started the car engine.5. Verb + noun • The prisoner was hanged for committing murder. • I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
• He has been asked to give a presentation about his work.6. verb + expression with preposition • We had to return home because we had run out of money. • At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears. • Their behaviour was enough to drive anybody to crime.7. verb + adverb • She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down. • Mary whispered softly in Johns ear. • I vaguely remember that it was growing dark when we left.Examples-Ill give you a call.-Ill be in touch.-Ill get back to you as soon as I can.-Ill be back in a minute.-Ill see what I can do.
Conjunction-The part of speech (or word class) that serves to connect words, phrases,clauses, or sentences.-A conjunction is a joiner; a word that connects (conjoins) parts of asentenceWe have three basic types of conjunction:1-COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONSCoordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groupsof words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject,verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence.The seven coordinating conjunctions in English are:FOR - is to introduce the reason for the preceding clauseAND - joins two similar ideas togetherNOR - The conjunction nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as oftenas the other conjunctions. Its most common use is as the little brother in thecorrelative pair, neither-norBUT - joins two contrasting ideas togetherOR - joins two alternative ideasYET - is very similar to but as it also joins two contrasting ideas togetherSO - shows that the second idea is the result of the firstAmong the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, areAND, BUT and OR.
2-Subordinating conjunctions-Used to establish the relationship between the dependent clause andthe rest of the sentence.( Subordinate conjunctions connect two unequalparts)
after since when although so that whenever as supposing where because than whereas before that wherever but that though whether if though whichin order that till while lest unless who no matter until why how whateven though
Examples - Any voters who have registered can vote. - - After Josie studied the lab reports, she determined that Glen.3-Correlative conjunctionsSome conjunctions combine with other words to form what are calledcorrelative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining varioussentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. Here is abrief list of common correlative conjunctions.both . . . andnot only . . . but alsonot . . . buteither . . . orneither . . . norwhether . . . oras . . . asExamples• Either John or George must have done this mischief.
• Neither peter nor Andrew has passed the test.By:Nazik GaylanThe teacher supervisor :Mr.MahdiCollege of art /English department