Violence in health sectors


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Violence in health sectors

  1. 1. Organ transplantation
  2. 2. 1. Organ Donation ("Giving and Receiving"): individuals can decide before death whether they wish to donate their organs after they die. As a legal matter, this positive decision to be an organ donor gives the surviving family no say; in practice, however, the surviving kin are typically asked permission
  3. 3. 2. Public Recognition and Community Pressure ("Honoring and Shaming"): Friends don't let their friends waste the gift of life"
  4. 4.   3.Public Compensation ("Paying and Providing"): allowing reimbursement for funerals of the deceased but not payment for living donors who wish to sell one of their organs;
  5. 5.  4.Organ Markets ("Selling and Buying"):allow individuals before death or surviving family members after death to sell their own or their loved one's organs in private contracts
  6. 6.   5.Routine Retrieval ("Taking and Getting"): A society will be a better human community in which giving and receiving is the rule, not taking for the sake of good to come
  7. 7.   "cash for flesh," It is this risk of corruption and dehumanization that we must not fail to recognize, even as we seek to ameliorate suffering and cure disease by every ethical means possible. The specific question before us is this: What is the most ethically responsible and prudent public policy for procuring cadaver organs? Should the current law be changed, modified, or preserved?
  8. 8.  Should someone who has received one organ transplant be given a second transplant? Or should people who have not had a transplant be given priority over those who have already had one?
  9. 9.  2. Should people whose lifestyle choices (smoking, drinking, drug use, obesity, etc.) damaged their organ be given a chance at an organ transplant?
  10. 10.  3. Should suicidal individuals be given an organ transplant? What if they attempted suicide in the past but are not currently contemplating suicide?
  11. 11.  4. Should people who have young children be given an organ transplant over a single person? Over an elderly person? Should age and whether or not a person has children even matter?
  12. 12.  5. Should people who can’t afford expensive anti-rejection drugs be passed over for a transplant? Should people who don’t have insurance and can’t pay for a transplant be allowed to go on the national waiting list?
  13. 13.  6. Should condemned prisoners receive organ transplants? What if they are serving a life sentence without parole?
  14. 14.      Spouse. If no spouse, then… Adult child. If no adult children, then… Parent. If no parents, then… Adult sibling. If no siblings, then… Legal guardian
  15. 15.  “Incidents where staff are abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances related to their work, including commuting to and from work, involving an explicit or implicit challenge to their safety, well-being or health.
  16. 16.   “looking for a new job” and thoughts of “quitting within the next 6 months” the display of anger and hostility, especially if it erupted for no apparent good reason.
  17. 17.     Select a safety team that meets regularly Establish goals. “We are a safe place, and are committed to making it safer.” Design and implement policies and procedures, for instance, “What to do if there’s a hostage situation?” Train everyone management of aggressive behavior
  18. 18.   You are studying a group of women who have been victims of domestic violence. They are being compensated for participating in the study. In the middle of the group discussion, one of the participants says, “I can’t take it anymore. I want to leave.” What are the ethical issues here? How do you respond?  
  19. 19.  You are studying a new program for drugaddicted adults. A member of your research team was one of the founders of the new program but is no longer working there. He offers to lead some of the counseling sessions that are part of the study. What are the ethical issues here? For whom? What should happen
  20. 20.  You are studying non-status refugees and have hired peer research assistants to assist with data collection (eg conduct interviews). Some of the peer research assistants are recruiting close friends and family. What are the ethical issues here? For whom? What should happen?
  21. 21.   You are studying women living with HIV. One of your interviewees is a very prominent woman in her community and she wishes to remain anonymous. Her confidentiality is compromised as a result of someone accidentally emailing interview transcripts to the wrong person. What are the ethical issues here? For whom? What should happen?  
  22. 22.   You are studying formerly adjudicated youth. One of the young people in the study discloses to you that they recently committed a crime. What are the ethical issues here? How do you respond?  
  23. 23. A PHYSICIAN SHALL always maintain the highest standards of professional conduct.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL not permit motives of profit to influence the free and independent exercise of professional judgement on behalf of patients. 
  24. 24. A PHYSICIAN SHALL in all types of medical practice, be dedicated to providing competent medical service in full technical and moral independence, with compassion and respect for human dignity.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL deal honestly with patients and colleagues, and strive to expose those physicians deficient in character or competence, or who engage in fraud or deception. 
  25. 25. a) Self advertising by physicians, unless permitted by the laws of the country and the Code of Ethics of the National Medical Association. b) Paying or receiving any fee or any other consideration solely to bprocure the referral of a patient or for prescribing or referring a patient to any source
  26. 26. A PHYSICIAN SHALL respect the rights of patients, of colleagues, and of other health professionals and shall safeguard patient confidences.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL act only in the patient's interest when providing medical care which might have the effect of weakening the physical and mental condition of the patient. 
  27. 27. A PHYSICIAN SHALL use great caution in divulging discoveries or new techniques or treatment through nonprofessional channels.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL certify only that which he has personally verified 
  28. 28. A PHYSICIAN SHALL always bear in mind the obligation of preserving human life.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL owe his patients complete loyalty and all the resources of his science. Whenever an examination or treatment is beyond the physician's capacity he should summon another physician who has the necessary ability 
  29. 29. A PHYSICIAN SHALL preserve absolute confidentiality on all he knows about his patient neven after the patient has died.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL give emergency care as a humanitarian duty unless he is assured that others are willing and able to give such care. 
  30. 30. A PHYSICIAN SHALL behave towards his colleagues as he would have them behave towards him.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL NOT entice patients from his colleagues.  A PHYSICIAN SHALL observe the principles of the "Declaration of Geneva" approved by the World Medical Association. 
  31. 31.  I SOLEMNLY PLEDGE myself to consecrate my life to the service of humanity;  I WILL GIVE to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due;  I WILL PRACTICE my profession with conscience and dignity;  THE HEALTH OF MY PATIENT will be my first consideration;  I WILL RESPECT the secrets which are confided in me, even after the patient has died;  I WILL MAINTAIN by all the means in my power, the honor and the noble traditions of the medical profession;  MY COLLEAGUES will be my sisters and brothers;  I WILL NOT PERMIT considerations of age, disease or disability, creed, ethnic origin, gender, nationality, political affiliation, race, sexual orientation, or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient;  I WILL MAINTAIN the utmost respect for human life from its beginning even under threat and I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity;  I MAKE THESE PROMISES solemnly, freely and upon my honor