Presentation on Sophy's world : 2000 years' philosophy in 45 slides


Published on

Sophy's World (Sofies Verden) is a Norwegian novel by Jostein Gaarder translated into English by Paulet Miller. It is a wonderful book of philosophy for young adults compressing 2000 years' philosophy in about 500 pages. Through my presentation, I aim to condense the key philosophical concepts of this book in about 45 slides so that all of us can have a quick look at the philosophical reflections which have made us what we are today.

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
  • Really Nice Presentation for a beginner.
    Could you please provide a copy as I intend to read more on the subject ?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • can you share a copy of this?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation on Sophy's world : 2000 years' philosophy in 45 slides

  1. 1. A Presentation on ‘Sophie’s World’ by Nayana RenuKumarSr. Knowledge Manager, Centre for Good Governance
  2. 2. Chapter IndexChapter I--Garden of Chapter XIII--The Postcards Chapter XXV--KantEden Chapter XIV--Two Cultures Chapter XXVI--RomanticismChapter II--The Top Hat Chapters XV--Middle Ages Chapter XXVII--HegelChapter III--The Myths Chapter XVI-- Renaissance Chapter XXVIII--KierkegaardChapter IV--Natural Chapter XVII--The Baroque Chapter XXIX--MarxPhilosophers Chapter XVIII--Descartes Chapter XXX--SUMMARY/Chapter V--Democritus Chapter XIX--Spinoza REVIEW & DARWINChapter VI--Fate Chapter XX--Locke Chapter XXXI--FreudChapter VII--Socrates Chapter XXI--Hume Chapter XXXII--Our Own TimeChapter VIII--Athens Chapter XXII--Berkeley Chapter XXXIII--Garden PartyChapter IX--Plato Chapter XXIII--Bjerkely Chapter XXXIV--CounterpointChapter X--Majors Cabin Chapter XXIV--The Chapter XXXV--The Big BangChapter XI-Aristotle EnlightenmentChapter XII--Hellenism
  3. 3. The Garden of Eaden The Top Hat The Myths
  4. 4. The Garden of Eden Who are you? Where does the world come from?
  5. 5. The Top Hat Dear Sophie,The best way of approachingphilosophy is to ask a few A Greek philosopher whophilosophical questions: lived more than two thousand years ago How was the world created? believed that philosophy Is there any will or meaning behind had its origin in man’s what happens? sense of wonder Is there a life after death? How can we answer these questions? And most important, how ought we to live?
  6. 6. The Myths ... a precarious balance between the forces of good and evil…Philosophy -- the completely new way of thinking that evolved inGreece about 600 years before ChristTill then religions offered answers to peoples questionsReligious explanations were handed down from generation togeneration as myths. Myth is a story about the gods whichsets out to explain why life is as it isAround 700 B.C., Homer and Hesiod writes down much of theGreek mythology. Once Myths existed in written form, it waspossible to discuss and criticize them. Earliest Greekphilosophers criticized Homer’s mythology because the godsresembled mortals too muchFor the first time, it was said that the myths were nothing buthuman notions
  7. 7. Natural PhilosophersTHREE ELIATICS DEMOCRITUSPHILOSOPHERSFROM MILETUS Parmenides: Everything Everything was made that exists had always of was built up ofThales: Source of all existed. Nothing could tiny invisible blocks,things is water change each of which wasAnaximander: Our eternal and Heraclitus : Constantworld is only one of a immutable. change, or flow, was themyriad of worlds that most basic characteristic of Democritus calledevolve and dissolve in nature. Everything flows. these smallest unitsthe boundless atoms Therefore we cannot stepAnaximenes : Source of twice into the same river. Eerything could change Seekers of natural thanall things must be “air” or supernatural“vapor Empedocles: World had explanations for naturalAll believed in the existence to consist of more than one processesof a single basic substance single substance. Nature Decisive break with theas the source of all things could transform without anything actually changing. mythological world picture
  8. 8. Socrates Aristotle The Triumvirate 3 great classical philosophers to influence European civilizationPlato
  9. 9. Socrates (470-399BC)Most enigmatic figure in the entire history of philosophyLife of Socrates mainly known through the writings of Plato hasinspired the Western world for nearly 2,500 yearsNot a sophist, but a philosopher : Sophists and Socrates turnedtheir attention from questions of natural philosophy toproblems related to man and society.He was neither certain nor indifferent: All he knew was that heknew nothing—and it troubled him. "One thing only I know, and that isthat I know nothing" So he became a philosopher—someone who does not give up buttirelessly pursues his quest for truth. He dared tell people how little we humans know.The Art of Discourse : Never a believer of instruction. Like a midwife,Socrates saw his task as helping people to “give birth” to correctinsightBy playing ignorant, Socrates forced people to use their commonsense
  10. 10. SocratesAll true insight comes from within: Real understanding must come from within;only that can lead to true insight. Right insight leads to right action. He whoknows what good is will do good.We all had the same chances because we all had the same common sense: There exists eternal and absolute rules for what is right or wrong. By using our common sense we can all arrive at these norms Ability to distinguish between right and wrong lies in people’s reason, not in society Unmistakable faith in human reasonSocrates managed to free himself from the prevailing views of his time by his ownintelligence. But he had to pay a heavy price for itSocrates was killed because he disturbed the Athenian societys conventionalideas and tried to light the way to true insight.In Socrates, we therefore see how dangerous it could be to appeal to people’sReason.Socrates must have had tremendous courage and sense of pedagogic responsibilityto go ahead regardless of the perils
  11. 11. Plato (428 -347 BC) Search for the eternal and immutable : Plato was concerned with the relationship between what is eternal and immutable, on the one hand, and what “flows,” on the other – middle ground between sophists and socrates Theory of Ideas: Reality is divided into two regions: ● World of senses: About which we can only have approximate or incomplete knowledge by using our five senses. Here, “everything flows” and nothing is permanent. ● World of ideas: About which we can have true knowledge by using our reason. This world of ideas cannot be perceived by the senses, but the ideas (or forms) are eternal and immutable. All natural forms are mere shadows or reflections of eternal forms or ideas – theory of ideasMan is thus a dual creature: our body consists of earth and dust likeeverything else in the sensory world (matter), but we also had animmortal soul (spirit)
  12. 12. PlatoPlutos political philosophy Body Soul Virtue State Head Reason Wisdom Rulers Chest Will Courage Auxiliaries Abdomen Appetite Temperance LaborersCharacterized by rationalism. Favored philosophers rule of state. Ineffect a totalitarian state with no family and political ties, not unlikecaste system. Later opined that a constitutional state is the nextbest optionOn women: Women could govern just as effectively as men forthe simple reason that the rulers govern by virtue of their reason.Women have exactly the same powers of reasoning as men,provided they get the same training and are exempt from child rearingand housekeeping
  13. 13. Aristotle...not only the last of the great Greek philosophers, but also Europe’s first great biologist (384-322 BC)A meticulous organizer who set out to clarify our concepts.Founded the science of Logic.Criticized Platos theory of ideas: Highest degree of reality is that which Highest degree of reality is that which we think with our reason we perceive with our senses Things we see in natural world are purely Things that are in the human soul were reflections of things that existed in the purely reflections of natural objects. So higher reality of the world of ideas - and nature is the real world thereby in the human soulThe distinction between “form” and “substance” plays an important part inAristotle’s explanation of the way we discern things in the world
  14. 14. Natures scale: There is a gradual transition from simple growths to morecomplicated plants, from simple animals to more complicated animals. With man atthe top of this “scale” who lives the whole life of nature.Ethics: Three forms of happiness; Life of pleasure and enjoyment; Life as a free and responsible citizen; Life as thinker and philosopher.All three criteria must be present at the same time for man to find happiness andfulfillment. He rejected all forms of imbalance and advocated the golden meanWomen: Woman is incomplete, an unfinished manPolitics: Three good forms of constitution Form Meaning Must not degenerate into Monarchy Only one head of Tyranny State One ruler captures power Aristocracy Larger group of Oligarchy rulers Government run by a select few Polity Democracy Mob rule
  15. 15. Hellenism... a spark from the fire…Athens loses its dominant role by 325 BCConquests of Alexander the Great political upheavals newepoch in history of mankindHellenism refers to both the period of time and the Greek-dominated culture that prevailed in the Hellenistic kingdoms ofMacedonia, Syria, and EgyptBorders between countries and cultures became erased. Inplace of “national religion, different cultures merged into afusion of creedsNew religious formations – fusion of many gods, many beliefs -doubt and uncertainty about philosophy of life - religiousdoubts, cultural dissolution, and pessimism - "The world hadgrown old"
  16. 16. Hellenism Philosophic insight – not only for its own sake but also to free mankind from pessimism and the fear of death Eliminates boundaries between religion and philosophy Hellenistic philosophy Not startlingly original Continued to work with problems raised by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Common current: Desire to discover how mankind should best live and die – ethics - central philosophical project Emphasis on finding out what true happiness was and how it could be achieved.Four major philosophical trends
  17. 17. The Cynics & StoicsAntisthenes – Athens - Zeno -around 300 BCaround 400 B.C All natural processes followTrue happiness is not found the unbreakable laws ofin external advantages or nature. Man must thereforeon being dependent onrandom and fleeting things learn to accept his destiny.Therefore happiness is Nothing happenswithin everyone’s reach accidentally;Having once been attained, Everything happens throughit can never be lost necessity; So it is of little use to complain when fate comes knocking at the door
  18. 18. Epicureans & NeoplatonicsEpicurus around 300 BC Plato - distinction between world of ideas and sensoryThe highest good is pleasure, the worldgreatest evil is pain Plotinus (270-205 BC) - world asPleasurable results of an action to a span between two poles withbe weighed against possible side divine light (God) at one end andeffects absolute darkness at other end. All that exists is God. Soul isDeath does not concern us; as long illuminated by the light from theas we exist, death is not here. And God, while matter is thewhen it does come, we no longer exist darkness that has no realThe gods are not to be feared. Death nothing to worry about. Divine mystery in everything that exists. No barrier betweenGood is easy to attain. The fearful is god and maneasy to endure.
  19. 19. Two Cultures, two philosophiesIndo-European: All nations and cultures Semitic : Cultures using Semiticusing Indo-European languages (Most of languages. Root of all threeEurope, India, Iran) Clear similarities in Western religions - Judaism,mode of thoughts Christianity, IslamBelief in many gods Belief in one godSought insight into world’s history - Sight Relied on God’s words - Hearing Distance between god and his creation –Oneness with God No pictures & sculptures -Purpose of life is to be released from the Purpose of life is to be redeemed from sincycle of rebirth and blameReligious life characterized by self- Religious life characterized by prayer,communion and meditation sermons, and study of scripturesCyclic view of history: History goes in Linear view of history: In the beginning,circles like seasons - no beginning and no God created the world – history begun.end - Civilizations rise and fall in an eternal On Judgment day history will end, wheninterplay between birth and death God judges the living and the dead
  20. 20. The Middle Ages...A 1000 year journey Rise of Christianity: 145 AD 300 AD 313 AD 380 ADPaul’s missionary journeys Christian Church banned Accepted religion Official religion Church puts the lid on Greek philosophy 529 AD- Closed Plato’s Academy Monasteries wrested monopoly of education, reflection, and meditation By 600 AD, Islam wins over Middle East, Spain, and North African part of Roman empire; adopts Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, and Bagdad Arabs inherited much of old Greek science; gains prominence in sciences Dark Ages, one interminable thousand-year-long night settled over Europe between antiquity and the Renaissance. Also seen as a period of germination and growth when schools and universities developed. Unifying force of Christian culture
  21. 21. Medieval philosophersTook it almost for granted that Christianity was true. Onlyquestions: Whether to simply believe Christian revelations or approach them with help of reason No dramatic break with Greek philosophy; slow transition enabled by Fathers of the Church like St. Augustine St. Augustine: Located Platonic ideas in God and thus preserved the Platonic view of eternal ideas Biblical idea : God created the world out of the void. Greeks : World had always existed. St. Augustine : Before God created the world, the ‘ideas’ were in the Divine mind Idea of City of God: Human history is a struggle between ‘Kingdom of God’ and ‘Kingdom of World for mastery over human beings
  22. 22. St. Thomas AquinasChristianized Aristotle just as St. Augustine Christianized PlatoAdopted Aristotle’s philosophy in all areas where it did not collide withChurch’s theology. (Logic, theory of knowledge, and natural philosophy)No need for any conflict between philosophers like Aristotle and ChristiandoctrineGod’s existence can be proved on the basis of Aristotle’s philosophyTruths could be reached both through Christian faith and innate reason. Two paths to faith: Aristotle’s philosophy presumed the existence of a formal cause (God) which sets all natural processes going. Christianity knows this formal cause is god. God has thus revealed himself to mankind both through the Bible and through reason. Two paths to moral life: Bible teaches us how God wants us to live. But God has also given us a conscience to distinguish between right and wrong.Aristotle goes only part of the way because he didn’t know of the Christianrevelation. But going only part of the way is not the same as goingthe wrong way
  23. 23. Renaissance (Rebirth): Rich cultural development - began in late 14th century – N. Italy - spread rapidly northward in 200 years Rebirth of art and culture of antiquity After Dark Ages where life was seen through divine light, everything once again revolved around man - Renaissance humanismBasis Changes on the cultural and economic front – From subsistence economy to a monetary economy. Developed cities – rise of middle class with better basic conditions of life. Rewarded people’s diligence, imagination, and ingenuity New demands on individual Three discoveries: - compass (easy navigation – great voyages), firearms, (military superiority) and printing press (dissemination of ideas – breaks free of Church monopoly) - essential preconditions Renaissance middle class - break away from feudal lords and church. Religion acquires a freer relationship to reasoning and science New scientific methods and a new religious fervor. Rediscovery of Greek culture through closer contact with the Arabs in Spain and Byzantine culture in East
  24. 24. New view of mankind Greater individualism Nothing to be ashamed of Life in here and• Resurgence of • Not mere beings, but now humanism unique individuals • Renewed interest in• New belief in • Ideal of Renaissance human anatomy • Man did not exist man and his man, a man of purely for God’s sake worth • After thousand universal genius years of prudery, it • He felt at home in the• Man was now embracing all aspects once again became world considered of life, art, and usual for works of infinitely great science • Life is not solely a and valuable art to depict the preparation for afterlife Emphasis on nude - whole new approach • individual and his • Man was bold to physical world personal relationship enough to be to God • Freedom to develop – himself again limitless possibilities - aim was now to exceed all boundaries Unrivalled development in all spheres of life. Art and architecture, literature, music, philosophy, and science flourished as never before Pantheism: God was also present in his creation
  25. 25. Science...empiricismNew method of scientific investigation - observation, experiment,experienceMeasure what can be measured, and make measurable what cannot bemeasured : GalileoEmphasize on practical value of knowledgeStarting to intervene in nature and beginning to control itNicolas Copernicus: Earth moved around the Sun and not vice versa(1543) - Heliocentric world pictureKepler - Planets move in elliptical orbits. Earth is a planet like anyother (1600s) . Same physical laws apply everywhere in the universeLaw of Inertia: A body remains in the state which it is in, at rest or inmotion, as long as no external force compels it to change its state.Isaac Newton: Final description of the solar system and the planetaryorbits – Law of Universal Gravitation
  26. 26. Baroque...such stuff as dreams are made of (17th century) Irregularity and richness was typical of Baroque art than the plainer and more harmonious Renaissance art. Baroque favorite sayings : ‘Carpe diem’—‘seize the day, ‘memento mori - ‘Remember that you must die.’ Age of conflict, class differences, and irreconcilable contrasts - between Renaissance’s unremitting optimism and life of religious seclusion and self- denial; between rich and the poor; between magnificence and mendicancy; between Protestants and Catholics; wars between countries Birth of modern theater Philosophy of Baroque: Characterized by powerful struggles between diametrically opposed modes of thought Contours between Idealism and Materialism never so clearly present at the same time as in the Baroque. Great philosophers of this period – Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibiniz
  27. 27. DescartesFather of modern philosophy: Assembled contemporary thoughtinto one coherent philosophical systemSocrates-Plato-St. Augustine-Descartes: Rationalists - reason asthe only path to knowledge These questions -Main concerns: substance of philosophicalWhat we can know, in other words, certain knowledge argument for next 150 yearsWhat was the relationship between body and mind.Discourse on Philosophical Method: Philosophy should go fromthe simple to the complex to construct a new insights. Ensure byconstant enumeration and control that nothing was left out. Then, aphilosophical conclusion would be within reachFavorite line: Cogito, ergo sum: I think therefore I amDualist: Man is a dual creature-with a mind and body (matter –extension of mind)
  28. 28. Baruch SpinozaFirst to apply historic-critical interpretation of Bible: Criticalreading of Bible bearing in mind the period it was written inSpinoza interpreted this as meaning both love of God and love ofhumanityMonist: Does not have dualistic view of reality as Descartes. Everything that exists can be reduced to one single reality Substance which may be God or nature. God speaking through the laws of nature is the inner cause of everything that happensEverything in the material world happens through necessity. Spinozahad a determinist view of the material, or natural, world
  29. 29. John Locke David HumeFrom Rationalists to Empiricists George Berkeley
  30. 30. John Locke (1632-1704)Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Attempt to clarify two questions:Where we get our ideas from: Mind at birth is an empty slate. Only source ofgenuine knowledge is sensory experience. Knowledge that cannot be traced back to asensation is therefore false knowledge and must consequently be rejected. There’snothing in the intellect that wasn’t previously in the sensesCan we rely on our sense: Senses objectively reproduce primary qualities(extension, weight, motion and number) world as it is. Senses only reproduce theeffect of the outer reality of secondary qualities (color, smell, taste, sound) on oursenses – subjective – world as it appears to us . Everyone agrees on primaryqualities, secondary qualities vary from person to person - relativism"There is nothing in the mind except what was first in the senses" (Aristotle)Inconsistent in empiricism: It is inherent in human reason to be able to know thatGod existsForerunner of many liberal ideas: He spoke out for intellectual liberty and toleranceand equality of the sexes, division of powers
  31. 31. David Hume (1711-1776)A Treatise of Human Nature: We sometimes form complex ideas for which thereis no corresponding object in the physical world. Example – Batman or Superman.Each element was once sensed, and entered the theater of the mind in the formof a real ‘impression.’ Mind puts things together and constructs false ‘ideasHume sought to tidy up thoughts and notions: critical analysis of ideas Investigate every single idea to see whether it was compounded in a way that does not correspond to reality Opposed all thoughts and ideas that could not be traced back to corresponding sense perceptions "Dismiss all this meaningless nonsense which long has dominated metaphysical thought and brought it into disrepute"With Hume’s philosophy, the final link between faith and knowledge wasbrokenHume also rebelled against rationalist thought in the area of ethics that the abilityto distinguish between right and wrong is inherent in human reason. “It is notreason that determines what we say and do”
  32. 32. Berkeley (1685-1753)Felt that current philosophies and science were a threat tothe Christian way of lifeMaterial reality doesnot exist. We percieve only ideas. wenever have direct experience of things themselves.Everything we see and feel is ‘an effect of God’s power.Weexist only in the mind of godOur own perception of time and space can also be merelyfigments of the mind Denied existence of a material worldbeyond the human mind. Our sense perceptions proceedfrom God.
  33. 33. Voltaire Montesquieu The Enlightenment...from the way needles are made to the way cannons are founded Rousseau
  34. 34. Seven key wordsOpposition to authority : Of French philosophers inspired by the Englishphilosophy and liberal political establishmentRationalism: Unshakable faith in human reason- Age of Reason.Enlightenment movement: Greatest monument- huge encyclopedia. All thegreat philosophers and men of letters contributed to it. ‘Everything is to be foundhere, from the way needles are made to the way cannons are foundedCultural optimism: Once reason and knowledge became widespread, humanitywould make great progress. It could only be a question of time before irrationalismand ignorance would give way to an ‘enlightened’ humanityReturn to nature: Emphasized intrinsic value of childhoodNatural religion: Religion also had to be brought into harmony with ‘natural’reason. Deism - God only reveals himself to mankind through nature and naturallaws, never in any ‘supernatural’ wayHuman rights: Not content themselves with theoretical views on man’s place insociety - fought actively for ‘natural rights’ (lights that everybody was entitled tosimply by being born) of the citizen. Campaign against censorship, for freedom ofexpression in religion, morals, and politics, for abolition of slavery and for a morehumane treatment of criminals
  35. 35. Immanuel Kant Showed the way out of the philosophical impasse in the struggle between rationalism and empiricism Rationalists: Basis for all human knowledge Empiricists: Knowledge of the world lay in the mind proceeded from senses Kant: Both views are partly right and partly wrong All our knowledge of the world comes from our sensations. But in our reason there are decisive factors that determine how we perceive the world around us We have no freedom if we lived only as creatures of the senses. But if we obey universal reason we are free and independent There are clear limits to what we can know. Mind’s ‘glasses’ set these limits It is not only mind which conforms to things. Things also conform to the mind.Greatest contribution to philosophy : Dividing line between things inthemselves and things as they appear to us
  36. 36. Romanticism...Europes last great cultural epoch ‘Feeling,” imagination,” experience,’ ‘yearning All of nature - human soul and physical reality - is the expression of one world spirit - Schelling Features: Yearning for something distant and unattainable like bygone eras; for nature and natures mysteries Artists can provide something philosophers can’t express Urban phenomenon, youthRomanticism helped strengthen the feeling of national identity Two forms of Romanticism Universal Romanticism: Romantics who were preoccupied with nature, world soul, and artistic genius National Romanticism : Interested in the history, language and culture of ‘the people’
  37. 37. Hegel ... the reasonable is that which is viable…First philosopher who tried to salvage philosophy when the Romantics haddissolved everything into spiritHegel’s philosophy – Historicism - A method to understand the progressof historyAny human society and all human activities (science, art, or philosophy), aredefined by their history, so their essence can be sought only throughunderstanding thatThere are no eternal truths. Only fixed point philosophy can hold onto ishistory itself. The current of past traditions and present material conditionsdetermine what you think. No thought is true forever. (Aristotle - woman isincomplete man)Dialectic process -Three stages of knowledge: Thesis: A thought is proposed on the basis of other, previously proposed thoughts Antithesis: As soon as one thought is proposed, it will be contradicted by another Synthesis: Tension between these two opposite ways of thinking is resolved by the proposal of a third thought which accommodates the best of both points of view"Philosophy is the history of philosophy"
  38. 38. Kierkegaard …Europe is on the road to bankruptcy… Critique of Romantic idealism and Hegelian historicism - "Both have obscured the individual’s responsibility for his own life" Sharp eye for the significance of the individual: We are more than ‘children of our time.’ Every single one of us is a unique individual who only lives onceThree concepts Three stages in the way of life:Existentialism: Exist for the moment.Instead of searching for The Truth, we Aesthetic stage: Lives for the moment andshould focus on truths that are grasps every opportunity of enjoyment. Slaveimportant to our individual life, our to ones senses desires and moods.existence. Ethical stage: Seriousness and consistency ofSubjective truth: Objective truths aretotally irrelevant to personal life. Really moral choices. Living by the moral laws (Kant)important truths are personal and Religious stage: Jumping into the abyss’ ofsubjective. Only these truths are ‘truefor me Faith’s in preference to aesthetic pleasure and reason’s call of duty. Although it can be ‘terribleFaith: Fundamental questions in life can to jump into the open arms of the living God,only be approached through faith; notthrough knowledge or reason it is the only path to redemption
  39. 39. Marx"Until now, ‘philosophers have only interpreted the world in variousways; the point is to change itHistorical materialist Material changes are the ones that affect history It is the economic forces in society that create change and drive history forward Material, economic, and social relations are the basis of society This base determines the answers to questions of what was morally right (Peasant society - marriage) Society’s ruling class sets the norms for what is right or wrong History of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles. Between those who own the means of production and those who do not. In other words, history is principally a matter of who is to own the means of production
  40. 40. MarxCriticism of the capitalist method of production Worker alienation: Way you think is closely connected to the job you do Under capitalist system, worker labors for someone else Worker becomes alien to his work - but at the same time also alien to himself Revolution: Capitalist system is marching toward its own destruction; paving way to communism. Since ‘upper classes’ do not voluntarily relinquish power, change can only come through revolution Dictatorship of the proletariat : For a period, we get a new ‘class society’ in which the proletarians suppress the bourgeoisie by force Classless society: After the transition period, the dictatorship of the proletariat is replaced by a ‘classless society,’ - means of production are owned ‘by all’. From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.’
  41. 41. Darwin FreudBiologist and natural scientist Developed psychoanalysisMost openly challenged the Biblical Constant tension between man and hisview of man’s place in Creation surroundings - between his drives andthrough The Origin of Species. needs and the demands of societyDarwin advanced two theories: Man is not really such a rational All existing vegetable and animal creature forms were descended from earlier, more primitive forms through Irrational impulses often determine biological evolution. what we think, what we dream, and Evolution was the result of natural what we do selection Archaeology of soul: As we store theIn the struggle for life, those that memory of all our experiences deepwere best adapted to their inside us, psychoanalyst can dig deepsurroundings would survive and into the patient’s mind and bring toperpetuate the race light the experiences that have caused the patient’s psychological disorder
  42. 42. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 to 1980)Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Leading light among existentialistsReacted against Hegel’s ‘historicism.’ Especially popular in the forties after theProposed life itself as a warcounterweight to the anemic interestin history and Christian ‘slave Existentialism is humanismmorality.’ Man is the only living creature that isBoth Christianity and traditional conscious of its own existencephilosophy had turned away from thereal world and pointed toward Man’s existence takes priority over‘heaven’ or ‘the world of ideas.’ whatever he might otherwise be. ‘Existence takes priority over essence.’ “Sought to effect a ‘revaluation of allvalues,’ - life force of the strongest Man has no such eternal ‘nature’ to fallshould not be hampered by the back on. We must decide for ourselvesweak. how to liveRenaissance humanists had drawn attention, almost triumphantly, to man’s freedomand independenceSartre : Man’s freedom is a curse. ‘Man is condemned to be free. Because having oncebeen hurled into the world, he is responsible for everything he does"
  43. 43. Twentieth CenturyRenewal of philosophical currents : Neo-Thomism, logicalempiricism, Neo-MarxismMaterialism: Search for the indivisible ‘elemental particle’ ofwhich all matter is composedEcophilosophy : Western civilization as a whole is on afundamentally wrong track, racing toward a head-on collisionwith the limits of what our planet can tolerate. There issomething basically wrong with western thought. Our wholemode of scientific thought is facing a ‘paradigm shift.’ Rise of‘alternative movements’ advocating holism and a new lifestyle
  44. 44. In the Renaissance, the world began to explode. Beginningwith the great voyages of discovery, Europeans started totravel all over the world.Today it’s the opposite, an explosion in reverse.World is becoming drawn together into one greatcommunications network.The question is whether history is coming to an end— or whether on the contrary we are on the thresholdof a completely new ageWe are no longer simply citizens of a city—or of aparticular country.We live in a planetary civilization