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A REVIEW OF COTTON SEED AS BIODIESEL

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A REVIEW OF COTTON SEED AS BIODIESEL

  1. 1. A REVIEW ON COTTON SEED OIL AS BIO DIESEL<br /> BY<br /> PURUSHOTHAM NAYAKA <br /> 8TH SEM , MECHANICAL BRANCH <br /> BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY <br /> BANGALORE.<br /> UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF <br /> HONNE GOWDA<br /> SR.GRADE LECTURER<br /> DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING<br /> BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY<br /> BANGALORE<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br /><ul><li> Introduction
  3. 3. Definition of bio diesel
  4. 4. Transesterification process
  5. 5. Bio diesel process
  6. 6. Results
  7. 7. Advantages and disadvantages
  8. 8. Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Sources of energy<br />85% from fossil fuels like coal , crude oil, natural gas.<br />7% from renewable fuels like solar , hydro power<br /> wind energy, bio mass and bio fuels.<br />8% from nuclear reactor <br />
  9. 9. Import of crude oil in India<br />
  10. 10. Bio diesel<br />Biodiesel is Now Defined Exclusively as the ‘Monoalkyl’ Esters of the Long Chain Fatty Acids Derived from the Oils/Fats of Vegetable and Animal Origins that Fulfill almost all the Requirements of Petroleum-Derived Diesels.<br />
  11. 11. Cotton plant<br />Botanical names:<br />Gossypiumarboreum,<br /> Family: Malvaceae, <br />the marsh mallow family <br />
  12. 12. Methods of bio diesel production<br />Distillation<br />Pyrolysis<br />Emulsification<br />transesterification<br />
  13. 13. Transesterification<br />Transesterification chemical reaction in which alcohol reacts with triglycerides of fatty acids in presence of catalyst to form glycerol and esters .<br />FA<br />+<br />+<br />3<br />3<br />G<br />A<br />G<br />A<br />FA<br />FA<br />FA<br /> Glycerin<br /> Biodiesel<br /> Triglyceride<br />
  14. 14. TransesterificationIts actually a multi-step process, the overall reaction looks like this:<br />CH2OOR KOH CH2OH<br />|  |<br />CHOOR + 3CH3OH  3CH3OOR + CHOH<br />| |<br />CH2OOR CH2OH<br />Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin<br />
  15. 15. Bio diesel process<br />Mix KOH and Methanol<br />Oil is extracted from cotton seed<br />Measure the required amount of KOH<br />Oil heated to 50 0 C in processor<br />Pour the solution in processor<br />Allow the oil to separate by cooling<br />Remove the glycerin<br />layer<br />
  16. 16. Experimental set up<br />1) Thermometer <br /> 2) Mason Jar <br /> 3) Heating Coil <br /> 4) Thermostat<br /> 5) Magnetic Stirrer <br /> 6) Temperature Control Knob<br /> 7) Magnetic Rotor<br />
  17. 17. Structure and properties of CSOME<br />
  18. 18. Optimization characteristics of cotton seed Biodiesel.<br />
  19. 19. Variation of KOH and METHANOL as a function of biodiesel<br />
  20. 20. Variation of TIME and TEMPRATURE as a function of bio diesel<br />B<br />I<br />O<br />D<br />I<br />E<br />S<br />E<br />L<br />
  21. 21. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION(KG/KWH)<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />Brake specific fuel consumption was found to have minimum for neat diesel as compared to biodiesel blends at all loads. <br />
  22. 22. BRAKE THERMAL EFFIENCY<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />There is no large difference in the brake thermal efficiency of bio diesel blends and neat diesel. <br />
  23. 23. CARBON MONOXIDE(% V)<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />CORBON MONOXIDE of neat diesel is more than bio diesel blends. <br />
  24. 24. HYDRO CARBON EMISSION(PP/V)<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />HYDROCARBON emission of diesel is more than bio diesel blends.<br />
  25. 25. NO X EMISSION(PPM)<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />The maximum NO emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel. <br />
  26. 26. SMOKE OPACITY(%)<br />BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE<br />Smoke opacity emitted by biodiesel blends is lower than neat diesel at low load and lower compression ratios. <br />
  27. 27. Conclusion <br /><ul><li>Bio-diesel blending in Diesel improves most of the fuel properties. </li></ul>Alternative fuel for diesel engines<br />Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer.<br />Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.<br /><ul><li>Mass emissions of carbon monoxide and particulates found lower with Biodiesel blends, but NOx increased.</li></li></ul><li>Advantages of bio fuel<br />Reducing dependency on foreign petroleum<br />Reduces green house gas emission<br />Helps domestic and rural economy<br />Reduces air pollution<br />Provides fuel at cheaper rate<br />Creates regular employment<br />
  28. 28. Cultivated area of oil seed plants<br />
  29. 29. Questions <br />
  30. 30. References<br />M. S. Graboski, R. L. McCormick, “Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines”. PergVol. 2, 1998, 125-164<br />M. A. Hanna,” Biodiesel production: a review”. Bio resource Techno, 2004, 1-15. <br />] A. S. Kumar, D. Maheshwar, K.Kumar, “Transification process of bio-diesel”. Proceeding of REA, Delhi, 11-13 Dec 2008, 623-631<br />B. baiju, M. Das, M. K. babu, “Engine performance and emission studies using rubber seed biodiesel and Karanja biodiesel as a fuel in a compression ignition engine”. Proceeding of REA 2008, Delhi, and 11-13 Dec 2008, 658-673. <br />E. G. Shay, “Diesel fuel from vegetable oil: status and opportunities”, Biomass Bio energy, vol 4, no.1993,227-242.<br />[11] A. Bijalwan, “Bio-diesel revolution”. Science Reporter, January 2006,14-17.<br />I.V. Subba, General president Indian science congress association, “Presidential address.” 93rd Indian science congress annual report, 2005-2006.<br />B.K.Banwal , “Prospects of Biofuel Production from Vegetable oils in India”, Renewable and sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 9, 2005, 363-378.<br /> A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Hon’ble president of India, “Dynamics of rural development”. 93rd Indian science congress annual report, 2005-2006. <br />C. M. Narayana, “Vegetable oil as engine fuels- prospect and retrospect.” Proceedings on recent trends in Automotive <br />
  31. 31. Thank you<br />

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