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Introduction to (x)html


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Introduction to (x)html

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Introduction to (x)html

  1. 1. Prepared By: Er. Nawaraj Bhandari DESIGNING AND DEVELOPING A WEBSITE Topic 2: Introduction to (X)HTML
  2. 2. HTML • Hyper Text Markup language. • Markup refers to the sequence of characters that describes the document’s structure and how the file should look when it is printed or displayed. • HTML does not define what a page looks like! For that we have CSS. • Extension is html or htm. • Write code in any text editor (e.g. Notepad, Notepad++, Dream weaver, etc) and save as filename.html/htm • Initially, html deals with only text but now multimedia too. • Html is not a case sensitive.
  3. 3. HTML Tags • The markup indicators are often called "tags." • Beings with an open angle bracket (<) and ends with close angle bracket (>). • e.g. <html>, <head>, <br/>, <table>, etc. • Two types: - 1. Singular Tag or Empty Elements • Tag that comes alone, no closing tag. • It doesn’t contain any content. • e.g <br />, <hr />, <img />, etc.
  4. 4. HTML Tags 2. Paired Tag • Tag that needs opening and closing tag. • e.g. <h1>Welcome to HTML</h1> • <h1> is opening tag. </h1> is closing tag. “Welcome to HTML” is content. • Some paired tags are : • <body> , <table>, <tr>, <b> , etc. • Last In First Out (LIFO) concept • i.e. last tag should be closed first.
  5. 5. My First HTML
  6. 6. My First HTML - Output
  7. 7. HTML Attributes • Additional information written immediately after the html tag separated by space is known as attributes (properties) of tag. • Attributes are written in following way : name = "value". • e.g:-
  8. 8. HTML Section • Head Section • Title • Style • Script • Meta • Body Section • The body of HTML document contains all content that is displayed in a browser: text, images, lists, tables, and more.
  9. 9. Text Styles • Bold <b>...............</b> / <strong>..............</strong> • Italic <i>................</i> / <em>..................</em> • Underlined <u>..................</u> • Superscript <sup> ………</sup> • Subscript <sub> …………</sub>
  10. 10. Text Styles Example
  11. 11. Source Code
  12. 12. My First HTML
  13. 13. Text Elements  There are two categories of text element: 1. Block elements  For marking up large blocks of content such as headings and paragraphs  E.g. <h1>, <h2>, <p>, <div>, etc. 2. Inline elements  For marking up individual words or phrases  E.g. <strong>, <em>, <span>, etc.
  14. 14. Block Element - Paragraph (<p>… </p>)  When a browser displays a paragraph, it adds a new line before the paragraph.  Paragraphs should not be nested inside other paragraphs
  15. 15. Paragraph Break - Output
  16. 16. Block Elements - Heading  There are 6 different levels of headings. <h1> to <h6>.  The highest level header format is <h1> and the lowest is <h6> i.e:- font size decreases.  All the styles appeared in bold face.  Headings shouldn’t be nested inside other headings.
  17. 17. Block Elements - Heading
  18. 18. Inline Elements  Inline elements are used to markup small portions of text.  Inline elements must always be nested inside a block level element.
  19. 19. ‘Physical Style’ tags  HTML has <font> tag to style the text.  We can specify color, typeface, size of the text.  This tag has been ‘deprecated’:  Will still work in many browsers  No longer in use  We shouldn’t use them in our pages!
  20. 20. Inserting Spaces  Browsers will always truncate spaces in HTML pages.  If you write 10 spaces in your text, the browser will remove 9 of them, before displaying the page.  To add spaces to your text, you can use the &nbsp; character entity.
  21. 21. Character Entities Result Description Entity Name < less than &lt; > greater than &gt; & ampersand &amp; ¢ cent &cent; £ pound &pound; € euro &euro; © copyright &copy; ® registered trademark &reg; ™ trademark &trade;
  22. 22. List 1. Unordered List  Bulleting  <ul> … </ul>  each list starts with <li> and ends with </li>  Attribute of <ul> tag is : type. Its values can be circle, square, disc.
  23. 23. List 2. Ordered List  Numbering  <ol>…</ol>  each list starts with <li> and ends with </li>  Attribute of <ol> tag are a. type. It possible values are ("1", "A", "i", "I", "a") b. start
  24. 24. List 2. Ordered List
  25. 25. Nesting the List
  26. 26. Task #01 Last Date to Submit : Send email: sun2006bhandari@g with your name and batch
  27. 27. List 3. Definition List  The <dl> tags define the start and end of the list.  The <dt> element specifies the definition term.  The <dd> element specifies the actual definition.
  28. 28. Document Structure <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" ""> <html xmlns="" lang="en" xml:lang="en"> <head> <title>Add a title here</title> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> </head> <body> <p>Add some content here.</p> </body> </html> Four parts in document structure : 1. document type declaration 2. the root element 3. the head section and 4. the body section.
  29. 29. Document Type Declaration  The document type declaration specifies the version of HTML that the page uses.  This example specifies that the page is written using a version of HTML called XHTML 1.0 Strict. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" ""> <html xmlns="" lang="en" xml:lang="en"> <head> <title>Add a title here</title> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> ...
  30. 30. Document Type Declaration  This is the same document re- written as HTML 5  Elements, tags and attributes work in exactly the same way.  Different document type declaration <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html lang="en"> <head> <title>Add a title here</title> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> </head> <body> <p>Add some content here.</p> </body> </html>
  31. 31. Document Type Declaration  There many different versions of (X)HTML including:  HTML 4.01  XHTML 1.0 Strict  HTML 5 (not standard yet)  XHTML is eXtensible HyperText Markup Language  It is HTML re-written to conform to the rules of XML.  It has stricter syntax than HTML.
  32. 32. Which Version of (X)HTML to Use?  This module is based around using XHTML 1.0 Strict.  We will also explore features of the new HTML5 specification
  33. 33. The Root Element  The root element <html> encloses all other elements  XMLNS attribute  This specifies the XML namespace for the page.  lang and xml:lang  These attributes specify the language used to write the document. <html xmlns="" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  34. 34. Valid Documents  There are many specific rules for HTML  These rules are specified in a Document Type Definition (DTD)  The XHTML Strict 1.0 DTD can be viewed at:  If an HTML document follows all the rules of the DTD, it is described as being valid.  We can check if our web pages are valid using the W3Cs validation service
  35. 35. Why Validate?  Validating web pages checks we are using web standards.  Accessibility  Support standards compliant browsers  Support a range of devices
  36. 36. Any Questions??? Topic 2 : Introduction to (X)HTML
  37. 37. References  XHTML 1.0 Strict Cheat Sheet  Available at: strict.html  asp