Three main types of authentication available today are:• Something you know, like a password, PIN, or code.• Something you have, like a swipe card, smart card, token, or key.• Something you are, which is biometrics.
What is a biometric? Biometrics are automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on a physiological or behavioural characteristic. Most definitive, real-time tool available today. Can be combined with other tools to form more secure, easier to use verification solutions. Recognizes individuals definitively.
CharacteristicsThe common Physical characteristics are: Fingerprint Face Retina Iris Vein pattern Hand and finger geometry
Biometrics Process new biometric sample is requested. No Signal Processing, Quality Biometric Transmission Feature Extraction, Sufficient?Data Collection Representation Yes Generate Template Database Template Match Yes Decision Confidence? No
Face recognition process:Input face Extraction of Extraction of face features image face image Positive Database Negative
Iris Identification Steps:Input of face Recognition of Detection of image Put iris in focus iris pattern eye regions Accept Database Reject
Vein Recognition System: Input of palm The output Generate veins picture picture structure Match Database Not match
Signature Verification Process the angle at which the pen is held, the number of times the pen is lifted, the time it takes to write the entire signature, Biometric trait the pressure exerted by the person while signing, the variations in the speed with which different parts of the signature are written.
AadhaarOne-time standardized Aadhaar enrollment establishes uniqueness of resident via„biometric de-duplication‟ • Only one Aadhaar number per eligible individualOnline Authentication is provided by UIDAI • Demographic Data (Name, Address, DOB, Gender) • Biometric Data (Fingerprint, Iris, Face)Aadhaar :subject to online authentication is proof of ID Aadhaar enrollment / Update = Aadhaar No. Issued, “Verification” of KYC KYC stored in Auth. Server (Authentication) 13
Applications Area of BiometricEnterprise and E-Government servicesNational SecurityAirport, Bank, OfficesRecently implemented in ATM, Voting MachineInternet BankingBiometric Time Attendance System
Disadvantages of BiometricsCostly.Facial imaging can also hinder accurate identifications.Missing body part problem.False acceptances and rejections.The scanning of eye is fearful.The nervousness that people feel about the scannersidentification.
Conclusion Not perfect yet. Successful applications. Decreasing costs and increasing convenience. Increasing both privacy and identity security. The field of biometrics is evolving. Benefit from this technology .