# Physics investigatory project on RECTIFIER

Mar. 27, 2015
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### Physics investigatory project on RECTIFIER

• 1. By R.NAVEEN XII „A‟ KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA MANKHURD PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
• 2. AIM To construct a Full Wave Bridge rectifier and show that the (AC) alternating current is rectified into a direct current (DC).
• 3. INDEX 1. CERTIFICATE 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3. INTRODUCTION 4. AIM 5. MATERIALS REQUIRED 6. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 7. PROCEDURE 8. WORKING 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
• 4. KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA MANKHURD, MUMBAI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS CERTIFICATE This is to certify that R.NAVEEN, a student of class XII-A has successfully completed the project titled “RECTIFIER” under the guidance of Mrs. PROMODINI PAL (Subject Teacher) During the academic year 2014-15 in partial fulfillment of physics practical examination conducted by AISSCE, Mumbai. Signature of external examiner Signature of physics teacher Signature of principal
• 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many people have best owned upon me their blessings and the heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have been concerned with project. Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete this project with success. Then I would like to thank my principal Mrs.A.Padmavathy and physics teacher Mrs.PROMODINI PAL, whose valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this project and make it full proof success his suggestions and his instructions has served as the major contributor towards the completion of the project. Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who have helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has been helpful in various phases of the completion of the project.
• 6. INTRODUCTION A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification. Rectification produces a type of DC that encompasses active voltages and currents, which are then adjusted into a type of constant voltage DC, although this varies depending on the current's end-use. The current is allowed to flow uninterrupted in one direction, and no current is allowed to flow in the opposite direction. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and selenium oxide rectifiers, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase. Most low power rectifiers for domestic equipment are single-phase, but three-phase rectification is very important for industrial applications and for the transmission of energy as DC.
• 7. MATERIALS REQUIRED 1. Connecting Wires 2. A plug 3. Single Lead Wire- 2m 4. Three Nuts & Bolts 2-3cm length 5. Circuit Board 6. A Transformer (12V) 7. A Resistor 8. P-N Junction Diodes (4nos) 9. A LED 10.Insulation Tape, Blades, Soldering Wax, Soldering Lead, Soldering Iron & Sand Paper
• 9. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE Take the transformer and attach it to one end of the circuit board. Attach the plug with the wire of desired length and connect it to the transformer AC In. now, take four diodes and connect the 4 diodes into a loop. Connect the anode of diode D1 to the anode of D2. Connect the cathode of D2 to anode of D3.connect the cathode of D3 to anode of D4 and connect the anode of D4 to cathode of D1. The output of transformers should be connected to A and C. Now, take two capacitor and connect its –ve terminal to –ve and +ve terminal to +ve. And connect both the capacitors to B and D. Connect a resistor and a LED to the capacitor. Attach wire from the capacitors A B D C
• 10. and connect it to the output device. WORKING When the AC is supplied to the transformer, it step down the 240V main supply to 12V. It has a capability of delivering 700mA. The 12 volts AC appearing across the secondary is the RMS value. The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in “series pairs” with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in “series pairs” with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below. The Positive Half-cycle During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct
• 11. in series, but diodes D1 and D2 switch “OFF” as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through the load is the same direction as before. The Negative Half-cycle In subsequent Half cycles of the AC Current the above process are repeated. In both the half cycles it is clear that current flows through the resistor in only one direction. Even though the voltage across load is unidirectional it will still contains a few AC components. This is filtered and made smooth using a capacitor, which filters 99% of the AC current. A resistor is then used to adjust the output voltage. Capacitor also nearly filters all AC components from supply and resistance is adjusted for the required output. As this is a simple circuit, two capacitors and one resistor are being used. The output Direct Current and voltage light up the LED and other source connected with it.
• 12. OBSERVATION & CONCLUSION On connecting a voltmeter to the output of bridge circuit 12V current is coming.
• 13. PRECAUTIONS 1. Keep safe yourself from high voltage. 2. Solder the wire safely. 3. While soldering don’t touch the soldering tip. 4. Solder under adult supervision.
• 14. USES Most electronic device cannot withstand very high voltage or alternating current due to its intense high power. The use of batteries in all devices is not practical as their replacement and durability is a huge problem as the devise has to be dismantled each time for such replacement. So these rectifiers are used in most of the electronic devices like TV‟s, Radios, Chargers and Lightings etc. The common uses of rectifiers are to supply polarized voltage for welding, detection of amplitude modulated radio signals. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. HELP FROM TEACHERS 2. HELP FROM INTERNET 3. NCERT TEXTBOOK WEBSITES www.google.com www.scribd.com www.wikipedia.com
• 15. THANK YOU