What is mean by herbal plants?
herbal plants are plants that grow herbs. the herbs
mostly help in seasoning food and in medicine .
In our world there are different types of herbal plants are
some of the plants are
Ashwagandha is an herb used in Ayurvedic medicine for a number
of health conditions. Known by the botanical name withania
somnifera, it is a popular medicinal plant in South East Asia and
Many people use this for general vitality, although the effects are
not similar to ginseng. Rather than providing restless energy as
does ginseng, ashwagandha often causes relaxation.
Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha,
Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha,
Kanaje Hindi, Ayamodakam in Malayalam and
Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant in Solanaceae or
It grows as a stout shrub that reaches a height of 170cm.
Like the tomato which belongs to the same family,
ashwagandha bears yellow flowers and red fruit, though
its fruit is berry-like in size and shape.
Ashwagandha grows prolifically in India, Pakistan, and 4
Withania somnifera is widely considered as the Indian
In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana (rejuvenation) and
expected to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate
the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity.
Ashwagandha is used to treat a number of disorders that
affect human health including central nervous system (CNS)
disorders, particularly in epilepsy, stress and
neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and
Alzheimer's disorders, tardive dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia,
and even in the management of drug addiction.
The most useful usage is to reduce stress and perhaps aid in
All parts of the plant are used in herbal medicine.
In Ayurveda, the fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, prior to
drying, in order to leach out undesirable constituents.
The berries are used as a substitute for rennet, to coagulate milk in
Ashwagandha in Sanskrit means "horse's smell", probably originating
from the odor of its root which resembles that of sweaty horse.
The species name somnifera means "sleep-bearing" in Latin,
indicating it was considered a sedative, but it has been also used for
sexual vitality and as an adaptogen.
Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is
used in ayurvedic medicine in a way similar to that ginseng is used
in traditional Chinese medicine.
All chemicals listed pertain to the root unless otherwise specified, as
the root is the part used.
Anaferine (alkaloid), anahygrine (alkaloid), beta-sisterol, chlorogenic
acid (in leaf only), cysteine (in fruit), cuscohygrine (alkaloid), iron,
pseudotropine (alkaloid), scopoletin, somniferinine (alkaloid),
somniferiene (alkaloid), tropanol (alkaloid), withaferin A (steroidal
lactone), withanine (alkaloid), withananine (alkaloid) and withanolides
The main constituents of ashwagandha are alkaloids and
steroidal lactones. Among the various alkaloids, withanine is
the main constituent.
The other alkaloids are somniferine, somnine, somniferinine,
withananine, pseudo-withanine, tropine, pseudo-tropine, 3-agloyloxytropane, choline, cuscohygrine, isopelletierine,
anaferine and anahydrine.
Two acyl steryl glucoside viz. sitoindoside VII and
sitoindoside VIII have been isolated from root. The leaves
contain steroidal lactones, which are commonly called
withanolides. The withanolides have C28 steroidal nucleus
with C9 side chain, having six membered lactone ring.
Cranberries are a group of
evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing
vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus
of the genus Vaccinium. In some
Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus
in its own right. They can be
found in acidic bogs throughout
the cooler regions of the northern
TYPES OF CRANBERRY
Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccus
Vaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris (Common Cranberry).
The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on
finely hairy stems. The fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a
refreshing sharp acidic flavour.
Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus (Small Cranberry)
the leaves being more triangular, and the flower stems hairless. Some
botanists include it within V. oxycoccos.
Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Large
cranberry). It differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger,
10–20 mm long, and in its slightly apple-like taste.
Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccoides
Vaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus (Southern
Mountain Cranberry) native to southeastern North America at high
altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, and also in eastern
Vaccinium oxycoccos flowers
• Cranberries are related to bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all
in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium. These differ in having stouter,
woodier stems forming taller shrubs, and in the bell-shaped flowers, the
petals not being reflexed.
Some plants of the completely unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes
inaccurately called "highbush cranberries" (Viburnum trilobum).
Cranberry juice is the juice of the cranberry. As
pure juice , it is quite tart; as with lime juice it is
not intended as a drink on its own. One solution
is to combine it with sweeter , such as apple or
grape. Another solution is to dilute it with water
and add some sweetener, such as corn syrup or
sugar , or artificial sweetener (sucralose or
aspartame). The term, used on its own, almost
always refers to a sweetened version.
Cranberry juice contains substances that may affect individual health.
These substances include:
Cranberry juice contains phytochemicals, which may help prevent
cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Cranberry juice is high in oxalate, and has been suggested to increase
the risk for developing kidney stones, although more recent studies have
indicated it may lower the risk.
URINARY TRACT INFECTION
Cranberry juice may help prevent and relieve the symptoms of
urinary tract infections by primary and secondary means. The
primary means works on the bacteria directly by altering the
molecular structure of the fimbriae on the pathogenic strains
of the bacteria that cause the infections.
The properties of the proanthocyanidins in cranberries
prevents the bacteria from adhering to the surface of the
bladder and urinary tract.
The secondary means works indirectly on the bacteria by
changing the intravesical pH (the pH of the bladder's
contents) making it more acidic.
NAME : R.NAVEEN
CLASS : X ‘
SUBJECT : ENGLISH