MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 47INTRODUCTIONOriginally, the law relating to the sale of goods or movables was contained in the chapter VIIof the Indian Contract Act, 1872.The Indian Contract Act, 1872 embodied the simple and elementary rules relating to the sale ofgoods. The developments of modern business relations found the Indian Contract Actinadequate to deal with the new regulations or give effect to the new principles.Subsequently the provisions relating to the sale of goods contained in the Indian Contract Act,1872 was repealed and re-enacted by the Sale of Goods Act, 1930.The Sale of Goods Act, 1930 was laid down to define and amend the law relating to the sale ofgoods or movables. The Act came into force on the 1st day of July, 1930. It extends to thewhole of India except Jammu and Kashmir.This Act lays down special provisions governing the contract of sale of goods. The general lawof contract is also applicable to contracts for the sale of goods unless they are inconsistent withthe express provisions of the Sale of Goods Act.DEFINITIONS Buyer [Sec 2 (1)]:- Buyer means a person who buys or agrees to buy goods. Seller [Sec 2 (13)]:- Seller means a person who sells or agrees to sell goods. Goods [Sec 2 (7)]:- Goods means every kind of movable property other than actionable claims & money and includes : Stock and shares Growing crops Grass & Things attached to or forming part of land,Which are agreed to be severed before sale or under the contract of sale.[Actionable claims are claims which can be enforced only by an action or suit e.g. Debt.] Types of GoodsExisting Future Specific Ascertained Unascertained Goods Goods Goods Goods GoodsExisting Goods Goods which are in existence at the time of contract of sale i.e. those owned & possessed by the seller.Future goods Means goods to be manufactured or produced or acquired by seller after making the contract of sale. In case of future goods, there is an agreement to sell.Specific Goods Means goods identified & agreed upon at the time of a contract of sale has been made.“Unascertained” Means goods defined only by description and not identified and agreed If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
48 CA NAVEEN BAIDor “Generic” goods upon.Ascertained goods Means goods identified in accordance with the agreement after the contract of sale has been made Goods in Deliverable State:- Goods are said to be in a deliverable state when they are in such a condition that the buyer is bound to take delivery of them under the contract. E.g. – A contracts to sell timber and makes bundles thereof, Goods will be in a deliverable state, after A has put the goods in such a condition. Delivery [Sec. 2 (2)]: - Delivery means voluntary transfer of possession by one person to another.Delivery may be of three kinds, which may be enumerated as follows: a. Actual Delivery: It is actual when the goods are physically delivered to the buyer. b. Constructive delivery: When it is affected without any change in the custody or actual procession of thing. E.g. Delivery by attornment (acknowledgement).E.g. Where a warehouseman holding the goods of A, agrees to hold them on behalf of B, at A’s request. c. Symbolic Delivery: When there is a delivery of thing in token of a transfer of something else E.g. Delivery of goods in transit by handling over the documents to title (ownership) to goods, B/L, Dock warrant, Delivery of key of a Warehouse."Document of title to goods" includes bill of lading, dock-warrant, warehouse keeperscertificate, wharfingers certificate, railway receipt, multimodal transport document, warrantor order for the delivery of goods and any other document.It is used in the ordinary course of business as proof of the possession or control of goods orauthorising or purporting to authorise, either by endorsement or by delivery, the possessor ofthe document to transfer or receive goods thereby represented;Bill of lading: is a receipt of goods shipped on board of a ship, signed by the person whocontracts to carry them and states the terms on which the goods are delivered to and receivedby the ship. Mercantile Agent [Sec 2 (9)]: - It means an agent having in the customary course of business as such agent an authority either To sell goods or To consign goods for the purpose of sale or To buy goods or To raise money on the security of the goods. Property [Sec 2 (ii)] It means General property (Right of ownership in goods) and not merely special property. example: A owns goods and pledges them to B. A has a general property in the goods, whereas B has a special property (or interest) in them. Insolvent [Sec 2 (8)] A person is said to be insolvent when he ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due whether he has committed an act of insolvency or not. Perishing Goods Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 49 Goods such as vegetables, fruits, meat products, flowers etc are perishable goods, prone to early spoilage. Contract of sale [ Sec.4 (1)]A contract of sale is a contract whereby the seller transfers (sale) or agrees to transfer(agreement to sell) property (ownership) in goods to the buyer for a price. Essentials: At least two parties Subject matter of contract must be Goods Price in money only (not in kind) should be paid or promised. Transfer of ownership in goods A contract of sale must be absolute or conditional. All other essential elements of a valid contractWhat is meant by term-Price?Ans: Price means the money consideration for a sale of goods. If goods are given without anyconsideration, the transaction amounts to a gift but not a sale of goods. Similarly, exchange ofgoods for others without any consideration amounts to a barter or exchange. Thus money isthe only consideration for sale of goods.SALE AND AN AGREEMENT TO SELLThe term Sale is defined in the Section 4(3) of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930 as – “where undera contract of sale the property in the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer, thecontract is called a sale.”Example: A sells his Yamaha motorcycle to B for Rs.10,000. It is sale since the ownership ofthe motorcycle has been transferred from A to B.The term “Agreement to sell” is defined in Section 4(3) of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930, as –where under a contract of sale the transfer of the property in the goods is to take place at afuture time or subject to some condition thereafter to be fulfilled, the contract is called anagreement to sell.Example : X agrees with Y on 10th of April that he will sell his house to Y on 10th of Mayfor a sum of Rs.3 lakhs. It is an agreement to sell .Since X agrees to transfer the ownership ofhis house to Y in future.Distinction between Sale and Agreement to Sell The following points will bring out the distinction between sale and an agreement to sell: (a) In a sale, the property in the goods sold passes to the buyer at the time of contract so that he becomes the owner of the goods. In an agreement to sell, the ownership does not pass to the buyer at the time of the contract, but it passes only when it becomes sale on the expiry of certain time or the fulfillment of some conditions subject to which the property in the goods is to be transferred. (b) An agreement to sell is an executory contract; a sale is an executed contract. (c) An agreement to sell is a contract pure and simple, but a sale is contract plus conveyance. (d) If there is an agreement to sell and the goods are destroyed by accident, the loss falls on the seller. In a sale, the loss falls on the buyer, even though the goods are with the If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
50 CA NAVEEN BAID seller. (e) If there is an agreement to sell and the seller commits a breach, the buyer has only a personal remedy against the seller, namely, a claim for damages. But if there has been a sale, and the seller commits a breach by refusing to_ deliver the goods, the buyer has not only a personal remedy against him but also the other remedies which an owner has in respect of goods themselves such as a suit for conversion or detinue, etc. SALE Vs. HIRE PURCHASE S. NO BASIS SALE HIRE PURCHASE 1. Transfer of Immediate On the payment of last instalment property 2. Position Buyer Owner Hirer Bailee till he pays last instalment 3. Right of Buyer cannot terminate Hirer may terminate the contract by termination the contract and is returning the goods to its owner bound to pay the price. without any liability to pay remaining instalment. 4. Buyer’s Risk of loss Seller Seller has no risk, right to take back Insolvency goods 5. Passing of title Buyer can pass good Hirer cannot pass any title even to a by buyer title to bonafide bonafide purchaser purchaser 6. Tax Tax is levied at the Tax is not leviable unless it time of contract. eventually ripens into saleSale v. BailmentBAILMENTA bailment is the delivery of goods for some specific purpose under a contract on the conditionthat the same goods to be returned to the bailer or are to be disposed off according to directionsof the bailer. SALE Vs. BAILMENTS.N BASIS SALE BAILMENTO1. Transfer of Yes No ownership Only transfer of possession2. Return of Return of goods in contract Bailee must return the goods to the goods of sale not possible. bailor on accomplishment of the purpose for which the bailment was made.3. Consideration Consideration price money Consideration may be gratuitous or only non gratuitous. SALE Vs. CONTRACT FOR WORK AND LABOUR Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 51S. NO SALE CONTRACT FOR WORK & LABOUR1.Transfer Yes Noof Only doing some work of labour.ownership E.g. Gold supplied to goldsmith for preparing an ornament An artist ask to paint a picture.6. Modes of forming contract of sale –There may be:- Immediate delivery of goods or Immediate payment of price but delivery at the some future date or Immediate delivery of goods and immediate payment of price or Delivery or payment or both are to be made in instalments or Delivery or payment or both are to be made at some future date.Destruction of subject matter of contract ( Sec. 7 & 8 ) :- (a) Goods not existing at the time of contract. Goods destroyed without knowledge of the seller, contract is void-ab-initio. (b) If there was agreement to sell & Goods perishing after contract is made. Without any fault of buyer or seller, agreement becomes void.Ascertainment of price ( Sec. 9 and 10)Price is the monetary consideration for sale of goods [Sec 2 (10)] Price may be: Fixed by the contract or Agreed to be fixed in a manner provided by the contract. E.g. by a valuer or Determined by the course of dealings between the parties. Where price cannot be fixed in any of above ways, buyer is bound to pay a reasonable price to the seller.Stipulation as to time (Section 11) As regard time for payment of price, unless a different intention appears from the contract, stipulation as regard this is not deemed to be essence of the contract of sale. But delivery of goods must be made without delay. Stipulations as to time of delivery are usually the essence of contract.CONDITIONS & WARRANTIESThese are the stipulations in a contract of sale with reference to subject-matter of sale. Thesestipulations forms a part of the contract of sale and breach of it provides a remedy to the buyeragainst the seller.Condition – A condition is a stipulation essential to the main purpose of contract, the breachof which gives the right to repudiate the contract & to claim damages.Warranty – A warranty is a stipulation collateral to the main purpose of contract the breachof which gives rise to a claim for damages but not to a right to reject the goods and treat thecontract as repudiated. If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
52 CA NAVEEN BAID DISTINCTION BETWEEN CONDITION AND WARRANTY CONDITION WARRANTYEssential to the main purpose of contract. Collateral to the main purpose of contract.Aggrieved party can repudiate the Aggrieved party can claim only damages in casecontract or claim damages or both in case of breach of warranty.of breach of condition.A breach of condition may be treated as A breach of warranty cannot be treated as breachbreach of warranty. of condition.When condition sinks to the level of warranty In some cases a condition sinks or descends. to the level of a warranty. The first two cases depend upon the will of the buyer. But the third is compulsory and acts as estoppel against him. A condition will become a warranty where the buyer waives the condition, or A condition will sink to the level of a warranty where the buyer treats the breach of condition as a breach of warranty; or Where the contract is indivisible and the buyer has accepted the goods or part thereof. the breach of condition can only be treated as breach of warranty: The buyer can only claim damages and cannot reject the goods or treat the contract as repudiated. Sometimes the seller may be excused by law from fulfilling any condition or warranty and the buyer will not then have a remedy in damages.EXPRESS & IMPLIED CONDITIONS & WARRANTIESExpress Conditions – are those which are agreed between the parties at the time of contract and are expressly provided in the contract.Implied Conditions – are those which are presumed by law to be present in the contract. An implied condition may be negated or waived by an express agreement. Implied ConditionsCondition as to title In case of sale, seller has right to sell the goods & In case of agreement to sell, he will have right to sell the goods at the time when property is to pass. If the sellers title turnout to be defective, buyer must return the goods to the true owner and recover the price from the seller. In Rowland v. Divali (1923) 2 K.B. SOD, A had bought a second hand motor car fromB and paid for it. After he had used it for six months, he was deprived of it because theseller had no title to it. It was held that A could recover the full price from B even thoughhe had used the car for six months, as the consideration had totally failed.Sale by In this case, there is implied condition that goods correspond with thedescription description. Where A buys goods which he has not seen, it must be sale by description, e.g., where he buys a new Fiat car from B and the car is not new, he can reject the car.Sale by sample Bulk shall correspond with the sample in quality. The buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 53 bulk with the sample and The goods should be free from any defect rendering them unmerchantable, which would not be apparent on reasonable exanimation of the sample. "Worsted coating" quality equal to sample was sold to tailors, the cloth was found to have a defect in the fixture rendering the same unfit for stitching into coats. The seller was held liable even though the same defect existed in the sample, which was examined.Condition by Bulk must correspond with sample & descriptionsample as well In Nichol v. Godis (1854) 158 E.R. 426, there was a sale of "foreign refinedas description rape-oil having warranty only equal to sample". The oil tendered was the same as the sample, but it was not "foreign refined rape-oil" having a mixture.of it and other oil. It was held that the seller was liable, and the buyer could refuse to accept.Condition as to No implied condition as to quality or fitness of the goods sold for anyquality or particular purpose.fitness Condition as to reasonable fitness of goods for a particular purpose is implied if the buyer had made known to the seller the purpose of his purchase and relied upon the skill & judgment of the seller to select the best goods and seller has ordinarily dealing in those goods. In Priest v. Last (1903) 2 K.B. 148, a hot water bottle was bought by the plaintiff, a draper, who could not be expected to have special skill knowledge with regard to hot water bottles, from a chemist, who sold such articles. While being used by the plaintiffs wife, the bottle bursted and injured her. Held, the seller was responsible for damages. In Grant v. Australian Knitting Mills (1936) 70 MLJ 513, G purchased woollen underpants from M a retailer whose business was to sell gCJods of that description. After wearing the underpants, G developed some skin diseases. Held, the goods were not fit for their only use and G was entitled to avoid the contract and claim damages.Condition as to The provisions, (i.e., eatables) supplied must not only answer thewholesomeness description, but they must also be merchantable and wholesome or sound. F bought milk from A and the milk contained typhoid. germs. Fs wife became infected and died. A was liable for damages. Again, C bought a bun at Ms bakery, and broke one of his teeth by biting on a stone present in the bun. M was held liable. wholesomeness - the quality of being beneficial and generally good for you If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
54 CA NAVEEN BAIDIMPLIED WARRANTIESWarranty as to undisturbed Section 14(b) provides that there is an implied warranty thatpossession the buyer shall have and enjoy quiet possession of goods. If the buyers possession is disturbed by anyone having superior title than that of the seller, the buyer is entitled to hold the seller liable for breach of warranty.warranty as to non-existence Section 14(c) states that in a contract for sale, there is anof encumbrances implied warranty that the goods shall be so free from any charge or encumbrances in favour of any third party not declared or Known to the buyer before or at the time when the contract is made. But. If the buyer is aware of any encumbrance on the goods at the time of entering into the contract, he will not be entitled to any compensation from the seller for discharging the encumbrance.Disclosure of dangerous If the goods are inherently dangerous or likely to benature of goods dangerous and the buyer is ignorant of the danger, the seller must warn the buyer of the probable danger.Warranty as to quality or Section 16(3) provides that an implied warranty or conditionsfitness by usage of trade as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade.Doctrine of Caveat Emptor The term caveat emptor is a Latin word which means "let the buyer beware".This principle states that it is for the buyer to satisfy himself that the goods which he ispurchasing are of the quality which he requires. If he buys goods for a particularpurpose, he must satisfy himself that they are fit for that purpose. Section 6 providesthat "subject to the provisions of this Act and of any other law for the time being inforce, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for anyparticular purpose of goods supplied under a contract of sale". In simple words, it is notthe sellers duty to give to the buyer the goods which are fit for a suitable purpose of thebuyer. If he makes a wrong selection, he cannot blame the seller if the goods turn out tobe defective or do not serve his purpose. The principle was applied in the case of Ward v. Hobbs. (1878) 4 A.C. 13,where certain pigs were sold by auction and no warranty was given by seller in respectof any fault or error of description. The buyer paid the price for healthy pigs. But theywere ill and all but one died of typhoid fever. They also infected some of the buyersown pigs. It was held that there was no implied condition or warranty that the pigs wereof good health. It was the buyers duty to satisfy himself regarding the health of thepigs. Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 55EXCEPTIONSWhere buyer makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods arerequired, so as to show that he relies on seller’s skill & judgement.Sale by description Goods shall correspond with the description. Goods shall be of merchantable quality, if purchased from dealer. the rule shall not apply. But if buyer has examined the goods & the defects were such which ought to have been revealed by ordinary examination, the rule shall apply.Sale by sample If bulk does not correspond with sample.Goods by sample as Goods shall correspond with both description as well as sample.well as descriptionWhen quality or for a particular purpose & seller deviates from that.fitness assumed byusage of tradeFraud or 1. Where the seller makes a false representation and the buyermisrepresentation by relies on it.the seller. 2. When the seller actively conceals a defect in the goods which is not visible on a reasonable examination of the same.Passing of Property or Transfer of Ownership (Sections 18-20) The sole purpose of a sale is the transfer of ownership of goods from the seller to thebuyer. It is important to know the precise moment of time at which the property in the goodspasses from the seller to the buyer for the following reasons: a) The general rule is that risk follows the ownership, whether the delivery has been made or not. If the goods are lost or damaged by accident or otherwise, then, subject to certain exceptions, the loss falls on the owner of the goods at the time they are lost or damaged. b) When there is a danger of the goods being damaged by the action of third parties it is generally the owner who can take action. c) The rights of third parties may depend upon the passing of the property if the buyer resells the goods to a third-party, the third-party will only obtain a good title if the property in the goods has passed to the buyer before or at the time of the resale. Similarly, if the seller, in breach of his contract with the buyer, attempts to sell the goods to a third party in the goods, has not passed to the buyer, e.g., where there is only an agreement to sell. d) In case of insolvency of either the seller or the buyer, it is necessary to know whether the goods can be taken over by the official assignee or the official receiver. It will depend upon whether the property in the goods was with the party adjudged insolvent. Thus in this context, ownership and possession are two distinct concepts and these two canat times remain separately with two different persons. If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
56 CA NAVEEN BAID PASSING OF PROPERTY (PASSING OF OWNERSHIP) Rules:(i) No transfer of property to the buyer, unless & until goods are ascertained.(ii) Where there is a contract of sale of specific or ascertained goods, property passes to the buyer at the time when parties intend to pass it.(iii) Where there is an unconditional contract for the sale of specific goods in a deliverable state, property in goods passes to the buyer when the contract is made. (Sec. 20). The property shall not pass when the goods are made in deliverable state but shall pass only when the buyer has notice of it. (Sec. 21)(iv) Where the goods are in deliverable state, but the seller is bound to weigh, measure, test or to do same act or thing for the purpose of ascertaining price, the property does not pass until such act or thing is done. When the seller has done its part the property passes even if the buyer has to do something for his own satisfaction. (Sec. 22)(v) Unascertained goodsProperty passes when There is ascertainment of goods & There unconditional appropriation to the contract. Unascertained goods are goods defined by description only, for example, 100 quintals of wheat, and not goods identified and agreed upon when the contract is made.Appropriation of goods It involves selection of goods with the intention of using them in performance of contract and with the mutual consent of seller & the buyer.(vi) Goods sent on approval or ‘sale’ or ‘pattern’Property passes – When buyer signifies his approval or acceptances to the seller. When he does any act adopting the transaction & If he does not signifies his approval or acceptance to the seller but retained the goods beyond a reasonable time. (Sec. 24)(vii) Sale for cash only or return Property pass only when the cash is paid for.(viii) Conditional appropriation When the seller reserves the right of disposal until certain conditions are fulfilled, the property therein will not pass to the buyer till the condition imposed, if any, by the seller has been fulfilled.PASSING OF RISK [Sec. 26] “Risk follows ownership”. The general rule is “Risk passes with property”.Exceptions – If there is delay of delivery due to fault of seller or buyer, the goods shall at the risk of the party in default, as regards loss which might not have arises but for the default. The duties and liabilities of the seller and buyer as bailee of goods for the other party remain unaffected even when the risk has passed generally. Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 57 “Risk follows ownership” But the parties may agree that risk will pass at the time different from the time whenownership passed. For e.g. the seller may agree to be responsible for the goods even after theownership is passed to the buyer or vice versa. In Consolidated Coffee Ltd. v. Coffee Board, (19803 see 358), one of the terms adoptedby coffee board for auction of coffee was the property in the coffee, knocked down to abidder would not pass until the payment of price and in the meantime the goods wouldremain with the seller but at the risk of the buyer, In such cases, risk and property passes on atdifferent stages. In Multanmal Champalal v. Shah & Co., AIR (1970) Mysore 106, goods were dispatchedby the seller from Bombay to Bellary through a public carrier. According to the terms of thecontract, the goods were to remain the property of the seller till the price was paid though therisk was to pass to the buyer when they were delivered to public carrier for dispatch. Whenthe goods were subsequently lost before the payment of the price (and the consequent to thepassing of the property to the buyer), the Court held that the loss was to be borne by thebuyer. It was further held in the same case that the buyer was at fault in delaying deliveryunreasonably and therefore on that ground also he was liable for the loss, because such losswould not have arisen but for such delay.Transfer of Title by Person not the Owner (Section 27-30) The general rule is that only the owner of goods can sell the goods. Conversely, the saleof an article by a person who is not or who has not the authority of the owner, gives no title tothe buyer. The rule is expressed by the maxim; "Nemo dot quod non habet" i.e. no one canpass a better title than what he himself has. As applied to the sale of goods, the rule meansthat a seller of goods cannot give a better title to the buyer than he himself possess. Thus,even bona fide buyer who buys stolen goods from a thief or from a transferee from such athief can get no valid title to them, since the thief has no title, nor could he give one to anytransferee.Example: 1. A, the hirer of goods under a hire purchase agreement, sells them to B, then B though, a bonafide purchaser, does not acquire the property in the goods. At most he can acquire such an interest as the hirer had. 2. A finds a ring of B and sells it to a third person who purchases it for value and in good faith. The true owner, i.e. B can recover from that person, for A having no title to the ring could pass none the better.Exception to the General Rule The Act while recognizing the general rule that no one can give a better title than what hehimself has, laid down important exceptions to it. Under the exceptions the buyer gets a bettertitle of the goods than the seller himself. These exceptions are given below: (a) Sale by a mercantile agent: A buyer will get a good title if he buys in good faith from a mercantile agent who is in possession either of the goods or documents of title of goods with the consent of the owner, and who sells the goods in the ordinary course of his business. If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
58 CA NAVEEN BAID (b) Sale by a co-owner: A buyer who buys in good faith from one of the several joint owners who is in sale possession of the goods with the permission of his co- owners will get good title to the goods. (c) Sale by a person in possession under a voidable contract: A buyer buys in good faith from a person in possession of goods under a contract which is voidable, but has not been rescinded at the time of the sale. (d) Sale by seller in possession after sale: Where a seller, after having sold the goods, continues in possession of goods, or documents of title to the goods. and again sells them by himself or through his mercantile agent to a person who buys in good faith and without notice of the previous sale, such a buyer gets a good title to the goods. (e) Sale by buyer obtaining possession before property in goods has vested: If a person has brought or agreed to buy goods obtains, with the sellers consent, possession of the goods or of the documents of title to them, any sale by him or by his mercantile agent to a buyer who takes in good faith without notice of any lien or other claim of the original seller against the goods, will give a good title to the buyer. In any of the above cases, if the transfer is by way of pledge or pawn only, it will be valid as a pledge or pawn. (f) Estoppels: If the true owner stands by and allows an innocent buyer to pay over money to a third-party, who professes to have the right to sell an article, the true owner will be estopped from denying the third-partys right to sell. (g) Sale by an unpaid seller: Where an unpaid seller has exercised his right of lien or stoppage in transit and is in possession of the goods, he may resell them and the second buyer will get absolute right to the goods. (h) Sale by person under other laws: The finder of lost goods can also sell under certain circumstances. The Official Assignee or Official Receiver, Liquidator, Officers of Court selling under a decree, Executors, and Administrators, all these persons are not owners, but they can convey better title than they have. 2. RULES REGARDING DELIVERY OF GOODS (i) Buyer to The seller is not bound to deliver the goods until the buyer has applied apply for for delivery, unless otherwise agreed delivery (ii) Place of If there is no contract to the contrary, goods must be delivered at Delivery – the place where they were at the time of sale. In case of agreement to sell, goods agreed to be sold are required to be delivered at the spot where they were at the time when agreement was entered into. If goods were not in existence when agreement to sell was entered into, then delivery will be made at the place where they would be manufactured or produced.(iii) Time of If not fixed by the parties, the seller must send them within reasonable Delivery time. Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 59(iv) Goods with In this case, there will be no delivery unless and until such third third party person acknowledges to the buyer that he hold goods on his behalf. In case, there is a transfer of document of title to goods, it will be treated as symbolic delivery. Even if the goods are in custody of a third person, no acknowledgement is required.(v) Time for Demand or tender of delivery should be made at a reasonable hour tender of otherwise such demand is ineffectual. What is reasonable hour is a Delivery question of fact.(vi) Expenses Expenses related to putting the goods into a deliverable state must be for Delivery borne by the seller, unless there is a contact to the contrary.(vii) Delivery of In case of delivery of lessor quantity of goods, the buyer may wrong either accept the same and pay for it or reject it. quantity In case of excess delivery, the buyer may accept or reject the delivery, if he accepts the whole of goods, he shall pay for them at the contract rate. In case goods mixed with goods of a different description and delivery in made, the buyer may accept the relevant goods and reject the rest or reject the whole. Note: Mixing of goods with inferior goods does not amount to a mixing of goods of different description.(viii) Part Part Delivery would have the same effect for the purpose of passing Delivery of property in such goods as delivery of the whole. But delivery of part of goods will not be treated as delivery of the whole.(ix) Installment Unless otherwise agreed, the buyer is not bound to accept delivery in deliveries installments. The parties to the contract thereon may determine the rights and liabilities in case of delivery by installments and payments.(x) Delivery of Subject to the terms of contract, the delivery of the goods to thecarrier carrier for transmission to the buyer is prima facie deemed to be delivery to the buyer.(xi) Goods Where goods are delivered at a distant place, the liability fordeteriorate during deterioration necessarily incidental to the course of transit will fall ontransit the buyer, though the seller agrees to deliver at his own risk.(xii) Buyer’s If goods are not previously examined by the buyer, the seller is bound,right to examine on request, to afford the buyer a reasonable opportunity of examiningthe good the goods.Acceptance of Delivery of Goods Acceptance of the goods by the buyer takes place when the buyer: (a) Intimates to the seller that he has accepted the goods; or (b) Retains the goods, after the lapse of a reasonable time without intimating to the seller that he has rejected them; or (c) Does any act on the goods which is inconsistent with the ownership of the seller, e.g., pledges or resells. If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
60 CA NAVEEN BAID If the seller sends the buyer a larger or smaller quantity of goods than ordered, the buyer may: (a) Reject the whole; or (b) Accept the whole; or (c) Accept the quantity ordered and reject the rest.If the seller delivers, with the goods ordered goods of a wrong description, the buyer mayaccept the goods ordered and reject the rest, or reject the whole. Where the buyer rightly rejects the goods, he is not bound to return the rejected goods tothe seller. It is sufficient if he intimates to seller that he refuses to accept them. In that case, theseller has to remove them.UNPAID SELLERWho is an unpaid seller? (Section 45) The seller of goods is deemed to be unpaid seller: (a) When the whole of the price has not been paid or tendered; or (b) When a conditional payment was made by a bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument, and the instrument has been dishonoured. Example The seller draws bills for the price of the goods on the buyer, who accepts them, and the seller negotiates them. Before the bills arrive at maturity the buyer fails. The seller is in position of an unpaid seller Rights of unpaid seller Against the Against the goods buyer Right of Right of Right of Suit for Suit for stoppage in lien Resale price damages for transit non-acceptance (i) Right of Lien (Section 47) Goods are in possession of seller Lien until the payment or tender of the price of such goods. Cases where right of lien can be exercised: (a) Goods sold without any stipulation of credit or (b) Goods sold on credit but term of credit has expired or (c) Buyer becomes insolvent Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 61A seller’s lien is described as an additional security given to a person who has a right to bepaid, but he has a right to be paid besides and independently of his lien. One of the objects ofS.47 which confers the seller’s lien is ‘to protect a vendor from incurring an expense inmanufacturing or acquiring goods for which payment remains justly in doubt ’. The seller’slien is a particular lien arising in the precise circumstances specified by the Act and not ageneral lien for all his debts due from the buyer and he cannot rely on the equitable principleof the vendor’s lien. Cases under which seller loses his right of lien Where he delivers the goods to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer without reserving the right of disposal of goods. Where the buyer or his agent lawfully obtains possession of the goods. Where seller the waived the right of lien. By Estoppel i.e., where the seller so conducts himself that he leads third parties to believe that the lien does not exist.Goods were sold and sent by the sellers at the request of the buyer to shipping agents of thebuyer, and were put on board a ship by those agents. Subsequently, they were re-landed andsent back to the sellers for the purpose of re-packing. While they were still in the possession ofthe sellers for that purpose, the buyer became insolvent. Thereupon the sellers refused todeliver them to the buyer’s trustee in bankruptcy except upon payment of the price. Held, thatthe sellers had lost their lien by delivering the goods to the shipping agents, and their refusal todeliver the goods to the trustee was wrongful. Valpy Vs. Gibson 1847 (ii) Right of stoppage in transit – This right can be exercised only if all the following conditions are fulfilled: Seller must be unpaid. Seller must have parted with the possession of the goods. Goods are in transit. Buyer has become insolvent.Section 52. How stoppage to transit is effected The unpaid seller may exercise his right of stoppage in transit either by taking actual possession of the goods, or by giving notice of his claim to the carrier or other bailee in whose possession the goods are. Such notice may be given either to the person in actual possession of the goods or to his principal. In the latter case the notice, to be effectual, shall be given at such time and in such circumstances that the principal, by the exercise of reasonable diligence, may communicate it to his servant or agent in time to prevent a deliver to the buyer. 2. When notice of stoppage in transit is given by the seller to the carrier or other bailee in possession of the goods, he shall redeliver the goods to, or according to the directions of, the seller. The expenses of such re-delivery shall be borne by the seller. Examples The section may be illustrated by the following examples: 1. A railway company is in possession of goods as carriers when the sellers give notice of stoppage in transit. A sum of money is owing by the buyers to the railway company. The railway company is not entitled to set up in priority to the sellers’ right If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
62 CA NAVEEN BAID of stoppage in transit a general lien exercisable by the company against the buyers as owners of the goods. 2. An unpaid seller stops goods sent by sea at a port short of their destination. He is liable for the fright, not only to the part where the goods were actually landed, but also to the port of their ultimate destination. Booth & Co. vs. Cargo Fleet Iron Co. Ltd. 1916 (iii) Right of re-sale – The right to re-sell the goods can be exercised by the unpaid seller under the following conditions: Goods are of perishable nature, no need to inform to the buyer of intention of resale. In case of other goods, when notice of intention of resale is given by unpaid seller to the buyer & buyer does not within reasonable time pay or tender the price. (iv)Right to withhold delivery - If the property in the goods has passed, the unpaid seller has right as described above. If, however, the property has not passed, the unpaid seller has a right of withholding delivery similar to and co-extensive with his rights of lien and stoppage in transit.Rights of an unpaid seller against the buyer (Sections 55 and 56)An unpaid seller may sue the buyer for the price of the goods in case of breach of contractwhere the property in the goods has passed to the buyer or he has wrongfully refused to pay theprice according to the terms of the contract.The seller may sue the buyer even if the property in the goods has not passed where the price ispayable on a certain day. Under Section 56, the seller may sue the buyer for damages or breachof contract where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods.Thus unpaid sellers rights against the buyer personally are: (i) Suit for price (Section 55) (a) Property has passed to the buyer (ownership). Buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay price of goods. (b) Property has not passed to the buyer. Price is payable on a particular date irrespective of delivery. Buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay price of goods. (ii) Suit for damages for non-acceptance (Section 56) When buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods, the seller may sue him for damages for non-acceptance. (iii) Suit for damages for Breach (Section 60) – Where the contract is repudiated by the buyer before the date of delivery, the seller may treat the contract as rescinded and sue for damages for the breach. (iv) Suit for interest – Where there is – Specific agreement between seller and buyer as to interest on price of goods from the date. On which payment becomes due, the seller may recover the interest from the buyer. Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.
MERCANTILE LAWS NOTES 63 RIGHT OF LIEN Vs. RIGHT OF STOPPAGE IN TRANSITS.No. RIGHT OF LIEN RIGHT OF STOPPAGE IN TRANSIT1. It is a right to retain possession. It is a right to regain possession2. Seller should be in possession of Seller should have parted with the possession. the goods. Possession should be with a carrier & Buyer has not acquired the possession.3. The right of lien can be exercised It can be exercised only if buyer is insolvent. even when the buyer is not insolvent.4. The right of stoppage in transit Its starting point is the end of right of lien. starts where right of lien ends. EFFECT OF SUB-SALE OR PLEDGE BY THE BUYER ON UNPAID SELLER’S RIGHT The unpaid seller’s right of lien or stoppage in transit is not effected by any further sale or other disposition of goods by the buyer. Exceptions – When seller has given his assent to such sale, mortgage or other disposition of goods made by the buyer. When a document of title of goods has been transferred to the buyer and the buyer transfers the documents to a person who has bought the goods in good faith & for value.RIGHT OF BUYER AGAINST THE SELLER IN CASE OF BREACH OF CONTRACT(Section 57 to 59)Suit for non-delivery Where the seller wrongfully neglects or refuses to deliver the goods to[Section 57] – the buyer, the buyer may sue the seller for damages for non-delivery.Suit for specific Where property has passed to the buyer, the buyer can also exerciseperformance [Section the right to sue for specific performance.58]Suit for damages for Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller, or where the buyerBreach of warranty elects or is compelled to treat any breach of a condition on the part of[Section 59] the seller as a breach of warranty, the buyer is not by reason only of such breach of warranty entitled to reject the goods; but he may- (a) Set up against the seller the Brach of warranty in diminution or extinction of the price; or (b) Sue the seller for damages for breach of warranty. (2) The fact that a buyer has set up a breach of warranty in diminution or extinction of the price does not prevent him from suing for the same breach of warranty if he has suffered further damage.Suit for recovery of The buyer has right to recover the money paid to the seller where theprice [Section 61] consideration for payment of it has failed. If the mind is intensely eager, everything can be accomplished—mountains can be crumbled into atoms.
64 CA NAVEEN BAIDAUCTION SALE It is a mode of selling property by inviting bids publicly and the property is sold to the highest bidder. An auctioneer is an agent governed by law of agency. PROVISIONS RELATED TO AUCTION SALEWhere goods are put for sale in lot, each lot is prima facie deemed to be subject matter of aseparate contract of sale.The sale is complete when auctioneer announces its completion: By fall of hammer or Any other customary manner.Any bidder may retract from his bid until announcement is made.Right to bid may be reserved expressly by or behalf of the seller and where such a right isexpressly reserved, but not otherwise, the seller or any one person on his behalf may bid at theauction.If seller’s right to bid has not been expressly reserved, it shall not be lawful for the seller to bidhimself or to employ any person to bid at such saleReserve Price – The sale may be notified to be subject to a reserve or upset price.Where there is such notification, every bid is a conditional offer subject to its being up to thereserve price. Where an auctioneer inadvertently knocks down to a bidder who has bid lessthan the reserved price, there is no contract of sale.Pretended biding – If the seller makes use of pretended bidding to raise the price, the sale isvoidable at the option of the buyer.The following are some of the important terms used in Auction Sale;A. Knockout Agreement: It is sort of tacit understanding/agreement among the intendingbidders to stifle competition by not bidding against each other in an auction sale. Suchagreements are illegal and the seller can protect his interest against such agreement byreserving his right to bid at the auction or by fixing a reserve price.B. Damping: Damping is an act to dissuade the intending buyer from bidding or from raisingthe price by pointing out defects in the goods or by doing some other acts which preventpersons from forming a fair estimate of the price of the goods. Damping is illegal and theauctioneer can withdraw the goods from auction.C. Puffers: Puffer is a person who is employed by the seller to raise the price by fictitious bids.Such persons are known as by bidders or decoy ducks. Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.