What Did We Learn In Lecture 01? What Is Research? What Is Business Research? What Isn’t Research? Characteristics Of Research Kinds Of Research Basic Or Pure Research Applied Research
Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information.
Continued………. Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem Does not provide conclusive evidence Subsequent research expected
Why Conduct Exploratory Research Diagnose a situation Screening of alternatives Discover new ideas
Uses of Exploratory Research Formulate a problem or define a problem more precisely Identify alternative courses of action Develop hypotheses Isolate key variables and relationships for further examination Gain insights for developing an approach to the problem Establish priorities for further research
Methods For Exploratory Research A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research: Secondary Data Analysis Experience Surveys Case Analysis Focus Groups Projective Techniques
Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon Some understanding of the nature of the problem Two basic classifications: Cross-sectional studies Longitudinal studies
Cross-sectional Studies Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population. On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
Longitudinal Studies Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time. One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame. A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically. On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.
Use of Descriptive Research To describe the characteristics of relevant groups, such as consumers, salespeople, organizations, or market areas. To estimate the percentage of units in a specified population exhibiting a certain behavior. To determine the perceptions of product characteristics. To determine the degree to which marketing variables are associated. To make specific predictions
Exploratory Research Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives. A very flexible, open-ended process.Descriptive Research (who, what, where, how) Designed to provide further insight into the research problem by describing the variables of interest. Can be used for profiling, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining associative relationships.
Exploratory Descriptive Discovery of ideas and Describe characteristics or Objective insights functions marked by the prior formulation of specific hypotheses Flexible, versatile Preplanned and structuredCharacteristics Often the front end of total design research design Expert surveys Secondary data Methods Pilot surveys Surveys Secondary data Panels Qualitative research Observation and other data
Definition Whether and to what degree variables are related Purpose Determine relationships Make predictions Limitation Cannot indicate cause and effect
Correlational research are studies that are often conducted to test the reliability and predictive validity of instruments used for division making concerning selection of individuals for the likely success in a course of study or a specific job. Some authors consider this research as a type of descriptive research, since it describes the current conditions in a situation. However, the difference lies in the nature of conditions studies. A correlational study describes in quantitative terms the degree to which the variables are related.
Why the Correlational Research? Determine the strength of the relationship between two or more variables. Determine the direction of the relationship. Positive. Negative.
Purpose of Correlational Research Correlational studies are carried out to explain important human behavior or to predict likely outcomes (identify relationships among variables). If a relationship of sufficient magnitude exists between two variables, it becomes possible to predict a score on either variable if a score on the other variable is known (Prediction Studies). The variable that is used to make the prediction is called the predictor variable.
Continued………. The variable about which the prediction is made is called the criterion variable. Both scatter plots and regression lines are used in correlational studies to predict a score on a criterion variable
Correlation Coefficient Ranges from –1.00 to +1.00 The number indicates the strength of the relationship. The sign indicates whether the relationship is positive or negative. Does NOT indicate causality.
Examples What is the relationship between T.V. violence and aggressive behavior ? This study is to determine the predictive ability of high school grade point average (GPA) to forecast first to fourth year College GPA.
Summary Correlational research is also known as associational research. Relationships among two or more variables are studied without any attempt to influence them. Investigates the possibility of relationships between two variables. There is no manipulation of variables in correlational research.
A research in which the principal objective is toknow and understand the trait and mechanisms ofthe relationship and association between theindependent and dependent variable.
Purpose of Explanatory Research Explain things not just reporting. Why? Elaborate and enrich a theorys explanation. Determine which of several explanations is best. Determine the accuracy of the theory; test a theorys predictions or principle. Advance knowledge about underlying process.
Continued……. Build and elaborate a theory; elaborate and enrich a theorys predictions or principle. Extend a theory or principle to new areas, new issues, and new topics: Provide evidence to support or refute an explanation or prediction. Test a theorys predictions or principles.