Chapter09 091202140019-phpapp02


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Chapter09 091202140019-phpapp02

  1. 1. TRAINING EXCELBOOKS9-1 9 Chapter
  2. 2. Need For Training Training 9-2 Training is a planned programme designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitude and social behaviour of employees. Features of Training  Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job  Focuses attention on the individual job.  Concentrates on individual employees  Gives importance to short term performance Training is essential for job success. It can lead to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower turnover.
  3. 3. Need For Training 9-3  helps new recruits to perform assigned tasks effectively  helps existing employees to prepare for higher level jobs  enables existing employees to keep in touch with latest developments  permits employees to cope with changes brought in by frequent transfers  makes employees more versatile, mobile, flexible and useful to the organisation  bridges the gap what the employee has and what the job demands allows an employee to gain acceptance from peer groups readily Training
  4. 4. 9-4 Training vs. Development Training is concerned with teaching specific job related skills and behaviour. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Training Training vs. Development L e a r n i n g D i m e n s i o n Tr a i n in g D e v e l o p m e n t M e a n t fo r O p e r a t iv e s E x e c u t iv e s F o c u s C u r r e n t jo b C u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e jo b s S c o p e I n d iv id u a l e m p lo y e e W o r k g r o u p o r o r g a n is a t io n G o a l F ix c u r r e n t s k ill d e f ic it P r e p a r e fo r f u tu r e w o r k d e m a n d s In itia t e d b y M a n a g e m e n t T h e In d iv id u a l C o n te n t S p e c ific jo b r e la te d in fo r m a tio n G e n e r a l K n o w le d g e T im e - fr a m e Im m e d ia te L o n g te r m
  5. 5. 9-5 Training vs. Education Training, more or less, is job oriented (skill) learning. Education, on the other hand, is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject (a kind of conceptual learning). Training Training Pitfalls Here is a checklist to avoid training pitfalls  Attempting to teach too quickly  Trying to teach too much  Viewing all trainees as the same  Giving very little time to practice  Offering very little to the trainee in the form of encouragement, praise or reward
  6. 6. 9-6 Training efforts are invariably based on certain learning oriented guidelines:  Modelling: It is simply copying someone else's behaviour. (like showing the videotapes of desired behaviour while at work)  Motivation: For learning to happen, it is important to motivate the trainee first.  Reinforcement: If behaviour is rewarded, it probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviours.  Feedback: Feedback helps an employee find where he stands. People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible.  Spaced practice: Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time.  Whole learning: Employees learn better if the job information is given as an entire logical process.  Active practice: Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task.  Relevance: training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs  Environment: employees learn faster in comfortable environments Learning Principles: The Philosophy of Training Training
  7. 7. 9-7 Areas And Types of Training Training is generally offered in the following areas Training Areas of training  Knowledge  Technical skills  Social skills  Techniques
  8. 8. 9-8 The various types of training that are commonly employed in present-day organisations may be listed thus. Types of training Training  Skills training: here certain basic skills like reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving etc are taught  Refresher training: here the focus is on short term courses that would help employees learn about latest developments in their respective fields  Cross functional training: this helps employees perform operations in areas other than their assigned job.  Team training: this is concerned with how team members should communicate with each other, how they should cooperate to get ahead, how they should handle conflictful situations, how to find their way using collective wisdom etc.  Creativity training: this helps employees to think unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box and develop unexpected solutions.  Diversity training: it aims to create better cross cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firm's employees  Literacy training: this is generally offered to those employees with weak reading, writing or arithmetic skills. Areas And Types of Training
  9. 9. 9-9 How to be more creative? Training  Thermax: At Thermax (over 1200 employees nearly Rs. 600 crore turnover, 6 per cent attrition rate) high-potential individuals are given greater exposure, high visibility and asked to chart out a career vision through an ongoing dialogue.  GCPL: Godrej Consumer Products Ltd’s (1052 employees, nearly Rs. 500 crore sales) talent management system allows bright employees to acquire a wide variety of skills through job rotation (e.g., sales systems, project management skills, IT skills, Team building skills etc.). Outstanding performers get salary increase instantaneously.  Sapient Corporation: (914 employees with over $ 202 million global sales). At Sapient employees work on 48-50 projects at any given time. Some of these are executed entirely by the local employees from their Gurgaon and Bangalore offices.  Johnson & Johnson: (1419 employees with over $ 41,000 million global sales) J&J constantly encourages its employees to upgrade their skills and knowledge through short-term programmes at institutes like the IIMs, XLRI etc. apart from rotating employees on challenging tasks. Cont…
  10. 10. 9-10  Monsanto India: (354 employees with nearly $ 5,000 global sales) Monsanto sets stiff targets for employees, but trains employees with a rare rigour so that they get a fair shot at those. People identified as future leaders are given internal international positions.  P&G: (Over Rs. 750 crore sales and powerful brands like Vicks, Tide, Ariel, Pantene, Whishper, Pampers, Head and Shoulders, etc.) P&G relies on the promote-from-within philosophy’. It hires freshers straight out of B-school, trains and empowers them to handle challenging jobs from day 1. Says a new recruit from IIM Ahmedabad: “I am two months old in the company and already handling a new brand launch”. [BT-Hewitt Study, 2003; BT-Mercer-TNS Study, 2004; Grow Talent Study, B. World, 1.9.2003 and 6.12.2004] Training How to be more creative?
  11. 11. 9-11 A Systematic Approach To Training A systematic approach to training would consist of three phases: training needs assessment, implementation and evaluation Training Training needs assessment Training efforts must aim at meeting the needs of the organisation and the individual employees. This, essentially, involves three types of analysis: a. Organisational analysis: This is a study of the entire organisation in terms of its objectives, utilisation of resources to achieve objectives etc.  Analysis of objectives  Resource utilisation analysis  Environmental scanning  Organisational climate analysis
  12. 12. 9-12 b. Task or role analysis: this is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. c. Person analysis: here the focus is on the individual in a given job; whether training is needed, whether the employee is capable of being trained, and the areas where the training is needed. 00 Training Training needs assessment
  13. 13. 9-13 Data sources used in training needs assessment Training Organisational Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis Organisational goals and objectives Job descriptions Performance data or appraisals Personnel inventories Job specifications Work sampling Skills inventories Performance standards Interviews Organisational climate analysis Performing the job Questionnaires Efficiency indexes Work sampling Tests (KASOCs) Changes in systems or subsystems Reviewing literature on Customer/employee (e.g., equipment) the job attitude surveys Management requests Asking questions about Training progress the job Exit interviews Training committees Rating scales MBO or work planning systems Analysis of operating CIT problems Customer survey/satisfaction data Diaries Devised situations (e.g., role play) Assessment centers MBO or work planning systems
  14. 14. 9-14 Training d. Identify training objectives: Training objectives can be of three types Objectives of training O B J E C T IV E In n o v a tiv e P r o b le m s S o lv in g R e g u la r        A n t ic ip a t in g p r o b le m s T r a in in g c le r k s to O r ie n t a t io n b e fo r e t h e y o c c u r r e d u c e c o m p la in t s Te a m b u ild in g T r a in in g s u p e r v is o r s R e c u r r in g tr a in in g o f s e s s io n s w it h t h e in c o m m u n ic a t io n s in t e r v ie w e r s d e p a r t m e n t s to r e d u c e g r ie v a n c e s R e fr e s h e r c o u r s e s o n s a f e ty p r o c e d u r e s Training needs assessment
  15. 15. 9-15 e. Training methods: Formal training methods include on the job training covering job instruction training, coaching, mentoring, job rotation, apprenticeship training, committee assignments etc and off the job training including lectures, conference, simulation exercises and programmed instruction. f. Evaluation: Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training programme. Training Training needs assessment
  16. 16. 9-16 On The Job Training Methods Training  Job instruction training (JIT): This is training directly received on the job. Here the trainee receives an overview of the job. The trainer actually demonstrates the hob and the trainee is asked to copy the trainer’s way. The trainee, finally, tries to perform the job independently. Merits and demerits of job instruction training        M e rits D e m e rits T r a in e e le a r n s fa s t th r o u g h p r a c t ic e a n d o b s e r v a tio n . T h e tr a in e e s h o u ld b e a s g o o d a s t h e tr a in e r. I f th e t r a in e r is n o t g o o d , tr a n s fe r e n c e o f k n o w le d g e a n d s k ills w ill b e p o o r. It is e c o n o m ic a l a s it d o e s n o t r e q u ir e a n y s p e c ia l W h ile le a r n in g , tr a in e e m a y d a m a g e e q u ip m e n t , s e t tin g s . A ls o , m is ta k e s c a n b e c o r r e c te d im m e d ia t e ly. w a s te m a te r ia ls , c a u s e a c c id e n ts f r e q u e n tly. T h e tr a in e e g a in s c o n f id e n c e q u ic k ly a s h e E x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s c a n n o t u s e th e m a c h in e r y d o e s th e w o r k h im s e lf in a c tu a l s e tt in g w it h w h ile it is b e in g u s e d fo r tr a in in g . h e lp f r o m s u p e r v is o r. It is m o s t s u it a b le f o r u n s k ille d a n d s e m i- s k ille d jo b s w h e r e t h e jo b o p e r a t io n s a r e s im p le ; e a s y t o e x p la in
  17. 17. 9-17  Coaching: Here the supervisor explains things and answers questions; throws light on why things are done the way they are; offers a model for trainees to copy, conducts lot of decision making meetings, and allows trainees freedom to commit mistakes and learn .Coaching, thus, requires lot of teaching skills.  Mentoring: The use of an experienced person to teach and train someone with less knowledge and experience in a given area is known as mentoring. The mentor nurtures, supports and guides the efforts of young persons by giving appropriate information, feedback and encouragement whenever required. Training On The Job Training Methods
  18. 18. 9-18 Training Functions of Mentoring Merits and demerits of Mentoring     M e r i t s D e m e r i t s T h e r e is a n e x c e lle n t o p p o r tu n it y t o le a r n I t m a y c r e a t e f e e l in g s o f j e a lo u s y a m o n g q u i c k l y t h r o u g h c o n t in u o u s in t e r a c t io n . o th e r w o r k e r s w h o a r e n o t a b le to s h o w e q u a lly g o o d p e r fo r m a n c e . C o n s ta n t g u id a n c e h e lp s th e m e n te e I f m e n to r s f o r m o v e r ly s t r o n g b o n d s w ith to b e o n tr a c k , u s in g fa c ilitie s to g o o d t r a in e e s , u n w a r r a n t e d fa v o u r it is m m a y r e s u lt. a d v a n t a g e . T h is c a n h a v e a d e m o r a lis in g e ffe c t o n o th e r w o r k e r s , a ffe c tin g th e ir w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e in a n e g a t iv e w a y.                  G o o d m e n t o r s ... ... L is t e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d C h a lle n g e a n d s t im u la te le a r n in g C o a c h B u ild s e lf - c o n f id e n c e P r o v id e w is e c o u n s e l T e a c h b y e x a m p le A c t a s r o le m o d e l S h a r e e x p e r ie n c e s O f fe r e n c o u r a g e m e n t G o o d m e n t e e s ..... . L is te n A c t o n A d v ic e S h o w c o m m it m e n t to le a r n C h e c k e g o a t t h e d o o r A s k f o r f e e d b a c k A r e o p e n m in d e d A r e w illin g to c h a n g e A r e p r o a c tiv e S u c c e s s f u l M e n t o r in g
  19. 19. 9-19 Training  Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. On The Job Training Methods Merits and demerits of Job rotation Merits Demerits  Improves participant’s job skills, job satisfaction Increased workload for participants  Provides valuable opportunities to network within Constant job change may produce the organisation stress and anxiety  Offers faster promotions and higher salaries to Mere multiplication of duties do not quick learners enrich the life of a trainee  Lateral transfers may be beneficial in rekindling Development costs may shoot up when enthusiasm and developing new talents trainees commit mistakes, handle tasks less optimally
  20. 20.  Apprenticeship training: Most craft workers such as plumbers, carpenters etc are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. In this method, the trainees are put under the guidance of a master worker typically for 2-5 years.  Committee assignments: In this method, trainees are asked to solve an actual organisational programme working along with other trainees. 9-20 Training On The Job Training Methods
  21. 21. 9-21 Training Off The Job Training Methods  Vestibule training: It occurs off the job on equipment or methods that are highly similar to those used on the job.  Role playing: This is a development technique requiring the trainee to assume a role in a given situation and act out behaviours associated with that role.  Lecture method: Here the instructor organises the study material on a specific topic and offers it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk.  Conference or discussion method: In this method the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainees in a discussion so that the doubts about the job to be undertaken get clarified.  Programmed instruction: This is an approach that puts material to be learned into highly organised logical sequences that require the trainees to respond
  22. 22. 9-22 Training Evaluation of A Training Programme Training can be evaluated at five levels: reaction, learning, behaviour, organisation and results. Important decision points in training evaluation may be listed thus; Important decision points in planning training evaluation  Should an evaluation be made?  Who should evaluate?  What is the purpose of evaluation?  What will be measured?  How comprehensive will the evaluation be?  Who has the authority and responsibility?  What are the sources of data?  How will the data be collected and evaluated?  How will the data be analysed and reported?
  23. 23. 9-23 Training Methods of evaluation  Questionnaires  Tests  Interviews  Studies  Human resource factors  Cost benefit analysis  Feedback.