Published on

  • Very good presentation, is it possible to sent it for my e-mail:
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • i fell foul of the Promo trial offer, I emaled the company to cancel when I found extra unautorised payments had been debited from account.
    they took over 150 gbp fro my account and they said i have to send them back my trial pack in order to be refunded . the low payement for the trial pack was just a start because after that they take u the rest of money from ur account as a rest of payement! avoid avoid avoid buyng any product from the
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Naval Chaudhary 70700029 Liposomes: Improving drug delivery
  2. 2. Phospholipids Polar Head Groups Three carbon glycerol
  3. 3. What is a liposome? <ul><ul><li>Spherical vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul>Hydrophilic Hydrophobic
  4. 4. A liposome encapsulates a region on aqueous solution inside a hydrophobic membrane; dissolved hydrophilic solutes cannot readily pass through the lipids. Hydrophobic chemicals can be dissolved into the membrane, and in this way liposome can carry both hydrophobic molecules and hydrophilic molecules. To deliver the molecules to sites of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane , thus delivering the liposome contents About the Liposomes :
  5. 5. Liposome Preparation Lipid in organic solvent solution Evaporation Extrusion (or sonication) Liposomes and unencapsulated SRB Lipid film Freeze/thaw cycles Gel filtration Purified liposomes Hydrate with sulforhodamine B (SRB) solution
  6. 6. Liposome Preparation
  7. 7. Liposome Preparation
  8. 8. Liposome Preparation
  9. 9. Liposome Preparation
  10. 10. Liposome Preparation
  11. 11. Liposome Ingredients 45% DPPC dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine 45% Cholesterol 5% DPPG dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol 5% DPPE dipalmitolyphosphatidylanolamine
  12. 13. Uses of Liposomes Chelation therapy for treatment of heavy metal poisoning Enzyme Replacement Diagnostic imaging of tumors Study of membranes Cosmetics Drug Delivery
  13. 14. Why Use Liposomes in Drug Delivery? <ul><li>Inactive: Unmodified liposomes gather in specific tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reticuloendothelial system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: alter liposome surface with ligand (antibodies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes, protein A, sugars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directly to site </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical: temperature or pH sensitive liposomes Drug Targeting
  14. 15. Protection Decrease harmful side effects Pharmokinetics - efficacy and toxicity Changes the absorbance and biodistribution Change where drug accumulates in the body Protects drug Deliver drug in desired form Multidrug resistance Why Use Liposomes in Drug Delivery?
  15. 16. Release Affect the time in which the drug is released Prolong time -increase duration of action and decrease administration Dependent on drug and liposome properties Liposome composition, pH and osmotic gradient, and environment Why Use Liposomes in Drug Delivery?
  16. 17. Modes of Liposome/Cell Interaction Adsorption Endocytosis Fusion Lipid transfer
  17. 18. Classes of Liposomes <ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long circulating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immuno </li></ul></ul>Cationic
  18. 19. Liposomes Help Improve Therapeutic index Rapid metabolism Unfavorable pharmokinetics Low solubility Lack of stability Irritation Custom design <ul><ul><li>Lipid content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface charge </li></ul></ul>Method of preparation
  19. 20. Current liposomal drug preparations Type of Agents Examples Anticancer Drugs Anti bacterial Antiviral DNA material Enzymes Radionuclide Fungicides Vaccines *Currently in Clinical Trials or Approved for Clinical Use Malaria merozoite, Malaria sporozoite Hepatitis B antigen, Rabies virus glycoprotein Amphotericin B* In-111*, Tc-99m Hexosaminidase A Glucocerebrosidase, Peroxidase Duanorubicin, Doxorubicin*, Epirubicin Methotrexate, Cisplatin*, Cytarabin Triclosan, Clindamycin hydrochloride, Ampicillin, peperacillin, rifamicin AZT cDNA - CFTR*
  20. 21. CFTR Gene Therapy Deliver cDNA of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) to epithelial tissue of respiratory system Fuse to cell membrane and incorporate cDNA into cell Clinical trials - no significant change in symptoms Now trying adeno associated virus Cationic liposome
  21. 22. Doxil <ul><li>Chemotherapy drug doxorubin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anemia, damage to veins and tissue at injection, decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>platelet and WBC count, toxic to </li></ul></ul></ul>Treats Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions or cancer tumors <ul><li>Modifications of liposome “stealth” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeps doxorubin in blood for 50 hours instead of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20 minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrates at KS lesions and tumors </li></ul></ul>*Just approved by FDA*
  22. 23. Amphotericin B Side effects: nephrotoxicity, chills, and fevers Systemic fungal infections in immune compromised patients Fungizone - AmB with deoxycholate AmB - kills ergosterol-containing fungal cells, also kills cholesterol-containing human cells
  23. 24. No decrease in effectiveness of drug against fungi Liposomal Formulation of AmB Decrease in toxicity Exact Mechanism of liposomes not understood Cholesterol - only few %moles Phospholipid:AmB ratio Diffusion Lipid transfer AmB Lipid
  24. 25. Name Trade name Company Indication Liposomal amphotericin B Abelcet Enzon Fungal infections Liposomal amphotericin B Ambisome Gilead Sciences Fungal and protozoal infections Liposomal cytarabine Depocyt Pacira (formerly SkyePharma) Malignant lymphomatous meningitis Liposomal daunorubicin DaunoXome Gilead Sciences HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma Liposomal doxorubicin Myocet Zeneus Combination therapy with cyclophosphamide in metastatic breast cancer Liposomal IRIV vaccine Epaxal Berna Biotech Hepatitis A Liposomal IRIV vaccine Inflexal V Berna Biotech Influenza Liposomal morphine DepoDur SkyePharma , Endo Postsurgical analgesia Liposomal verteporfin Visudyne QLT, Novartis Age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis Liposome-PEG doxorubicin Doxil / Caelyx Ortho Biotech , Schering-Plough HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, metastatic breast cancer, metastatic ovarian cancer Micellular estradiol Estrasorb Novavax Menopausal therapy
  25. 26. Problems with Liposomal Preparations of Drugs $$$$ <ul><ul><li>Fungizone $40.58 Amphotec $2334 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doxil $1200 per treatment, twice the cost of normal protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of chemotherapy and drugs </li></ul></ul>Lack long term stability (short shelf life) Freeze dry and pH adjustment Low “Pay Load” - poor encapsulation Physical and chemical instability Polar drugs and drugs without opposite charge Modifications
  26. 27. Possibility of new side effects Doxil “hand and foot syndrome” Problems continued Efficacy CFTR
  27. 28. Studies with insulin show that liposomes may be an effective way to package proteins and peptides for use Clinical Trials for several liposomal formulations More studies on the manipulation of liposomes Future
  28. 29. References Journals Allen, Theresa M. &quot;Liposomal Drug Formulations: Rationale for Development and What We Can Expect for the Future.&quot; Drugs 56: 747-756, 1998. Allen, Theresa M. &quot;Long-circulating (sterically stabilized) liposomes for targeted drug delivery .&quot; TiPs 15: 214-219, 1994. Allen, Theresa M. &quot;Opportunities in Drug Delivery.&quot; Drugs 54 Suppl. 4: 8-14, 1997 Janknegt, Robert. &quot;Liposomal and Lipid Formulations of Amphotericin B.&quot; Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 23(4): 279-291, 1992. Kim, Anna et al. &quot;Pharmacodynamics of insulin in polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes.&quot; International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 180: 75-81, 1999. Quilitz, Rod. &quot;Oncology Pharmacotherapy: The Use of Lipid Formulations of Amphotericin B in Cancer Patients.&quot; Cancer Control. 5:439-449, 1998. Ranade, Vasant V. &quot;Drug Delivery Systems: Site-Specific Drug Delivery Using Liposomes as Carriers.&quot; Pharmacology. 29: 685-694, 1989. Storm, Gert and Daan J.A. Crommelin. &quot;Liposomes:quo vadi?&quot; PSTT 1: 19-31, 1998. Taylor, KMG and JM Newton. &quot;Liposomes as a vecicle for drug delivery.&quot; British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 51: 55-59, 1994
  29. 30. Websites James, John S. &quot;Doxil Approved for KS.&quot; www.immunet. org.imminet/atn.nsf/page/a-235-03. Wasan, Ellen. &quot;Targeted Gene Transfer.&quot; &quot;Introduction to Controlled Drug Delivery Systems.&quot;… k/otherprojects/drugDeliver_97/ http://www. &quot;Doxorubicin.&quot; &quot;Clinical Pharmacology Online.&quot; &quot;; &quot;Sequus' Doxil Becomes First Liposome Product Approved In U.S.&quot; database/doxor_1 &quot;Liposomes.&quot; Paustin, Timothy. “Cellular Membranes.” Books Jones, Macolm N. and Chapman, David. Micelles, Monolayers and Biomembranes . Wiley-Liss. New York (1995). Garrett, R. and Grisham C. Biochemistry , 2 nd ed. Saunders Colleges Publishing. New York (1999). 264.