Preface
I would like to say “Thanks a million” to Almighty God
for all the guidance given so that I can accomplish this
pr...
I prefer to make a book about Traffic Safety as my
product. Although I’m not really talented in writing, but
writing is on...
Table of Content
 Why Traffic Safety?.....................1-4
 General Causes of Traffic
Accident…………………………………….5-25
Hum...
Vehicle Factor
- Tire……………………………………………………..21
- Brake…………………………………………………..22
- Light……………………………………………………23
Weather Factor…...
 Survival Guide of Traffic Safety:
- Always pray to God before and after the
journey…………………………………………………38
- Pedestrian Sa...
Why Traffic Safety?
-Life is too short, and the time we waste in yawning
never can be regained- (Stendhal)
Life is too pre...
Be aware from Traffic Accident…….
So this book is the product of my project. I’m making a
campaign that supports the cultu...
That is catastrophic. But sadly, that tragedy gets very
less attention from many people. While the Typhoon
Haiyan that str...
(http://www.panoramio.com/photo/20563091)
Oh yeah, please readers, children, teacher, parents,
or everyone, before you pro...
General Causes of Traffic
Accidents
Traffic Accident is one of the worst disasters that
happen in the world. It kills so m...
The most concerning problem of distracted driving are
phoning and texting while driving. According to the
research, Talkin...
Second, lack of time management strongly leads to
speeding. You don’t manage time well. Then, it leads you
being in rush. ...
8
8
The Story of AQJ Accident
Who knows AQJ? He’s the son of famous musician,
Ahmad Dhani. AQJ stands for Abdul Qodir Jael...
Bad Habit When Crossing the Road Intersection:
Guys, if you are driving to school or offices, do you
always meet road in...
Tailgating:
Do you know what tailgating is? Tailgating is the practice
of driving on a road too close to frontward vehic...
 Not wearing Seatbelt:
Wearing seatbelt is mandatory for all drivers and
passengers when they are on journey. However, ma...
(http://www.cashquests.com/6-lessons-britney-spears-can-teach-you)
12
This is Seatbelt. Use it every
time you ride your ve...
 Not Wearing Helmet:
Actually, the driver who don’t wear helmet has
significantly reduced. However, there is still reckle...
They choose the helmet that doesn’t fulfil the national
standard. Or they wear black helmet during the night. On
that case...
Indiscriminate Parking:
Where do you park when you stop? Do you park at the
right place? Are you discipline enough when ...
Resources:
http://koran-sindo.com/publics/imagecache/detail/10/images/news/20%20
September%202013/20130921%20jbr%20hal%201...
Driver are easily to get emotional especially young
driver, which leads you do the bad things. It’s not easy to
control em...
(http://ut.zerofatalities.com/img/prevention/drowsy_driving.jpg)
The third factor that leads to drowsy driving is getting
...
 Pedestrian Accident:
Vehicle can make accident either to vehicle or
pedestrian. Pedestrian accident is terrible accident...
 Not looking at the left and right before you are
crossing.
 Running while crossing (being in a rush).
 Listening to th...
2.Vehicle Factor:
Beside human factor, technical problem in vehicle can
also lead to traffic accident. Wrong vehicle desig...
21
(http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-5vjyhICZl2o/UVcEot6AJuI/AAAAAAAAO5k/qwhV
w61JKr0/s1600/flat+tire.png)
(http://www.kiosban.co...
Light:
You see the front car with no lights on. That’s terribly
dangerous. Why could that ha human negligence either
forge...
3.Weather Factor:
Global Warming has becoming the most serious problem
in this modern era. The climate has totally changed...
Several pictures of the bad weather or disaster that
threaten the safety:
(www.whatindonews.com) (www.mraeder-photography....
Impacts of Traffic Accident
Have you understand the causes of traffic accident?
But you need to know also the deadly impac...
The mental health and physical health due to traffic
accident will connect to each other. Even just because you
fall down ...
2.Economic:
Traffic accident is one of the most severe disasters that
can strongly influence economic of nations. The trag...
(http://www.ksatlantainjurylaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Bus_Cras
h_Rear.22605436_std.jpg)
(http://images.wjla.com/co...
Traffic Accidents in Indonesia
Today, I would like to share you something special. It's
about traffic accident in Indonesi...
What are the causes of Traffic Accident in
Indonesia:
According to the Global Report Status on Road Safety
2013, traffic a...
Human factor especially in driving is the biggest factor
of traffic accident. Although many of them has license, but
they ...
Other reason is because of bad time management. It is
one of the culture of most Indonesian people which is being
late. Wh...
(www.man5amuntai.sch.id)
What are the impacts of Traffic Accident in
Indonesia?
The impact of traffic accident in Indonesi...
Last year, there are several improvement. The number
of victims from traffic accidents is reducing. There are
25.157 death...
However, when someone is breaking the rules, police
needs to give consequences either asking for fines or
imprison to offe...
Then I made the tabulated data to graphical data
using Microsoft Word:
37
Overall, I conclude that the number of traffic/r...
Survival Guide of Traffic Safety
Can you understand how dangerous traffic accident to
human life? How terrible and how dea...
2.Pedestrian Safety:
Before we discuss about driving safety, let’s talk about
pedestrian safety first. How to cross the ro...
 Children must cross the street under the supervision
of adults.
 Concentrate. Don’t be sleepy while you are crossing
th...
3.Defensive Driving:
Defensive driving is a set of driving skill that allows
you to defend yourself against possible colli...
o Wear Seatbelt:
This is what you must do when you ride
car. Not only car, when you ride aero plane you
also wear seat bel...
By wearing seatbelt, we can drive and ride more
confidently, we feel that we are saver and we will not get
ticketed by pol...
o Wearing helmet:
Wearing helmet deliver so many advantages to prevent
us from traffic accidents. Head is sensitive things...
Some people assume that wearing helmet reduce their
appearance quality. Are you sure with that? I don’t think so
because i...
o Be careful in Road Intersection:
Please be careful when you are driving in the road
intersection. This is the place wher...
(www.theurbancountry.com)
4. Highway Safety:
Driving in highway always requires high speed. That’s
why drivers in highway ...
Every highway has speed limit.
(www.couriermail.com.au)
Second, please stay focus. Driving in a high speed
needs strong co...
Please also stay in the correct and safe lane. Don’t access
the emergency lane if your car isn’t break down. But
ambulance...
Please ensure that you have enough fuel when you are
driving. If you’re fuel is nearly finished, you can refuel your
car a...
5. Avoid Distractions:
Distracted driving is the act of driving while you are
engaged in other activities. There are many ...
 Always stay focus on one thing. You don’t need to do
something else while you are driving. Don’t do other
thing while yo...
6. Check your Vehicle before you drive:
Before you are going to your office, do you check your
body condition? Are you fre...
It’s also better to check the inner car machine and the
car battery before you turn on the car. If you have the
problem wh...
(www.growtheenergy.org)
Before you do something, it needs to be refreshed.
Please ensure that your car has been heated bef...
When your vehicle gets dirty, please immediately wash
it. Just like my bicycle, even when there are muds on the
tire, I de...
Traffic jams is also the result of indiscriminate
parking. If you don’t want traffic accident to kill your life, if
you do...
8.Crossing the Railroad Safety Guides:
Railroad crossing is the intersection where the road
vehicles and train meet each o...
 Please precede the train journey because train always
chasing the schedule, and because the train always
carries heavy w...
9. Maximize the Infrastructure:
Infrastructure is very important to support traffic
safety. Road, traffic signs, crossing ...
(www.williamkneely.com) (www.dreamstime.com)
Build more pedestrian safety infrastructure:
How many people died because the...
That’s why crossing bridge needs to be provided for the
safety of pedestrian. Every road intersection needs zebra
cross.
(...
Provide more Traffic Signs:
Traffic signs are important as a reminder for safety.
Without traffic signs, it is the like wh...
10. Be aware from Dangerous Crimes:
Traffic safety here doesn’t always refer to safety to
avoid vehicle collision or death...
Let’s Build Traffic Safety Culture
 Avoid Accident by Safety Culture:
Remember this world is too dangerous. How many peop...
Just show your best. At the past, I never wear seatbelt or
helmet when I rode vehicle. But since my parents always
remind ...
In fact, seatbelt save thousands live of people. CDC
(Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) conclude that
seatbelt s...
There are also ABS create more comfortable in car
braking. Motorcycle also has safer technologies. Just like in
my motorcy...
Wisdom Quotes
69
We must respect the past, and mistrust
the present, if we wish to provide the
safety for the future – Jos...
About Me
My name is Naufal Ilham Arrafi,
but you can call me Naufal. I’m really
thankful to everyone who have read
this bo...
My Expert’s Project Profile
(DR.Waluyo)
This project is a mega project and which really needs
help from expert. I’m really...
Bibliography
 Books:
- Eka Sari Lorena, AYO LAWAN KEMACETAN (Haryo Damardono, 2013,
PT KOMPAS MEDIA NUSANTARA).
- Talk Ab...
Survival guide for traffic safety (publisher)....final
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Survival guide for traffic safety (publisher)....final

  1. 1. Preface I would like to say “Thanks a million” to Almighty God for all the guidance given so that I can accomplish this product effectively with the best result. Secondly, thank you for my parents, teachers, friends, family, and expert for all the support, motivation and guidance which deliver my project into the best result. This book is created as accomplishment of my Big Project which is called MYP (Middle Years Program) Personal Project. Recently, I am studying at Sekolah Victory Plus, an International Standard School with the International Baccalaureate Curriculum. I’m currently a Grade 10 students and I’m working on my Personal Project which is required to accomplish the Middle Years Program (MYP). The MYP Personal Project is a very huge and challenging project. This project is run by all Grade 10 students individually. In the Personal Project, we are challenged to make any kind of product according to our interests which we are enthusiastic about. We can make any form of product, such as a musical product, fashion products, an experimental product, electronic products, and many more. i
  2. 2. I prefer to make a book about Traffic Safety as my product. Although I’m not really talented in writing, but writing is one of my hobbies. This product is the first book product I made. This book has unique topic which is about “Traffic Safety”. There are some significant reasons why Traffic Safety became the topic chosen. Let me tell you that I am fascinated about safety in transportation world. Since I was little, my parents always taught me how important traffic safety is. When I ride cars with them, they always instruct me to wear a seatbelt. Now I know how comfortable life is if we always follow safety rules. The other reason why I choose safety is because traffic accidents become one of the most serious problems. However, it is impossible to eliminate accident. Nevertheless, accident can happen anywhere and anytime and we will never know when will happen. At least by knowing the safety tips, we can prevent our self, others even the environment from accident. That is why Safety Culture is very important. You drive your car, but do you use seatbelt regularly? Do you always remember “Safety”? Do you always follow safety rules? When you are doing something, please consider the safety. Lastly, I would like to say please enjoy the reading. I hope for you all the knowledge in this book will be beneficial. i
  3. 3. Table of Content  Why Traffic Safety?.....................1-4  General Causes of Traffic Accident…………………………………….5-25 Human Factor……………………………........5-20 - Distracted driving………………………………..….5 - Speeding…………………………………….............6 - Bad habit when crossing the road intersection……………..………………..................9 - Tailgating…………………………………..……..…10 - Not wearing seatbelt……………………...……….11 - Not wearing helmet…………………….………...13 - Indiscriminate parking……………….………….15 - Being emotional while driving……….…………17 - Pedestrian accident………………..…………..…19
  4. 4. Vehicle Factor - Tire……………………………………………………..21 - Brake…………………………………………………..22 - Light……………………………………………………23 Weather Factor……………………………….24-25  Impacts of Traffic Accident - Health…………………………………………………26 - Economic…………………………………………….28  Traffic Accident in Indonesia…....................................30-36 - What are the causes of Traffic Accident in Indonesia?…………………………………………….31 - What are the impacts of Traffic accident in Indonesia?......................................................34 - What are the solutions to overcome the problem…………………………………………….….35 - Data……………………………………………….......36
  5. 5.  Survival Guide of Traffic Safety: - Always pray to God before and after the journey…………………………………………………38 - Pedestrian Safety…………………………………....39 - Defensive Driving……………………………………41 - Highway Safety………………………………………47 - Avoid Distractions…………………………...……..51 - Check your vehicle before you drive…………….53 - Park at the right place………………………….….56 - Crossing the railroad safety guides………….….58 - Maximize the Infrastructure…………………..….60 - Be aware from Dangerous Crimes………...…….64  Let’s Build Traffic Safety Culture……………………………………(65-68) - Avoid accident by Safety Culture………….…….65 - Safety starts from our-self………………………...65 - Safety is Easy and Cheap………………………….66 - What can we do to change the future……..……67 Wisdom Quotes………………………….…..69
  6. 6. Why Traffic Safety? -Life is too short, and the time we waste in yawning never can be regained- (Stendhal) Life is too precious. God gives life for human for free. He gives us chance to breathe every second without any charges. However, life is very short and limited. Life is only given for single time. But we will never know when we will die. “Time is money”. Making Safety as our top priority is very important. Safety protects our life from any dangerous accident that can end our life. We don’t know when will accident happens and attacks us. The impacts of accident are very dangerous. Accident can happen anytime even without human notification. If you have strong safety knowledge, at least you are ready to anticipate accident. One of the most dangerous accident is “Traffic Accident”. Traffic accident is one of the most deadly accident in the world. Hence, I’m making this book as a campaign so people will realize how important Safety Culture especially Traffic Safety in daily life. Can you imagine if you drive your car everyday but you never wear seatbelt? That’s too terrible. 1
  7. 7. Be aware from Traffic Accident……. So this book is the product of my project. I’m making a campaign that supports the culture of traffic safety. So throughout the project, I have done so much research. I’ve also done the research with The Chairman of National Safety Board and Health Council of Indonesia who expertise my project. His name is Dr.Waluyo. His organization is focusing on the issues of safety. So he said that Safety is important because it’s aimed to protect people wherever they are, such as school, offices, the park, or more. The number of people killed in accident is so huge particularly in Indonesia. DR. Waluyo said that there are 33.000 people died annually (every year) due to fatality accident of traffic causing financial loss as big as Rp.18.607.782,000 in 2011, and in 2012, it increase up to Rp.21.316.260,000. 2 This is the picture of me and Dr.Waluyo, the chairman of National Safety Board and Health Council. I interviewed him at Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta. I learned many things from him about Traffic Safety.
  8. 8. That is catastrophic. But sadly, that tragedy gets very less attention from many people. While the Typhoon Haiyan that strikes Philippine only killed 5.000 people. But the whole world is paying attention on it. What can you conclude from that catastrophic tragedy? We could imagine that accident is very serious problem. Many worker and families died from traffic accident. Young children cannot continue their school and sent to orphanage. Some children also have to be a worker to grow their salary. Don’t you realize that traffic accident can also cause poverty and losing productivity? Say No to Accidents !!! Safety Culture is Everything: Safety is everything because it protects you from any danger such as traffic accident. Everything needs safety. Nevertheless, you need to fully understand about safety if you want safety become your habit. In this book, the information is only focusing on traffic safety but the implementation can be applied in any aspects of your life. I will explain detail on the accidents, from the types to cause until the impacts. There will be also some evidence and data provided, and some guide for traffic safety. I hope the content of the book will be beneficial to raise our awareness to accident. 3
  9. 9. (http://www.panoramio.com/photo/20563091) Oh yeah, please readers, children, teacher, parents, or everyone, before you proceed to the next chapter. Please read the following sentences. Safety, Safety, Safety !!! YES !!! Accident, Accident, Accident !!! NO SAFETY CULTURE !!! 4
  10. 10. General Causes of Traffic Accidents Traffic Accident is one of the worst disasters that happen in the world. It kills so many people. But why could accident, something that human never expect could happens. How does it accident happens? And what makes it happen? The answers are in the following: 1.Human Factor: Human factor is the most dominant factor of traffic accidents. Around 90 % of traffic accidents is caused by human factor such as driving error, pedestrian accidents, etc. These are the common human factors that can lead to accident. Distracted Driving: Do you know that Road Accidents kill 1.3 million people every year (World Health Organization)? One of the triggering factors is distracted driving. Phoning, eating, texting, drunk, and reading while driving are extremely dangerous. It’s because when you are distracted in driving, your mind will lose concentration. However, many people don’t care about the dangerous of getting distracted while driving. 5
  11. 11. The most concerning problem of distracted driving are phoning and texting while driving. According to the research, Talking on the cell phone is common in 25-44 years old, more common than 55-64 years. Reading or sending texts or email while driving is common for 18-34 years old, more common than 45-64 years old. That’s a very precious age because that is the age of productive. (http://phys.org/news167410526.html) (Left) (http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02190/eatCar_2190567c.jpg) (Right) Speeding: Speeding is part of reckless driving that strongly leads to traffic accidents. Anyway, why should we do speeding? You feel handsome or beautiful if you can drive in excessive? The answer could be yes. Some people do speeding to show off to their friends. When the speed reaches the peak, they will just take the picture of speedometer. 6
  12. 12. Second, lack of time management strongly leads to speeding. You don’t manage time well. Then, it leads you being in rush. Be aware with this because being in a rush can make you doing careless mistakes. What if you injured or died in the middle of journey? You cannot go to work anymore and your company might lose main workers. That’s dangerous because that can impact the economy of your nation. The prevalence of speeding has cause many victims. According to NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), speeding is 1/3 causes of accident, and it cause 13.000 victims of accident per year. Some people feel proud if they able to speeding. People who are speeding usually took the picture in the speedometer to show that speeding is their pride. (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/8098816/Two-drivers-jaile d-for-speeding-at-140mph.html) 7
  13. 13. 8 8 The Story of AQJ Accident Who knows AQJ? He’s the son of famous musician, Ahmad Dhani. AQJ stands for Abdul Qodir Jaelani (Dul). On the 8 September 2013, there was an accident happens to him. He was hit by big accident. On that midnight, he drove car at the highway without asking permission from his dad. The car was still new. The car was a gift from his dad given to AQJ. He drove car at Jagorawi Highway exactly at the midnight for a silly reason. He wants to show off his new car to his friend. By driving car up to 176 km/h, he feels that he is great. But aftermath, he lose his concentration and his car hit the highway fence and goes to opposite lane. Then he collide another car including the Daihatsu Grand Max. 7 people died from this accident. What a shameful accident? 13 years old boy without driving license drove in high speed which killed 7 people? Eventually, Dul was suspected and imprisoned for 6 months. I hope you can learn many things from this accident. That’s why children under 17 are not allowed to drive because they have low thinking skills and they can’t control their emotion. Don’t put negative thoughts if your parents forbid you to drive without license. Not because they hate you, but because they love you and they care about you and your safety.
  14. 14. Bad Habit When Crossing the Road Intersection: Guys, if you are driving to school or offices, do you always meet road intersection. Road intersection or road junctions are the place that connects 2 or more roads in a section. Road intersection can be a very dangerous place if you are not careful and being defensive driving. Especially when you are in road intersection without traffic lights, it is a very dangerous place. Even when you are on the road intersection with traffic lights, accident can still happen. Accidents in road intersection can be caused by infrastructure such lack of traffic lights and signs. However, human factor is the most triggering factor. Even when the traffic lights are provided, there are some drivers who trespass the traffic red lights. They don’t control the speed and not paying attention to the vehicle surrounding. That’s very dangerous. Good drivers will not do that, remember. (http://www.chicagomotorcycleinjurylawyers.com/cmil/wp-content/uploads/2 013/04/intersection-accidents.jpg) 9
  15. 15. Tailgating: Do you know what tailgating is? Tailgating is the practice of driving on a road too close to frontward vehicle in a insecure distant. Tailgating happens when they cannot keep their vehicle in safe distance. Tailgating is dangerous because that’s one of the causes of traffic collision which damage the back part of car. Tailgating can occur due to lack of perceived in risk in so doing. This can be done unconsciously or because human are negligent. Being impatient in driving can also lead to tailgating. The most dangerous tailgating when drivers deliberately through and these are the one that is most dangerous. The risk is when the front vehicle suddenly stopped, and that could lead collision. (https://www.aaafoundation.org/sites/default/files/styles/media_gallery_large /public/AD-HighwayTailgating.JPG) 10
  16. 16.  Not wearing Seatbelt: Wearing seatbelt is mandatory for all drivers and passengers when they are on journey. However, many people doesn’t realize on how important wearing seatbelt is. They just leave it as decoration. But the worse is when people already understand on how important wearing seatbelt is, but they doesn’t want to implement it. They are making excuses that let them to not wearing seatbelt. They think that they are brave and strong if they are not wearing seatbelt, or they think that if they are already professional driver and what’s the point for them to wear seatbelt. Do you think it’s right? Supposedly, wearing seatbelt symbolize the professionalism of you as passengers or driver of vehicles. No matter how professionalism is us, accident can attack us anytime and we will never know when it will happen right. Hence, you don’t need to make excuse “I don’t want to wear seatbelt because I’m a professional driver, or because I’m sitting at the rear position”. No stupid excuses okay… 11
  17. 17. (http://www.cashquests.com/6-lessons-britney-spears-can-teach-you) 12 This is Seatbelt. Use it every time you ride your vehicle. Don’t just leave it as decoration I know you love your baby. But if you really love your baby, will you dare bring your baby in that way, especially without wearing seatbelt?
  18. 18.  Not Wearing Helmet: Actually, the driver who don’t wear helmet has significantly reduced. However, there is still reckless driving of not wearing helmet and it’s still becoming concerning problem. It is said that 70 % of accident of motorbike in Indonesia is because they’re not wearing helmet. That’s why it is very important to wear helmet when you riding motorbike. Even in Western Countries, wearing helmet is already part of their culture. They have strong awareness to accident. As the result, 75 % of bike related death to children is overcome by wearing helmet. Wearing helmet can also alleviate brain injury as big as 88 % To be more aware of accident you must understand the impacts of accident. For example like wearing helmet. Don’t underestimate this because this accident is a matter of injury to your brain. Brain is the centre of the nerve system which controls all parts of your body. Once your brain destroyed, your entire organ will immediately collapse. Please wear helmet every time you are driving or riding car. Helmet will not destroy your appearance; it will make you become more beautiful. In addition, wearing wrong helmet might also lead to accident. Sometimes people are just choosing their helmet for being stylish without considering the safety. 13
  19. 19. They choose the helmet that doesn’t fulfil the national standard. Or they wear black helmet during the night. On that case, you look macho and cool. But, have you ever think that vehicle might crash you because it is hard for other driver to see you if you wear black helmet at night. (http://www.roadsafetyfund.org/activities/investments/PublishingImages/rsf- helmets-1.jpg) Oh my God, young students drive without helmet. That’s totally disgrace. (http://www.telegraphindia.com/1131111/jsp/odisha/story_17551317.jsp#.U wSRy_l_vxU) 14
  20. 20. Indiscriminate Parking: Where do you park when you stop? Do you park at the right place? Are you discipline enough when you park? Indiscriminate Parking is the action of parking in restricted area. If you are parking not in the parking lot, it means you are doing indiscriminate parking. Indiscriminate parking is one of the bad behaviour in driving because it is the cause the disturbance to the traffic flow and it can cause traffic jams. It can also trigger to traffic accident. However, there are still many people park at the restricted area even though they know that it is dangerous and prohibited. Sometimes people did indiscriminate parking because they are lazy to walk, or they are lazy to pay for the parking lot prices. Although the parking lot cost cheap, they are still lazy to park at the right place. Anyway, what’s the difficult thing to park at the parking lot? You just need to spend few money? It’s still better than you get fined from police due to indiscriminate parking? 15
  21. 21. Resources: http://koran-sindo.com/publics/imagecache/detail/10/images/news/20%20 September%202013/20130921%20jbr%20hal%2013%20(RAMBU%20hanya%2 0Jadi%20PajanganJALAN).jpg (up left) http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/00673/Trichy_673992f.jpg (up right), http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--l-CMcnGkk4/UDNxClYYAcI/AAAAAAAABdc/xfrCp blDwMo/s1600/parkir-sembarangan3.jpg (down left), my photograph taken by me (down right)  Being emotional while Driving: No matter how professional their driving is, it is very dangerous if the driver could not control the emotion. The inability to control emotion will lead you to fatal accident. For example if you are impatient, you might do tailgating or over speeding. Fighting while you driving is also very dangerous. That’s because when you are fighting. You will lose your concentration. 16
  22. 22. Driver are easily to get emotional especially young driver, which leads you do the bad things. It’s not easy to control emotion while you are driving especially when someone hits even nudge your vehicle. So that’s why children underage are not permitted to drive because they don’t have the ability to control their emotion. Even if they are under supervision, it’s still very dangerous. Dear parent, please don’t let your children drive your vehicle. If they accidentally broke it, you will be the one who responsible right?  Drunk and Drowsy Driving (Sleepy While Driving): When you are doing things, please focus on one thing. Accident in driving is mostly caused by distracted driving, one of them is drowsy driving. Drowsy driving is caused by lack of concentration when driving. Institute of Medicine report that 20 percent of world motor vehicle accident. Second, drowsy driving is caused by lack of rest which affect your physical performances. Humans need sufficient rest to maximize and strengthen their performance. Even adult needs at least 7-8 hours of sleeping rest every day. However, the people who are lack of sleep is getting more. Lack of sleep will reduce your performance especially if you are lack of breakfast too in the morning. It’s also sharply influence your driving performance which cause you to drowsy driving. 17
  23. 23. (http://ut.zerofatalities.com/img/prevention/drowsy_driving.jpg) The third factor that leads to drowsy driving is getting drunk while driving. Drink alcohol while driving will weakened your immunes system which can lead to drowsy. You will also lose your concentration when you are drunk. In 2005, 16.885 people died in alcohol-related crash which takes 39 % of all-traffic related crash. There is also a fact that says in UK 1/5 17-18 years old teen drive after drink or taking drug. Government of UK figures that there are four 17-18 years old drivers died from accident every day. (http://vote29.com/newmyblog/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/drunk-driver.j pg) 18
  24. 24.  Pedestrian Accident: Vehicle can make accident either to vehicle or pedestrian. Pedestrian accident is terrible accidents, it is the matter of life and death. This problem is getting serious. In some large urban areas, pedestrians account for as much as 40-50 % casualties. Pedestrian accident is caused either by vehicle or pedestrian. The thing that leads them to traffic accident is negligence. That’s why I mention before that speeding is dangerous because somehow pedestrian might cross the road, even animals. Especially when you are in the road intersection, you can crash the pedestrians because you find difficulties to brake due to speeding. If you are not being defensive in driving, it is very possible for getting crash. Lack of concentration can also lead to collision between vehicle and pedestrians. However, most of the time pedestrians’ accident can also be pedestrians fault. These are the bad habits of pedestrian that can lead to accident: 19
  25. 25.  Not looking at the left and right before you are crossing.  Running while crossing (being in a rush).  Listening to the music or playing with your devices.  You don’t cross in the safe places such as Zebra Cross or Pedestrian Crossing Bridge. Please don’t follow those habits. Always enhance your safety while you are crossing the road. (http://personalinjurylawyermoncton.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ped estrian-accident-injured.jpg) (http://www.toomeylawoffice.com/images/pedestrian-accidents.jpg) 20 Please concentrate while you are crossing. Focus on the road sight not your expensive device.
  26. 26. 2.Vehicle Factor: Beside human factor, technical problem in vehicle can also lead to traffic accident. Wrong vehicle design or lack of maintenance can trigger to vehicle error. Damages in one part can affect the entire system in your vehicle. So these are the problem that commonly happens in your vehicle part. Tire: Tire is the only vehicle part that makes contact with the road. If you don’t take care the tire well, how can your vehicle move safely? Lack of maintenance is the first cause of tire problem. Your vehicle needs sufficient pressure. If it doesn’t have enough pressure, your tire might explode. It can also affect your car handling, even the fuel. Next, overload can result tire damage. Sometimes when people have a long trip, they love to overload their vehicle without considering the capacity. The third factor and not the least is being careless. They drive careless or not careful in driving such as driving in a wavy or bumpy road. They don’t pass at the right road. Roads especially the unpaved roads that are full of rocks, sand or gravel might be dangerous because it can destroy the rubber of your tire. Even spikes can be found on the road which can explode your tire.
  27. 27. 21 (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-5vjyhICZl2o/UVcEot6AJuI/AAAAAAAAO5k/qwhV w61JKr0/s1600/flat+tire.png) (http://www.kiosban.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Ban-Kempes1.jpg) Brake: Without brake, your vehicle will not be able to stop. Your speed will not be controlled. There are some signs that your vehicle has problem within the brake. When you press the brake, your car voices squeal. You might notice that your car swerving to the left or right. The squealing of the brake might indicate that the brake pads are getting to low and they need to be replaced. Lack of maintenance can also cause problem within brake. Choosing vehicles without ABS (Anti-Lock Breaking System) is also a big problem because it let the wheel locked while braking. While if you are using ABS, you can brake more slowly or more relax. However, you don’t need to worry because vehicle nowadays are fulfilled with ABS. 22
  28. 28. Light: You see the front car with no lights on. That’s terribly dangerous. Why could that ha human negligence either forget or even lazy to turn on the light. Technical problem can also be the cause, either the lights car cannot be switched on. Other than that, disastrous weather can also be the cause. We will never know when the weather will occur. Disastrous weather can happen anytime without our notice. Driving without lights on is terribly dangerous. Driving at the night where the situation is very dark is super dangerous because it will lose your view when you drive. On the day, driving with lights on is also recommended for safety reason because anything dangerous such as disaster can happen any time without our notification. You see the car at the front? Is it dangerous to drive without lights on? (www.news.com.au) 23
  29. 29. 3.Weather Factor: Global Warming has becoming the most serious problem in this modern era. The climate has totally changed. Now, we cannot predict the climate exactly so we will never know when bad disaster will happen. Then, what is the connection between disaster and traffic accident? Chances of accident can increase due to disastrous weather. The impact of bad weather is also very severe. But we’ll never know when bad weather happen and the impacts afterwards. Rain, snowstorms, and fog can make drivers to see the view in the front. Even hail storm, or the ice rain can happen suddenly which can cause the car destructed, destroyed in the mirror. And if you are riding motorcycle, your head can be attacked by hailstorm. Strong or sudden-cross wind is also very dangerous. It can make the driver difficult to stay in their lane. On average, there are over 6.301.000 vehicle crashes each year, 24 % of it which take 1,511,000 are weather related crashes. That’s very catastrophic. Especially, the global warming is closely approaching. The weather is getting worse throughout the time changes. We cannot ensure the weather. Adverse weather can occur anytime. That’s why before you drive, always sure that the weather outside is secure. 24
  30. 30. Several pictures of the bad weather or disaster that threaten the safety: (www.whatindonews.com) (www.mraeder-photography.blogspot.com) (www.floridalightning.com) (www.forwallpaper.com) (www.integrityroofingandpainting.com) 25
  31. 31. Impacts of Traffic Accident Have you understand the causes of traffic accident? But you need to know also the deadly impacts of traffic accident. Imagine, how many people died in the world due to traffic accident? Can you imagine that trillions of money loss as a result of traffic accidents? Even how much money you spent for hospital due to traffic accident is already super huge (the longer the time, the more budget). What will your future be like after traffic accidents? Those can be answered in this section. 1.Health: Traffic accident carries the highest risk to our health. It can also affect other people health to. Health impact includes mental health (psychological health) or physical health. Road accidents is one of the deadliest things that can kill human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that there are 1.3 million people died every year due to the road accident. Fantastic death isn’t it. So the number of people who injured must be more than that. The World Health Organization also stated that road accident attack people who are still in the level of productive age from 22-50 years old. 26
  32. 32. The mental health and physical health due to traffic accident will connect to each other. Even just because you fall down from the motorcycle and you are not wearing helmet, it can make your leg become disable, and there will be head injury or in scientific name you called it as “Trauma Capitis”. Physical injuries will cause mental injuries. One of them is when you are being traumatized, like afraid of driving or riding car. The other thing that you need to consider is the relation with the economic impacts. How big is the money that your family spent in order to pay the hospital and medicine? (http://images.wjla.com/commute/clinton-car-house-olabanji_296.jpg) (http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2013/4/7/1365 336114471/Disabled-man-in-wheelchai-008.jpg) 27 Can you imagine if your body part is broken and you have to walk in wheel chair due to traffic accident. Can you imagine if you lose your friends or family who killed in traffic accident?
  33. 33. 2.Economic: Traffic accident is one of the most severe disasters that can strongly influence economic of nations. The tragedy of traffic accidents can happen anytime and anywhere. And everyone can be the victims of traffic accident. Mostly the victims of traffic accidents are people in productive age, which are workers for around 30 years old. The impact of traffic accident, firstly impact families. Traffic accident is family tragedy. You feel like you lost everything when you just lost even one of your family members. Accident will reduce your productivity. Can you imagine how sorrow if you just lose your parents who died from accident? Will the child still go to school? Do you want your child to discontinue school and lost their future? Traffic accident can also impact to the environment and societies which eventually impact the economy of nation. This will involve many things. Traffic accident will cause devastation to properties which make the government have to pay for all the destruction, while the one who break it is the drivers. Traffic accident can also cause many worker died in the journey. What will happen if the workers are lost. The worker will have to pay for the hospital and treatment for worker. Obviously, losing worker will reduce the productivity of companies. That is why accident will impact the economics of the country. 28
  34. 34. (http://www.ksatlantainjurylaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Bus_Cras h_Rear.22605436_std.jpg) (http://images.wjla.com/commute/clinton-car-house-olabanji_296.jpg) 29 Accident is the cause of poverty of financial problem. Imagine if parent died from accident, who will survive the family. If you’re a parent, will you let your child work and quit school. Your car is broken? Remember repairing car is not cheap. But what if you have to buy the new one?
  35. 35. Traffic Accidents in Indonesia Today, I would like to share you something special. It's about traffic accident in Indonesia, my country. Do you know that Indonesia is one of the country with the highest number of traffic accident in the world? But many people still don't realise how big is traffic accident in Indonesia. According to the WHO (World Health Organization) data, Indonesia is positioned in rank 54 from 192 as the country with the highest traffic accident in 2011 causing 47,084 deaths which is 3.37 % of total death. Annually, there are 33.000 people who died due to traffic accident in Indonesia. It is 6 times larger than the number victims of Typhoon Haiyan which is only around 5.000. However, the tragedy of traffic accidents in Indonesia gets very less attention. While the Typhoon Haiyan gets full attention from all over the world. So, I'm writing this to share knowledge about traffic accident in Indonesia. Nevertheless, knowledge only isn't enough, we need implementation. I hope by reading this, we can understand more about the accident in Indonesia and we can pay more attention to this case. 30
  36. 36. What are the causes of Traffic Accident in Indonesia: According to the Global Report Status on Road Safety 2013, traffic accident is the 8th rank of the deadliest cause of traffic accident. Do you know that most of the time, traffic accident attack people from 15-29 years old? In every population of 100,000 people, 18 people died due to traffic accident. 1,3 million people died due to traffic accident in the world. While 20-50 million of people suffered serious injury. In fact, the number of victim of traffic accident in Indonesia is positioned in rank 5 from 182 countries. Why could that happen? To understand further, let learn the causes of Traffic Accident in Indonesia. 1. Lack of Understanding in Traffic Rules: When you read a novel, do you usually read the synopsis? When you have a new phone, do you learn the manual book earlier? If you want to cook food, do you read the recipe first? It's the same like when you are driving. Did anybody ever taught you about traffic rules? Do you understand how to behave well when you are driving? Do you understand the traffic rules? 31
  37. 37. Human factor especially in driving is the biggest factor of traffic accident. Although many of them has license, but they don't understand the basic rules of safety in driving. Even many of them drive without having license or even parents supervision. They know how to drive, how to accelerate or turning on their car. But they don’t understand on how to be defensive in driving, they never use seatbelt, helmet, often do tailgating and many more. Lately, there are more driver or rider of motorbike who wear helmet. But as you can see, there are many motorbike or car who loves to overspeed, passing in the wrong lane, cutting the line, or even over capacity. It’s very dangerous. (www.kaskus.co.id) (forum.detik.com) 2. Careless: When you are driving, please make sure that you are be careful. Pay attentention and concentrate when you are driving. Please also remember this tips: No rush when you are driving. In my opinion, the reason why people are careless in driving is because low level of discipline. They don't pay full attention and lack of concentration. 32
  38. 38. Other reason is because of bad time management. It is one of the culture of most Indonesian people which is being late. When they wake up late, they have to be in a rush for breakfast and take a shower. When they're in the journey, the situation is congested and they even more rushing. When the congestion is reducing, they have to drive very fast and suddenly they crash a cart or something else. That is the form of careless in driving. 3. Lack of Traffic Sign and Facilities: Indonesia is still lacking of traffic sign and facilities. Traffic facilities and signs is also need to fulfil the safety of traffic. However in reality, there are still many places that are lack of traffic sign and facilities. I'd like to show you some pictures: Is it safe if a road in a mountainous area has no fence at the edges. What if a bicycle without light falls to the ravine at night? 33
  39. 39. (www.man5amuntai.sch.id) What are the impacts of Traffic Accident in Indonesia? The impact of traffic accident in Indonesia is very serious. There are many victims from traffic accident. Traffic accident is also the source of poverty in Indonesia. Do you know that traffic accident cause 62 % of poverty in Indonesia. Averagely, there are 33.000 people died annually/every year in Indonesia from traffic accident or 80 people died/day. The financial lost is around Rp. 200 Trillion per year. Fantastic !!! In 2010, traffic accidents in Indonesia cause 31.244 deaths. In the following year, 2011, it rise up to 32.657 deaths, in 2012 there are 27.441 victims died. 34 What happen to this road? - Unpaved? - Dirty? - Not smooth surface? Full of rock?
  40. 40. Last year, there are several improvement. The number of victims from traffic accidents is reducing. There are 25.157 deaths, 29.347 people suffer hard injury and 113.131 people suffer light injury. According to the report from Mabes Polri, there are 101.037 traffic accidents. That means every hour there are 12 traffic accidents in 2013. The value of financial loss is Rp.254.6 million. What are the solutions to overcome the Problem? Overall, I conclude that the traffic accidents in Indonesia are slightly reducing in 2013. However, it's not satisfying yet, there are still many things needs to be improved. In my context, there are several potential solutions that can be implemented to create better traffic system. It first comes from the facility. The role of government is to facilitate enough infrastructures to the traffic. They have to give regular maintenance and paving all roads also add fence at the edge of the road, control the traffic, giving traffic signs and many more. That is the first step in order to create good traffic. The next step is to make the citizen adhering all the rules. That is the job of police. Police needs to give clear rule and strengthen all the rules. It is very good for police to give reminder or signs that guides the traffic safety such as the billboard like "please wear helmet", "please wear seatbelt", "don't drive when you are drowsy" and many more. That is a good effort. 35
  41. 41. However, when someone is breaking the rules, police needs to give consequences either asking for fines or imprison to offender (the one who break the rule). But polices need to be discipline too and never accept any bribes. If the rules and facilities are sufficent and fulfiling, I'm sure that the citizens of Indonesia can be more discipline and strict. The more the discipline the rule the more safe and conducive environment and less accident. I hope in the future the accidents in Indonesia will be reduced. As a people who loves Indonesia, lets show our best to show our disciplinary in traffic to shape brighter future. Data: This is the official data of Indonesian Road Accident. This data was given by DR.Waluyo, Chairman of National Safety Board and Health council. 36
  42. 42. Then I made the tabulated data to graphical data using Microsoft Word: 37 Overall, I conclude that the number of traffic/road accident Indonesia is increasing from 2007 and 2011. In my opinion, accident is caused mostly from human factor/human error or lack of facilities. Too many numbers of vehicles also leads to traffic accident. The highest number of road accident in Indonesia is in 2010. In 2011, it’s slightly reduced. However, the number of traffic accident in Indonesia is considerably high.
  43. 43. Survival Guide of Traffic Safety Can you understand how dangerous traffic accident to human life? How terrible and how deadly accident So now is? your job as the future citizen of your nation is to prioritize safety as a way to be aware of accident and to prioritize safety. Safety is my priority… Just remember that the world we live currently is dangerous. Any dangerous thing might happen in our surrounding, in our community. When you are on the road, crossing the road or railroad, when you are driving or even riding, or even when you are before the journey, you need to prioritize safety. In this chapter, I would like to demonstrate you some “Survival Guide of Traffic Safety”. The road where you step is always dangerous. A car might hit you from the right or left lane. Do you want that to happen to you? Everyone wants their life to be safe because safety is the key of happiness. Hence, all you need to do is just follow the safety rules. These are the guides for traffic safety: 1.Always Pray before and after the journey: Remember God. To Him you will pray. Before the journey, don’t ever forget to pray to Him for safety. Pray first, safety first. Don’t forget to pray to when you have arrive in your designated place safely. You must be thankful to God for all the safety given. 38
  44. 44. 2.Pedestrian Safety: Before we discuss about driving safety, let’s talk about pedestrian safety first. How to cross the road safely? Have you understands? Pedestrian accident isn’t small accident. It’s a very big traffic accident. In fact 25 % of road traffic fatalities concern pedestrian. In some large urban areas, pedestrians account for as much as 40-50 % casualties. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conclude that there are around 5.000 pedestrian died in motor vehicle accident per year. There are about 78.000 pedestrian crashed by car or trucks per year. So these are the tips for crossing the road for pedestrians:  Always look at the right side and left side before you cross the road.  Cross road slowly, not in a rush.  Use the Zebra Cross when you cross the road intersection. But however, crossing using the crossing bridge is much better.  Ensure that the traffic light for pedestrian has shown green because in some road intersection there are traffic light for pedestrian.  Always put your hands up while you are crossing the road 39
  45. 45.  Children must cross the street under the supervision of adults.  Concentrate. Don’t be sleepy while you are crossing the road.  Put down your device while you are crossing the road By following those tips, I hope you can be safe while you are crossing the road. www.turningpointtechnology.com 40 Don’t cross the road when vehicle is still crossing. The left picture shows the discipline or the proper way of crossing the road. When somebody cross, vehicle must stop to respect the pedestrian.
  46. 46. 3.Defensive Driving: Defensive driving is a set of driving skill that allows you to defend yourself against possible collisions caused by bad drivers, bad road conditions, or poor weather. Being defensive driving also shows your awareness to the potential hazard that might happen. You also need to be strong in avoid other distraction. However, defensive driving requires driving to think ahead, and driving with safety becomes something first in your mind. These are the ways of defensive driving. o Don’t hit and nudge anything: Just remember that your car is super sensitive things. When you drive, please concentrate and always look at your surrounding. Even when you are just walking in the middle of the crowded area, you don’t want to let your body nudge anything. 41 If you cross using crossing bridge, that’s much saver than using zebra cross.
  47. 47. o Wear Seatbelt: This is what you must do when you ride car. Not only car, when you ride aero plane you also wear seat belt to protect you from air crashes. Wearing seatbelt is part of following traffic rules. Seatbelt is designed to protect car and trucks driver from severe injury. Do you know that seatbelt reduce the risk of death by 45 % and risk of injury by 50 %? In fact seatbelt save 13,000 lives in 2009. Hence, wearing seatbelt is mandatory, and there is no any excuse which allows you to not wear seatbelt. Wear seat There are many advantages and benefits of wearing seatbelt. Seatbelt saves so many people life. It avoids you from being injured. Even when you are crashed already, your risk of being injured is lower. It can also protect you from being expelled from the vehicle. So please always wear seatbelt, not only in the airplane. Although you ride car, bus or truck which is only land vehicle, but seatbelt is still the element for safety. 42
  48. 48. By wearing seatbelt, we can drive and ride more confidently, we feel that we are saver and we will not get ticketed by police. However, if you don’t wear seatbelt, police will fine your vehicle, or maybe they can confiscate your vehicle. So which one you’d prefer, buckle up your seatbelt or pay up for fines? (www.wysbc.org) (blogusalaw.com) (kansascity.legalexaminer.com) 43
  49. 49. o Wearing helmet: Wearing helmet deliver so many advantages to prevent us from traffic accidents. Head is sensitive things, so if your head is damaged your entire body will be damaged. Crashing vehicle or properties surrounding when you ride motorcycle or bike is so risky. By wearing helmet, your head is strongly protected from rigid things like cars, pavements, rocks, car border, and other solid things that are scattered on the road. You still have the chance to survive although you are crashed. Secondly, wearing helmet also leads to healthy life. When you are driving on the day, the air and temperature outside must be very toasty. The sunlight keeps heating you up. Helmet will protect you from sunlight and avoid skin cancer. It can also protect you from dangerous rainfall even hail storm. But many people say that wearing helmet make us looks ugly? Are you sure? “I don’t want to wear helmet. If I wear helmet, people will not see my beautiful long hair and the shiny face. I will never look fashionable. So, what’s the use of wearing helmet then”. 44
  50. 50. Some people assume that wearing helmet reduce their appearance quality. Are you sure with that? I don’t think so because if you don’t wear helmet, your skin might get burned from sunlight, your hair will be dirty, and your body will be dusty. But if you wear helmet, your head will be clean and protected. Helmet makes you safe and safety creates healthy and happy life. Additionally for safety reason, please wear the helmet with light colour at night because if you wear dark colour of helmet it might lead to accident. In Australia and USA, wearing helmet is already part of their culture even when they ride bicycle. (www.keepmecurly.blogspot.com) 45
  51. 51. o Be careful in Road Intersection: Please be careful when you are driving in the road intersection. This is the place where accident is commonly happen, particularly when the road intersection isn’t provided with traffic light. But nowadays, there are more road intersection that provides traffic light. However, it doesn’t mean that “we don’t need to be defensive in driving. When the light is red, you need to stop immediately because if you trespass the red light, other vehicle from other side might collide your car. Road intersection also provides zebra cross which allows pedestrian to cross the road. When you stop at the red light, don’t get to close to the zebra cross otherwise it will block the pedestrian who wants to cross the zebra cross. If the traffic light comes to green, please ensure that the zebra cross is clear from pedestrian and the vehicle in different road stop. When it’s done, you can go safely. 46
  52. 52. (www.theurbancountry.com) 4. Highway Safety: Driving in highway always requires high speed. That’s why drivers in highway always drive very fast. However, you need to be aware from highway accident. Since there are many vehicles running in high speed, bigger accident could possibly happens. These are the safety tips when you are on the highway. First, control your speed. You must drive fast in high speed. But remember, every highway has speed limit. Don’t exceed your speed limit while you’re driving because it’s very dangerous. But when you are in highway remember, you are not allowed to drive in low speed. 47
  53. 53. Every highway has speed limit. (www.couriermail.com.au) Second, please stay focus. Driving in a high speed needs strong concentration. You need to look at the front, no texting or phoning while you are driving. It’s better for you to deactivate or silent your mobile phone or switch off your car TV when you are on journey. If you are not capable enough to concentrate well, it’s better for you not to listen to the music, especially if the music makes you become sleepy. Third, is keep in distance. Always stay at the safe and comfort distance. Don’t get too close with the car in front of you. This is aimed to avoid tailgating, because when you’re the car in front of you suddenly brakes, you might crash. If you are driving at 100 km/h, you have to stay at least 50 metre from the vehicle behind or front. 48
  54. 54. Please also stay in the correct and safe lane. Don’t access the emergency lane if your car isn’t break down. But ambulance or fire fighter are allowed to access the emergency lane. This is the example of keeping safe distance between vehicles on the highway. (http://www.athomeintuscany.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/road03.j pg) Four, please look at the mirror before you overtake other vehicle. It’s because when you overtake other vehicle, you will move to other lane. You need to be aware when you are moving to other lane because you need to look at the condition of the road and vehicle behind. If you think is secured enough, you can go ahead to overtake the vehicle at the front. But don’t forget to switch on the turning light while you overtake. Last tips, it’s very important is go to the rest area if you are not sure with the condition of your body and your vehicle. Driving in the highway might be something exhausted. You might get sleepy when you are on long journey in highway. Perhaps, you can refuel at rest area. 49
  55. 55. Please ensure that you have enough fuel when you are driving. If you’re fuel is nearly finished, you can refuel your car at the rest area. Ensure too that your car machine is all right. If there are some problems, you can go to rest area for fuel refill or fixing your car. Notes: When your car goes break down in the highway, please display the safety triangle at least 20 meters behind your vehicle so that other vehicle behind can notice the condition of your car. This is one of the example: . (www.otomotif.kompas.com) 50
  56. 56. 5. Avoid Distractions: Distracted driving is the act of driving while you are engaged in other activities. There are many forms of distraction that can make the driver killed in an accident such as looking after children, texting, talking while phoning or to other passengers, eating, reading books while driving, and many more. People who drive while getting drunk are obviously part of distracted drivers. It can make you become drowsy driver. Texting and phoning throughout the driving can also lead you to accident. Even the impact of texting and phoning is more than drinking alcohol. According to the research from the CDC (Centre for Disease Control), it was said distracted driving kills more than 15 people and injures more than 1.200 people every day. The NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) make a proverb saying that “ One Text or Call could wreck it all”. So furthermore, I would like to put some potential solutions to raise your awareness towards distraction in driving. These are the solutions:  The first thing you need to do is always pray and concentrate before you drive. Get your mind and body fresh. 51
  57. 57.  Always stay focus on one thing. You don’t need to do something else while you are driving. Don’t do other thing while you are driving.  No texting, phoning, or reading. Always silent your phone while you are driving.  It’s better to remember and memorize the road so you will not use the hand phone or other devices that can disturb you’re driving  Be careful. This is an important tip. There are some potential crimes or violation that happen when you are driving, especially when you are driving alone especially in quiet places. You need to be aware with strangers. They are smart, they can trick you in any kind of ways. Don’t trust them. So, please be sensitive or be aware from distractions when you are driving. Always stay focus whenever you are to avoid the distraction that might trigger to accident. Remember, accident can happen anywhere and anytime. Everything needs safety. 52
  58. 58. 6. Check your Vehicle before you drive: Before you are going to your office, do you check your body condition? Are you fresh and full enough after your breakfast? Do you look at the mirror to check your appearance; are you handsome or beautiful enough? I’m sure you must do it ritually. But do you check your vehicle, your car or motorcycle before you drive to the office. You need to check whether the vehicle is safe enough for you to drive. (www.thedetailingpros.com) Check your car parts and ensure that they are safe enough. You need to check your vehicle to create safe and comfortable journey, so you can arrive in the designated place safety. The first thing that you need to check is the tire because tire is the only vehicle part that makes contact with the road. You need to check the tire pressure, because lack of tire pressure can lead to tire explosion. If you want your tire to stay cool, you need to pump the car tire at least one times every month. 53
  59. 59. It’s also better to check the inner car machine and the car battery before you turn on the car. If you have the problem when you turn on car engine, means you need to change your car battery with the new one. (http://blogs.cars.com/kickingtires/2012/06/car-repair-costs-drop-but- southwest-still-pays-most.html) The second thing you need to check is the fuel. You need to have sufficient amount of fuel to avoid your vehicle from getting break down. Make sure that you do it every time before you drive. Before you drive and accelerate the car, please heat up the car. Your car machine is like the human brain. 54
  60. 60. (www.growtheenergy.org) Before you do something, it needs to be refreshed. Please ensure that your car has been heated before you accelerate. That’s very good for preserving your car engine. If you have ensured with the vehicle engine, you need also check your car appearance. No matter how cheap and expensive the vehicle is, but you need to take care well. It’s like you take a bath every day. You need to wash your vehicle regularly, to keep your vehicle become shiny. Don’t just wash the outer part of the vehicles, you need to wash the inner part such as the engine to remove all the dirt. Washing the engine on vehicles can also improve your car performance. 55
  61. 61. When your vehicle gets dirty, please immediately wash it. Just like my bicycle, even when there are muds on the tire, I deliberately watch all the body parts. Isn’t it good and comfortable to have clean and safe vehicle. (editorial.auto.msn.com) 7.Park at the Right Place: No parking in the wrong places, no parking on the street, and don’t ever try to parking on the restricted area. Parking in restricted area shows that you are indiscipline in driving, and it can lead you to accident. Imagine if you are park your car on the street, and the car at the back suddenly crashed because the driver doesn’t notice that you are parking. 56
  62. 62. Traffic jams is also the result of indiscriminate parking. If you don’t want traffic accident to kill your life, if you don’t want traffic jams to waste your life, don’t ever park in restricted area. Park in the parking lot and don’t forget to pay if it’s not free. When you park, please make sure that your vehicle is locked, and your car remains safe. (www.iw.lodz.pl) 57
  63. 63. 8.Crossing the Railroad Safety Guides: Railroad crossing is the intersection where the road vehicles and train meet each other. However, this intersection could be extremely dangerous places if there is accident even just once. Even a gigantic truck could be totally destroyed from train crash. The train crash could cause damages in many properties such as the rail and vehicles. It can cause the dismissal of train journey and some distractions on road traffic? Do you want this to happen? Hence, these are the following solutions that you must do when you cross the railroad.  Before you cross the railroad, please look at the right and then the left. When you are sure that the railroads crossing are secured, you can cross.  Don’t trespass the gate because it can make you stuck in the rail cross.  To avoid traffic jams in the railroad crossing, please don’t trespass or overtake other vehicle.  Slow down when you are approaching and crossing the railway cross. But don’t be too slow when you cross the railroad.  In some railroad crossing, there might be no gates. So please be more and extra careful to anticipate accidents in railroad crossing. 58
  64. 64.  Please precede the train journey because train always chasing the schedule, and because the train always carries heavy weight, so it’s very difficult for train to brake. (www.cofluencedrive.com) (http://www.cal-driver-ed.com/DMV-images/61hop.gif) 59
  65. 65. 9. Maximize the Infrastructure: Infrastructure is very important to support traffic safety. Road, traffic signs, crossing bridge, and many more are part of infrastructure for traffic safety. Government needs to facilitate people for traffic safety. That is the role of government and they have the authority to do it. These are the ways to improve the infrastructure for Traffic Safety: Paved all roads and built fence in every road edges: To create conducive road, it is very important to pave every roads. There are several advantage of paving the road.  Affordable and doesn’t cost much budget.  Save time.  Creates smoother road surface which cause less damage to vehicle.  Cause less damage to vehicle as it has smoother road surface.  Paved road creates better traffic flow which can alleviate traffic congestion. However, paved road requires consistent maintenance to minimize road damage. Additionally, every edge of the road must have fence for safety reason. 60
  66. 66. (www.williamkneely.com) (www.dreamstime.com) Build more pedestrian safety infrastructure: How many people died because they are crashed by car or motorcycle? Can you imagine if there are no zebra cross? So why do you think zebra cross is important. Zebra cross is important so people can cross safely. Zebra cross line also gives indication that it is the place for people to cross. When vehicle closely approach zebra cross, they can slow down the vehicle to precede pedestrian cross. However, it would be better if pedestrian cross using the crossing bridge. When there are no traffic lights like in the road intersection, vehicle can drive in any speed. Other reason why crossing bridge is safe is because it doesn’t make contact with road. We will not be distracted by the traffic flow. Vehicles can also pass the road more comfortable. 61
  67. 67. That’s why crossing bridge needs to be provided for the safety of pedestrian. Every road intersection needs zebra cross. (www.temporarybridges.com) Bridge that connect malls in Hungary. (www.ookaboo.com) 62 Crossing using pedestrian bridge will give safe and comfortable place to cross because crossing bridge will not interfere the traffic. Pedestrian bridge can also built good integration system which can alleviate traffic congestion. That’s why it’s very good to have bridge between malls or bridges that connect mall to the station.
  68. 68. Provide more Traffic Signs: Traffic signs are important as a reminder for safety. Without traffic signs, it is the like when you live without rules. Rules is important to create discipline and strict life. Lack of discipline is one of the thing triggers to accident. However, sometimes weak rules can also cause to traffic accident. Many people don’t understand the rules. To make people understand the rules, traffic signs need to be provided. To avoid over-speeding, every road must have speed limit sign. Put the no parking sign if it is not parking zone. Put also no-stop sign if vehicle cannot stop in the road. In every road intersection which is very crowded, it is better to have traffic light. Traffic light can make the road intersection become more organize. It can also minimize the traffic accident. That’s why traffic sign is very important; it’s the teacher when you are on the road. 63 Pedestrian Cross Sign…. Although in resident are, but there are still speed limit.
  69. 69. 10. Be aware from Dangerous Crimes: Traffic safety here doesn’t always refer to safety to avoid vehicle collision or death on the road. But it can also teach you how to avoid from the criminalities on the road such as car destruction or robberies. There are many bad people in human environment. Everyone can be bad people. We cannot suspect whether he/she is a bad people. But what I want for everyone is to have awareness and be careful from stranger or someone who you don’t know. There are so many strangers on the road, so please be careful. These are the tips for the Safety to be aware from crimes:  When you are not in vehicle, don’t leave your luxurious stuffs.  If you’re on the night car journey, don’t turn on the interior light. It’s dangerous, someone can spy you.  When stranger ask you to stop your vehicle, don’t bother them. He might want to trick you.  Wear helmet when you ride motorbike because people won’t see your face clearly.  Put your vehicle in your garage, not in front of your house  Lock your car door every time you are on journey.  Lock your vehicle steer when you’re out so someone won’t be able to drive your vehicle. 64
  70. 70. Let’s Build Traffic Safety Culture  Avoid Accident by Safety Culture: Remember this world is too dangerous. How many people died from traffic accident? It’s totally unpredictable. What if the people injured? It’s even more unpredictable. That shows how big and terrible accident is in this World. Traffic accident is something that cannot be stop, it can attack us anytime. However we can avoid traffic accident by implement safety culture in daily life. After you read this book, you understand the theories of how to be safe on the road and driving. But knowing is not enough, it needs the apply in your daily life. Remember safety! Safety Culture ! Safety is everything.  Safety Starts from Our-self: If you are living in bad environment or bad culture, it doesn’t mean that the environment cannot change. Every people expect to live in safe environment. However, it must begin from the positive habits. Before you expect other people to do your expectation, you need to show your best of what you expect. That’s because people will not always directly do on what you expect. 65
  71. 71. Just show your best. At the past, I never wear seatbelt or helmet when I rode vehicle. But since my parents always remind me and they always wear seatbelt or helmet consistently, I start to do that habit gradually. Please change your way of life first. Don’t get easily influenced by the bad habit in your society. Please start to build good habit and do it consistently. Just like in sport and music, if you don’t practice it consistently, how can you get the benefits? But, additionally if you keep doing your positive habits, other people will feel touched from you and they will start to follow your positive habits. I really expect you to always follow safety rules especially the basic things like wearing seatbelt and helmet. When you are driving, please focus and don’t get distracted.  Safety is Easy and Cheap: There is no reason to say, safety is hard like “Why should I wear seatbelt?” or “What is the point of wearing helmet?” or “I don’t really care about safety rules, as long I can arrive in the designated place”. That’s not a good reason. You must keep your safety in your mind and heart. Safety is easy. There is no excuse that safety is hard. Just like when you wear seatbelt. It’s simple right? You can wear it every time you ride car because all modern car today provides seatbelt. Just click one, and your live saved. Seatbelt is a savoury. 66
  72. 72. In fact, seatbelt save thousands live of people. CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) conclude that seatbelt save 255.000 lives since 1975. But compare it if you don’t wear seatbelt. If you crash something, your body part will get serious injury. Eventually, you must go to hospital. Who will pay for it? It’s not only yourself, but your family, friends or even your company might get involved. CDC said that in one year alone, crash deaths and injuries to drivers and passengers cost $70 billion in medical and work cost. That is the evident that safety is easy and cheap. Whenever and wherever you are safety is the key. Without safety, you will hit by accident. Accident is expensive and it makes your life difficult. It also can broke your future.  What can we do to change the future? After you read this book, now you understand all the knowledge from how dangerous is traffic accident until the guidance of traffic safety. It’s all provided in this book. Now it’s time for you to implement since now. No need to postpone it. Time keeps changing. The World has change into the modern era with more sophisticated technology. Technology is everywhere and you use it anytime in your lifetime including the traffic safety technologies. All cars today are provided with seatbelts even airbags which protect you from injury of collision. 67
  73. 73. There are also ABS create more comfortable in car braking. Motorcycle also has safer technologies. Just like in my motorcycle. If I don’t kick the kickstand, the machine won’t active. Fantastic!!! Time goes by from past to the future. We will never know what will our future looks like. But we do know that everything keeps changing. So, if you want to change the future, please start to change yourself first. Change your behaviour. Modern World and technologies must be followed by modern behaviour. Just like the behaviour or manner of Traffic Safety. As I have mentioned before that Safety begins from us. If you want other people and environment to change, why don’t you change yourself first? It’s easy. You just need to wear seatbelt every time you drive or ride car, wearing helmet if you ride motorcycle, keeping yourself in safe distance when you drive and many more. You might live in bad environment where most people have a bad habit. Just like in my environment, many people even my close friend doesn’t like to wear seatbelt. But when they see I’m wearing seatbelt, they start to follow the example. I’m sure if you start to give positive example and you do it consistently, people will follow the example and they gradually change. If you can change yourself, everybody and everything will change. 68
  74. 74. Wisdom Quotes 69 We must respect the past, and mistrust the present, if we wish to provide the safety for the future – Joseph Joubert - SAFETY FIRST, THEN HEALTHY, THEN WEALTHY – DR. George Cui - 3 Causes of Accidents: - I didn’t think - I didn’t see - I didn’t know (Unknown) Yesterday is gone Tomorrow has not yet come We have only today……Let’s begin !!! - Mother Teresa - -
  75. 75. About Me My name is Naufal Ilham Arrafi, but you can call me Naufal. I’m really thankful to everyone who have read this book. I hope the content of this book will be beneficial. If you have understands all the information and guidance of traffic safety, now it’s time for you to implement it in your real life. Let me share you about my profile. I’m Naufal who born at Jakarta, 16 October 1997. I have 2 brothers and I’m the youngest child. I’m 16 years old and recently I’m studying at Grade 10 at Sekolah Victory Plus (SVP), Bekasi. Since I was young, my hobby is writing and reading a book although I’m not really talented. My other hobbies are riding bicycle, playing badminton, travelling and listening to music. However, my number one hobby is still reading and writing. I love to write any articles at my blog. If you curious about it, you can visit www.ennaufal.blogspot.com . But I never make a book before so this is the first book that I made. This book is made for my big project named “Personal Project”. I want to make a book as product because I think it’s effective. I’m really thankful to my school for giving me opportunity to do this project. Thousands of thanks to my parents, teachers, friends, and anyone who support my project. I hope this project is successful and in the future I can be a writer.
  76. 76. My Expert’s Project Profile (DR.Waluyo) This project is a mega project and which really needs help from expert. I’m really thankful to him for expertise my project and give me official data about Traffic Safety. His name is DR. Waluyo, Chairman of National Safety Board and Health Council. Let me introduce you his profile and background:  Name : DR. Waluyo  Education : Ph. D Degree from University of Indonesia.  Experience : - Chairman of National Safety Board and Health Council (2010-now) - Senior Manager of Health and Safety, BP Indonesia, 1999-2002 - Director of HR and General Affair Pertamina Indonesia (2008-2010) - Vice President Business Ethics and Assurance – BP Indonesia (2003- 2004) - Deputy of Corruption Prevention in Commision of Corruption Eradiction (KPK)- 2004-2009
  77. 77. Bibliography  Books: - Eka Sari Lorena, AYO LAWAN KEMACETAN (Haryo Damardono, 2013, PT KOMPAS MEDIA NUSANTARA). - Talk About Drugs (Jacqui Bailey, 2008, Wayland)  Internet: - http://montirgw.com/tips-trick/detail/230-pentingnya-memakai-seat-b elt-dengan-benar#.UsUX9vRdVDA - http://www.nsc.org/safety_road/DriverSafety/Pages/Speeding.aspx - www.idkf.bogor.net/yuesbi/e-DU.KU/edukasi.net/Peng.Pop/Otomotif/M engendarai.Aman/fungsi.htm - http://www.ehow.com/facts_4885236_why-bike-helmets-important.html - http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/257886.php - www.sleepcenter.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=56 - www.healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/consequences/slee p-and-disease-risk - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/20563091 - http://www.safekids.org/walkingsafelytips - http://helmetpengarengan.blogspot.com/2013/04/fungsi-helm-bagi-pen gendara.html - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ly62FoZH_Dc - http://www.roadsafetymayo.ie/CausesofAccidents/ - http://www.tribunnews.com/metropolitan/2013/11/11/ancaman-huku man-pada-dul-polisi-serahkan-ke-kejaksaan - http://showbiz.liputan6.com/read/729950/terkuak-misteri-kecelakaan- dul-ahmad-dhani

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