1Shaletekk MAfter 7 years of research and development we can finally present a viable and credible process/systemwhich will allow cost-effective cold and environmentally friendly extraction of shale oil from the substrate,At Naturetekk we are dedicated to the promotion and commercialisation of this process;Shaletekk M. Acknowledgement and thanks to the Jordanian Government bodies and companies:The Higher Councilfor Science and TechnologyYarmouk University The NaturalResources AuthorityJordan PetroleumRefinery CompanyJordan University ofScience and TechnologyExtracting oil from oil shale is more complex thanconventional oil recovery.Hydrocarbons in oil shale are present in the form ofsolid, bituminous materials and hence cannot bepumped directly out of the geologic reservoir. The rockmust be heated to a high temperature, and the resultantliquid must be separated and collected. The heatingprocess is called retorting.Surface mining can recover much higher percentages ofin-place resources. The thickness of oil shale deposits,the amount of overburden and the presence ofsubsurface water can make surface mining difficult.Shale oil extraction is an industrial process forunconventional oil production. This process convertskerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis,hydrogenation or thermal dissolution. The resultant shaleoil is used as fuel oil or upgraded to meet refineryfeedstock specifications by adding hydrogen andremoving sulphur and nitrogen impurities.As of 2010 shale oil extraction is in operation withinEstonia, Brazil, and China. In 2008 their industriesproduced about 930,000 metric tonnes (17,700 barrelsper day) of shale oil. Australia, USA and Canada havetested shale oil extraction techniques via demonstrationprojects and are planning commercial implementation:Morocco and Jordan have announced their intent to dothe same. Only four processes are in commercial use:Kiviter, Galoter, Fushun and Petrosix.Conventional ProcessesAmerica’s oil shale reserves will potentially produceat least 1.5 trillion barrels of oil – approximately fivetimes the reserves of Saudi Arabia. Nobody isproducing commercial quantities of oil from thesevast deposits.Obviously, there are some very real obstacles to oilproduction from shale. “Oil shale is the fuel of thefuture, and always will be,” is a popular saying inWestern Colorado.
2Shaletekk MOil Shale DepositRefiningLiquid Fuels By-productsFracturingRetortingProduct RecoveryMiningIn-situ Ex-situ (Conventional)Spent ShaleCrushingRetortingThermal & ChemicalTreating Hydrogenation }Conventional ProcessesOil Shale Technology ProspectsProcesses for producing shale oil generally fall into one oftwo groups: mining followed by surface retorting and in-situretorting.Mining and Surface RetortingUnderground mining using the room-and-pillar method orsurface mining. The current state of the art in mining – bothroom-and-pillar and surface techniques, such as open pitmining – appears to be able to meet the requirements forthe commercial development of oil shale.Surface retorting involves crushing the mined oil shale andthen retorting it at about 900 to 1,000°F. The vessel in whichthis heating occurs is called a retort. The hot shale oilleaving the retort is not stable and must be sent directly toan upgrading plant for catalytic processing with hydrogento remove impurities and produce a stable product.This stable shale oil can be used as a refinery feedstockand should compete favourably with sweet, light crude oil.An oil shale plant operating on a commercial scale – that is,producing a minimum of 50,000 barrels per day – wouldneed to incorporate multiple retorts. As the residence timeof oil shale in the hot zone of a retort is nearly a half hour, aretort designed to produce 50,000 barrels of shale oil perday would need to be sized to contain more than 1,500tons of oil shale, which is well beyond the state-of-the-art.In-Situ RetortingIn-situ retorting entails heating oil shale in place, extractingthe liquid from the ground and transporting it to anupgrading facility.The mainstream methods involved burning a portion of theoil shale underground to produce the heat needed forretorting the remaining oil shale. This was unsuccessful,encountering serious problems in maintaining andcontrolling the underground combustion process andavoiding subsurface pollution.
3Environmental Issues of shale oil extractionThermally Conductive In-Situ ConversionA volume of shale is heated by electric heaters placed invertical holes drilled through the entire thickness (morethan a thousand feet) of a section of oil shale. To obtaineven heating over a reasonable time frame, between 15and 25 heating holes will be drilled per acre. After heatingfor two to three years, the targeted volume of the depositwill reach a temperature of between 650 and 700°F. Thisvery slow heating to a relatively low temperature(compared with the plus-900 degrees F temperaturescommon in surface retorting) is sufficient to cause thechemical and physical changes required to release oilfrom the shale. On an energy basis, about two-thirds ofthe released product is liquid and one third is a gas similarin composition to natural gas. The released product isgathered in collection wells positioned within the heatedzone.As part of site preparation, Shell’s current plan is to useground-freezing technology to establish an undergroundbarrier around the perimeter of the extraction zone.A “freeze wall” would be created by circulating arefrigerated fluid through a series of wells drilled aroundthe extraction zone. In addition to preventing groundwaterfrom entering the extraction zone, the freeze wall isintended to keep hydrocarbons and other productsgenerated by retorting, from leaving the project perimeterduring ground heating, product extraction, and postextraction ground cooling. The site preparation stage alsoinvolves the construction of power plants and powertransmission lines needed to supply electricity to theunderground heaters.Post-production cleanup involves steam flushing to removeremaining mobile hydrocarbons, ground cooling, removingthe freeze wall, and site reclamation.Shell plans to use ground-freezing technology to controlgroundwater during production. Ground-freezingtechnology is a well-established method for controllinggroundwater during construction and mining operations.Multi-kilometer barriers have been constructed andsustained for years.“The ICP process is clearly energy-intensive,as its driving force is the injection of heat intothe subsurface.”At the moment, Shell is not sure what the optimal size ofproduction zones ought to be. The issue here is how bigcan a freeze-wall be to become effective, freezing thegroundwater surrounding a shale deposit? The testprojects as you can see, were quite small. Shell doesn’tknow, or isn’t saying, what the optimum size is for each“pod” or “cell”.Nonetheless, applying ground-freezing to in-situconversion of oil shale requires resolving significanttechnical uncertainties to ensure that the frozenbarrier is structurally sound. Substantial uncertaintiesremain regarding the impact of in-situ retorting on thequality of groundwater. Retorting and removinghydrocarbons will change aquifer properties and will likelyresult in an increase in hydraulic conductivity. After theremoval of the freeze wall, such changes in aquiferproperties could result in the leaching and transport ofmineral salts and trace metals that are mixed with oil shaledeposits.
Objections to its potential environmental impact havestalled governmental support for extraction of shale oilin some countries.• Shale oil extraction may involve a number of differentenvironmental impacts that vary with processtechnologies;• Depending on the geological conditions and miningtechniques. Mining impacts may include aciddrainage, induced by the sudden rapid exposure andsubsequent oxidation of formerly buried materials;• The introduction of metals into surface water andground-water;• Increased erosion, sulphur gas emissions;• Air pollution caused by the production of particulatesduring processing;• Transport, and support activities;• Surface mining for ex-situ processing, as with in situprocessing, requires extensive land use and ex-situthermal processing generates wastes that requiredisposal;• Mining, processing, spent oil shale disposal, andwaste treatment require land to be withdrawn fromtraditional uses;• Depending on the processing technology, the wastematerial may contain pollutants including sulphates,heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,some of which are toxic and carcinogenic;• Experimental in situ conversion processes may reducesome of these impacts, but may cause otherproblems, such as groundwater pollution;• Depending on the technology and the oil shalecomposition, shale oil extraction processes may alsoemit sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonylsulphide, and nitrogen oxides;• Concerns have been raised over the oil shaleindustrys use of water, particularly in arid regionswhere water consumption is a sensitive issue;• Above-ground retorting typically consumes betweenone and five barrels of water per barrel of producedshale oil; Depending on technology.• Water is usually used for spent oil shale cooling andoil shale ash disposal;• In-situ processing, according to one estimate, usesabout one-tenth as much water. In other areas;• Water must be pumped out of oil shale mines. Theresulting fall in the water table may have negativeeffects on nearby arable land and forests.Water ConsumptionAbout three barrels of water are needed per barrel ofshale oil produced. Water availability analysis indicatedthat the earliest constraining factors would be limitationsin local water supply systems, such as reservoirs,pipelines, and groundwater development.For mining and surface retorting, the major water qualityissue is the leaching of salts and toxics from spent shale.4Environmental Issues of shale oil extractionShaletekk M reduces the cost of extraction and has none of the environmentalissues linked to the current systems in use enabling companies to explore andextract in more environmentally sensitive areas where shale oil is known to existin large quantities.
5Shaletekk M The ProcessShale Oil Pre-treatmentStep 1: 54.1% removal of carbonates and hydroxidesStep 2: 13.6% removal of quartz and silicatesStep 3: DesulfurisationUltrasonic ExtractionSpecial extraction mixture:Effect of time: 1 hour is optimumEffect of heating: No heating is requiredShale Oil SeparationFast distillationCrushingOilShaleScreeningMixingUltrasonicExposureFiltrationSolidDryingDistillationShaleOilSonicExtractionExtractionpercentageGasolineContentConserved No Emissions88.4% Low CostLow Comparable to Crude OilEnvironmentalAspectCostSulfurContentOilPropertiesThe ProcessThe Higher Councilfor Science and TechnologyYarmouk University The NaturalResources AuthorityJordan PetroleumRefinery CompanyJordan University ofScience and TechnologyStep1Step2Step31 2 3Facilities and development assistance has been provided by:
We at Naturetekk are now looking for business partners to set up pilot projects inorder to prove our technology in the field, via a joint venture, licencing agreementsor outright sale of the intellectual property and the potential patents of the processingand formulations.Shaletekk M The Process6Shale oil distillation curve as compared to crudeoil and shale oil extracted by shale retortingEffect of ultrasound extraction time1009080706050403020100CumulativeVolume%ExtractionPercentage%100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 2607.06.66.05.55.04.54.00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140Temperature (°C) Time (min)Crude oil Shale oil(by retorting)Shale oil(this work)ConclusionsThe proposed technology is efficient from the view points of:• Extraction Percentage: Higher• Operating Costs: Lower• Environmental Aspects: None• Extracted Oil Properties: HigherRecommendationsIt is recommended to start a pilot scale production.
Academic Rank• Full Professor in Chemical & Pharmaceutical Engineering.Education• B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, Baghdad University M.Sc.in Chemical Engineering, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma,1979• Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, University of Tulsa,Oklahoma, 1980• M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, University of Tulsa,Oklahoma, 1979. Dissertation title: "Numerical Solution ofMulti-Component Absorption from A Stirred Bath".• Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, University of Tulsa,Oklahoma, 1980. Dissertation title: "Numerical Solution ofLiquid Phase Multi-Component Absorption in FixedBeds".Graduate Courses• Advanced Engineering Mathematics, PhysiochemicalProcesses, Water Supply and Air Pollution, AdvancedHeat Transfer, Advanced Numerical Methods.Published Papers• Over 100 research papers, published or in press inrefereed specialised international journals.Books• 62 published scientific books in computer programmingand applications in science and engineering that wereadopted in a number of Arabic, American and CanadianUniversities.• 61 Books in Medicinal Herbal Technology to be publishedin U.S.A. & Canada in 5 international languages.• A. R. Mansour, “A new Technology for Liquefaction ofJordanian Oil Shale Kerogen”, submitted for publication(2004).• A. R. Mansour & K. J. Takrouri, “Radiation Effect on MixedConvection Over an Isothermal Wedge in Porous Media:Model Solution by Hybrid and Numerical Methods”,submitted for publication (2004).• A. R. Mansour & K. J. Takrouri, “Convection-RadiationInteraction in Boundary Layer Flow Over a HorizontalSurface”, submitted for publication (2004).Patents in the Polymer, Water & Oil Industries• Multi-Purpose Surfactant/Detergent for Oil Recovery fromWater, Oil Spills, Tar Sands, Beach Sand and Shale Oil,Drag Reduction and Emulsification Processes, Kansas,D.S.A (GemTech Solvents Inc., 1983-1993).• A New Drag Reducing Additive for Crude Oil Pipelines &Sanitary Sewers, High Tech Technology, Cleveland, Ohio,D.S.A., 1983-1995.• Bio-Filter to Treat Water/Wastewater from Bacteria andViruses, Jordan and D.S.A., (1990-1994).• A New Surfactant to Separate Oil from Canadian OilSand, High Tech Inc. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1994-1995.• New Surfactants to Solve Oil Spill Problems on Beachesand in the Sea, High Tech Technology, Cleveland, Ohio,U.S.A. 1983-1995.• New Polymer Composites, Case Western & ReserveUniversity, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A., (1993-1994).Inventions• 28 inventions and formulas in herbal medicines for:Malaria, Dengue, Diabetes 1&2, Asthma, Cancer,Hepatitis B and C, Cholesterol and Triglycerides,Rheumatism, High Pressure, Arthritis, Pain, Headache,Migraine, New Therapies for Autoimmune Diseases suchas HIV, Multiple Sclerosis & Behest’s Disease, Psoriasis,Prostate…etc• 11 International Conferences in different fields• A member of the American Chemical Engineers Society,the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineeringand the American Herb Research Foundation• Candidate for UNESCO Prize for Science & Technologyfor 1993• International Man of the Year ‘98, Cambridge• The 20th Century Man of Achievements in Science &Technology, 1998• International Man of ‘99 in Science & Technology,USA, 1999Membership in Scientific and Professional Societies• American Institute of Chemical Engineers• American Herb Research Foundation• American Health Sciences Institute• International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering• New York Academy of SciencesNaturetekk Ltd 111 Guthrum Place Newton AycliffeCo. Durham DL5 4QE United Kingdom +44 (0)7587 firstname.lastname@example.org www.naturetekk.co.ukDr. Awad MansourProfile