The alkaloids1[1]

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Alkaloids, Medicinal Plant Chemistry and Botanical Medicine Uses

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  • Medicinal Alkaloids
  • HIGHLY ADDICTIVE
    Caffeine- coffee, tea, yerba mate
    Theobromine-cocao
    Theoplylline-camellia, guarana
  • The alkaloids1[1]

    1. 1. The Alkaloids Alkaloids are organic compounds with at least one nitrogen atom, usually in a heterocyclic ring Difficult to define Do not represent a homogeneous group on the chemical, biochemical or physiological viewpoint Most either sedate or stimulate
    2. 2. The Alkaloids Alkaloids end in the suffix -INE – Caffeine, Ephedrine, Morphine, Berberine, Reserpine, Nicotine, Lobeline etc. – They are all structurally diverse – Bitter taste – Over 10,000 have been ID’ed and many new alkaloids are described daily
    3. 3. Alkaloids: Chemistry Extremely varied Common Features: – 1. They are sparingly soluble in water – 2. Most are solid at room temperature, except, nicotine, coniine (Conium maculatum) and sparteine (Scotch Broome) – 3. Most are basic do to their amino nitrogen
    4. 4. Function of alkaloids in Plants • Poisonous agents that protect the plants against insects, fungus, predators • End products of nitrogen detoxification • Regulate growth factors • Reserve substances which can supply nitrogen when needed
    5. 5. DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALOIDS • Found in animal kingdom in Fire ants & Toad venom • Most occur in annual flowering plants • Often poisonous but can also be powerful medicine
    6. 6. Medicinal Alkaloids Morphine- analgesic -Opium poppy Ephedrine- stimulant- Ephedra, Ma Huang Reserpine- relaxant- Rauwolfia serpentina ( Indian snakeroot) Theophylline- bronchial relaxant- Camellia sinensis (tea) Quinine- anti-malarial agent-Chinchona Berberine- antimicrobial- Golden Seal, Barberry
    7. 7. Monocyclic Alkaloids Contain only one ring. Nicotine
    8. 8. Bicyclic Alkaloids Tropane- 1,4 nitrogen bridge
    9. 9. Polycyclic Alkaloids include strychnine, lysergic acid, cannabinol, morphine, heroin and codeine.
    10. 10. Actions of Alkaloids • Antidepressants • Respiratory stimulation • Cardiac stimulants • Muscle relaxants • Addictive • • • • • • • Nervous stimulation Nervous suppression Analgesia Antimicrobial Entheogenic Mydriatics (atropine) Miotics (Physostigmine, Pilocarpine)
    11. 11. Pyrrolidine (5) and Piperidine (6) • The nitrogen is either in a 5 or 6 member ring • Very poisonous in nature
    12. 12. Poison Hemlock Conium maculatum Poison used to kill Socrates
    13. 13. Coniine from water hemlock • Used in Homeopathic medicine for extreme vertigo, dizziness • Weakness, nausea & motion sickness • Piperidine 6 sided ring
    14. 14. Lobelia (Lobelia inflata) • antismoking preparations • Competitive antagonist- nicotine • Relaxant and bronchodilator • Contains 14 alkaloids- lobeline • Asthma, bronchitis • Adverse effects: nausea, dizzinesssimilar to caffeine • Do not use during pregnancy/nursing
    15. 15. Lobeline
    16. 16. Nicotine Source:http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/supplem/supp/sup2_60.gif • • • • 50 mg is FATAL Used as an insecticide Extremely toxic alkaloid Cholinergic receptor agonist http://www.answers.com/topic/nicotin • Enhances acetylcholine • Muscles ‘twitch’ and spasm • Then respiratory paralysis
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Lobelia Smoking Cessation Neuro Associative Conditioning: - smoke cigarette, followed by 10 drops of lobelia extract/tincture – Repeat until nauseous – Smoking = Nausea instead of Smoking = Pleasure Cold Turkey Support: Go cold turkey - take 10 drops lobelia to arrest the urge Substitution: Smoke lobelia, works well with mullein
    19. 19. Tropane alkaloids : PHOTO http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/giftzentrale/pflanzen/engelstrompete.jpg Condensed pyrrolidinepipidine alkaloids Found in the Solanaceajimsonweed, henbane, belladonna, mandrake -Brugmansia (Angels Trumpet)tree datura, LEFT) Hallucinogenic
    20. 20. Datura stramonium www.esc.nsw.gov.au
    21. 21. Jimson Weed Intentional misuse- eat seeds, drink tea and/or smoke cigarettes made from dried flowers Found in classic herbal asthma preparation: Asthmador Barter's Powder Kinsman's Asthmatic Powder Green Mountain Asthmatic Compound Haywood's Powder
    22. 22. Cocaine: Tropane alkaloid • Erythroxylacea : another plant family rich in tropanes • Coca Leaves- source of the alkaloid COCAINE
    23. 23. PURINE ALKALOIDS http://www.benbest.com/health/xanthines.gif
    24. 24. PURINE EFFECTS • • • • • Enhances NSAID Diuretic analgesia CNS stimulant • Cardiac & Resp. Anorexia stimulant Relaxes bronchospasm Effects can be surprising: The effects of caffeine on the inducibility of atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: the presence of caffeine may result in an unexpected reduction of AF http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Ret
    25. 25. ISOQUINOLINE alkaloids • • Largest group of alkaloids • • Derived from the amino • acids Tyrosine and • Phenylalanine • • • Anti-microbial Chologogue/choleretic Enzyme inhibitor Antitumor Pain suppressant Cough suppressant Hypnotic Relaxant Antispasmodic
    26. 26. BERBERINE Found in 23 genera Important sources: Mahonia spp., Berberis,Spp., Coptis spp., Hydrastis canadensis, Phellodendron, Sanguinaria (blood root) Yellow in color Soluble in ETOH Highest concentration in Root bark Amoebicidal,antibacterial & fungal, antitumor,bitter,hepatic Swap on tonsils for strep throat Mucus membrane problems
    27. 27. Oregon grape Mahonia aquafolium http://www.chlorischile.cl/cursoonline/guia3/mahonia.jpg
    28. 28. Golden Seal Hydrastis canadensis • Endangered species • Root most medicinal • Watch for leaf capsules at lower prices
    29. 29. Corydalis yanhuosu
    30. 30. Canadine • Found in Corydalis yan huo su (the most powerful pain killer in Chinese medicine) and Hydrastis canadensis • Has hypotensive properties
    31. 31. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP) • Found in Corydalis yanhusuo • 40% as strong as morphine;vinegar extract strongest • THP is nonaddictive • Potentiates acupuncture analgesia • Used in all types of pain in China; one of Nature’s most potent pain relievers
    32. 32. Morphine • Powerful analgesic,narcotic, • sedative and antispasmodic • Derived from the dried latex of Papaver somniferum
    33. 33. Sanguinarine Derived from Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) Celandine (Chelidonium majus) • Antibacterial, antiviral: papilloma virus,genital worts, cervical dysplasia • Mouthwash to stimulate epithelial growth and repair of gingival tissue
    34. 34. Indole Alkaloids Reserpine Rauwolfia (Indian Snakeroot) • Lowers BP, decreases catecholamines • Peripheral vasodilation • Depression 15% of patients
    35. 35. Passion Flower Passiflora incarnata Harmine • Powerful relaxant with serotonin-like action • Entheogen in high amounts • Passiflora incarnata 6:1 solid extract for stress
    36. 36. Yohimbine Pausinystalia yohimbe • Two sterioisomers: Alpha and Beta • Act as – Serotonin antagonist – Increases heart rate – Increases Erection Adverse effects include: anxiety, insomnia, tachycardia, heart palpitations
    37. 37. Quinoline alkaloids Quinine, Quinidine, cinchonidine Common names: Quinine bark,, quinine, China bark, cinchona yellow cinchona, red cinchona, Peruvian bark, Jesuit's bark, quina-quina, calisaya bark, fever tree www.Rain-tree.com
    38. 38. Quinine bark Source: rain-tree.com • Cinchona, or quinine bark, is one of the rainforest's most famous plants • Treatment for malaria • In Brazilian herbal medicine quinine bark is considered a tonic, a digestive stimulant, and fever-reducer. It is used for anemia, indigestion, gastrointestinal disorders, general fatigue, fevers, malaria and as an appetite stimulant.
    39. 39. Gelsemium sempervirens
    40. 40. Gelsemine • Used in homeopathy for – – – – – – – Dull Droopy Drowsiness Flu weakness myalgia Neuralgia Migraines Visual disturbances
    41. 41. Scotch Broome

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