BA&P Body


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BA&P Body

  1. 1. Basic Anatomy andBasic Anatomy and PhysiologyPhysiology The Body and Microstructures
  2. 2. Introduction A study of human anatomy and physiology will help us to understand the ways in which the body responds when placed under stress. – ANATOMY – study of body structures and the relationship of body structures to one another. – PHYSIOLOGY – study of how the body works and the various functions of body parts.
  3. 3. Terminology for the Location of Body Structures To allow people to describe the location of the body structure, we use an Anatomical Reference System. This reference system has three parts – Direction – Plane – Cavity To give location of the body part, it is assumed that the body is in the Anatomical Position. This is standing erect, facing forward, arms by sides and palms forward.
  4. 4. Anatomical Position
  5. 5. Body Planes Median: Dividing the body into left / right halves Sagittal: Dividing the body into unequal left and right parts and parallel to the median plane Coronal / Frontal: Dividing the body into front and back (anterior and posterior) Transverse / Horizontal: Dividing the body into upper and lower (superior and inferior)
  6. 6. Directional Terms TERM DEFINITION DIAGRAM EXAMPLE Superior (cranial) Toward the head or upper part of the body; above The heart is superior to the liver Inferior (caudal) Away from the head toward the lower part; below The stomach is inferior to the lungs Anterior (ventral) Toward or at the front of the body; in front of The sternum is anterior to the heart Posterior (dorsal) Toward or at the back of the body; behind The calcaneous is posterior to the phalanges Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; inner side The ulna is on the medial side of the forearm Lateral Away from the midline of the body; outer side The lungs are lateral to the heart Proximal Closer to the origin or point of attachment to trunk The humerus is at the proximal end of the radius Distal Farther from origin or point of attachment to trunk The phalanges are distal to the carpals Superficial Towards or at the body surface The skin is superficial to the skeleton Deep Away from the body surface; more internal The ribs are deep to the skin of the chest.
  8. 8. STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF THE BODYS ORGANISATION. The human body is organised into 6 different structural levels. • Chemical Level: includes atoms such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and sodium and molecules such as fats, carbohydrates and proteins. • Cellular Level: molecules combine to form structures. Cells are the smallest living things. Examples include nerve cells and muscle cells. • Tissue Level: when groups of similar cells join, they form tissues. At this level cells work together to perform specialised functions. For example connective tissue and epithelial tissue.
  9. 9. • Organ Level: these structures are composed of 2 or more different types of tissues and they have specialised functions and shapes. This includes the heart and the brain. • System Level: organs with familiar functions join together. Some organs are a part of more than one system. Examples include the reproductive and circulatory systems. • Organismic Level: when all systems are put together, we get a functioning human organism. Each system is of vital importance; failure of one causes damage to others. * All organisms are made up of cells * The life of a new organism begins with a single cell * Organisms develop by creating new cells
  10. 10. Cells The cell is the basic unit of any living organism. There is no such thing as a ‘typical’ cell • Cells differ in their size, shape, chemical composition, etc. This structure is determined by function. For example, muscle cells have the ability to move or contract, nerve cells are specialised for conductivity giving them the ability to transmit impulses. • All cells have some structures in common. These include: cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles • Specialised cells have a particular structure to carry out a special function. • Cells with similar functions are often grouped together.
  11. 11. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CELLS: There are 75 trillion human body cells • All live and grow. • All reproduce. • All have specific functions.
  12. 12. Structure of a cell
  13. 13. STRUCTURE FUNCTION PLASMA MEMBRANE Protects cellular contents; makes contact with other cells; provides receptors for hormones, enzymes, and antibodies; mediates the entrance and exit of materials. CYTOPLASM Serves the ground substance in which chemical reactions occur. ORGANELLES Nucleus Contains genes and controls cellular activities. Ribosomes Sites of protein synthesis. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Contributes to mechanical support; conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells; facilitates intracellular exchange of materials with cytoplasm; provides a surface area for chemical reactions; provides a pathway for transporting chemicals; serves as a storage area; together with Golgi complex synthesises and packages molecules for transport. Golgi complex Packages synthesised proteins for secretion in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum; forms lysosomes; secretes lipids; synthesises carbohydrates; combines carbohydrates with proteins to form glycoproteins for secretion. Mitochondria Sites for production of ATP. Lysosomes Digest substances and foreign microbes; may be involved in bone removal. Microtubules Form part of cytoskeleton; provide support and shape; form intracellular conducting channels; assist in cellular movement; form the structure of flagella, cilia, centrioles and spindle fibres. Centrioles Helps organise mitotic spindle cell division Flagella and cilia Allow movement of entire cell (flagella) or movement of particles along the surface of the cell (cilia). INCLUSIONS Melanin (pigment in skin, hair and eyes) screens out ultraviolet rays; glycogen (stored glucose) can be decomposed to provide energy; lipids (stored in fat cells) can be decomposed to produce energy; mucus provides lubrication and protection.
  14. 14. Cells of the Human Body
  15. 15. Cells of the Human Body
  16. 16. Tissues Tissues are groups of cells with similar structure and function. • Organs of the body are built from tissues. • There are four basic tissue types: – EPITHELIAL • These tissues cover the surface of the body and line the various cavities and vessels. Examples include the digestive and respiratory tracts, blood and lymphatic vessels and serous cavities such as pleural and pericardial. • The cells are tightly packed and are squamous (flat and scale like), cuboidal (cube like), or columnar (taller than they are long or wide) in shape. • This tissue specialises in absorption, secretion and provision of protective barriers.
  17. 17. – CONNECTIVE • The most widespread and abundant tissue in the body. • Consists predominantly of intercellular material (matrix) and relatively few cells. The matrix can be a soft gel, a=some are firm but flexible, some are hard and rigid, some are tough and others are delicate. Examples include: spleen, cartilage, ligaments, skin and blood.
  18. 18. – NERVE • This tissue is composed of two main kinds of cells, neurons and neuroglia. • Neurons function to transmit signals / electrical impulses. • Neuroglia functions as blood – brain barriers, production of myelin sheaths and phagocytosis.
  19. 19. – MUSCLE • There are three types of muscle tissue; skeletal, visceral and cardiac. Examples include triceps, heart and the digestive and respiratory tracts. • Muscle tissue has the ability to contract and shorten thereby causing movement and producing heat.
  20. 20. SYSTEM PROCESSES ORGANS / STRUCTURES SKELETAL - Support / protection - Framework for movement - Storehouse for minerals All bones of the body MUSCULAR - Movement - Maintains posture - Production of heat Muscles of limbs and trunk CIRCULATORY - Transport of O2 and CO2 - Transport of nutrients - Transport of wastes Heart, blood vessels and blood lymph vessels RESPIRATORY - Breathing - Removes CO2 and supplies O2 to blood - Gas exchange through alveoli in lungs Lungs, air passage and alveoli DIGESTIVE - Food processing (breaks down food into absorbable units to enter blood to then be transported to body cells) Digestive tract, liver (breaks up fat), pancreas (produces enzymes to break down food) and salivary glands URINARY - Excretion of wastes - Regulates H20 and the acid / base of foods Bladder, kidneys, ureter and urethra NERVOUS - Transmits stimulus - Coordination - Intelligence and emotions. - Activates glands and muscles Brain, spinal cord, sense organs and nerves
  21. 21. REPRODUCTIVE - Reproduction Reproductive organs of the male and female ENDOCRINE - Growth and development - Secretion of chemicals and hormones - Regulates metabolism - Coordination Ductless glands - pituitary - thyroid - pancreas LYMPHATIC - Immunity (picks up leaking fluid. Houses white blood cells) Lymphocytes, lymph nodes and vessels INTEGUMENTARY - Covers the body - Provides protection - Site of pain receptors Hair, skin and nails
  22. 22. Homeostasis The human body is a complex unit of systems that interact to allow us to breathe, eat, digest, excrete, move, react, grow and reproduce. Cells from all the systems in the body are continually dividing, growing and dying to allow the whole body to grow, develop and age. Our lives depend on the maintenance of a state of physiological balance called homeostasis. This is the condition by which all body systems attempt to maintain stability within the entire body by maintaining stability within all cells, tissues and organs.