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Think Science: Allergies, by Dr. Edward Brooks

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Slide presentation by Dr. Edward Brooks from Texas Public Radio's Think Science event held at the Pearl Studio on May 17, 2019.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Think Science: Allergies, by Dr. Edward Brooks

  1. 1. Edward Brooks UT Health
  2. 2. Every day we come into contact with proteins in our environment that could stimulate an immune reaction, including foods, pets, and plants. These environmental proteins are innocuous, but when the immune system overreacts and recognizes these proteins as harmful, a hypersensitive state results. This state of hypersensitivity is known as allergy, and the proteins that trigger allergy are known as allergens.
  3. 3. The Atopic March In utero  Genetic predisposition  Maternal influence-fetal programming  Environmental factors Infancy  Eczema (dry itchy skin)  Food Allergy Toddler  Asthma School Age  Asthma  Allergic rhinitis (Sinus allergies)
  4. 4. Beginning in the 1960’s, the dramatic rise in allergic diseases has led to the “allergy epidemic”. The rise in allergic diseases has been prominent in “developed” countries such as Western Europe, Australia, and the United States. Current estimates suggest that anywhere from 10-40% of the population in these developed countries have some form of allergy.
  5. 5. The Hygiene Hypothesis protective effect with exposure to:  farms  pets  day care  large family size  bacterial exposures  frequent infections (fewer antibiotics)
  6. 6. THI/TH2 balance in infancy TH2 predominance Allergic TH1 predominance Non-allergic Adapted from David L. Rosenstreich, M.D CDN Proceedings 2003.
  7. 7. Progression of THI/TH2 balance during normal infancy TH2 predominance Allergic TH1 predominance Non-allergic
  8. 8. Progression of THI/TH2 balance during normal infancy TH2 predominance Allergic TH1 predominance Non-allergic
  9. 9. Adapted from David L. Rosenstreich, M.D CDN Proceedings 2003.
  10. 10. Adapted from David L. Rosenstreich, M.D CDN Proceedings 2003.
  11. 11. The Hygiene Hypothesis
  12. 12. Allergic Inflammation B Cell TH2 Cell Antigen Presenting Cell IgE Mast Cell IL-4 IL-13 IL-3 IL-4 IL-6 IL-9 IL-13 TNF-a IL-4 IL-3 IL-5 GM-CSF VCAM ICAM Vascular Endothelium Eosinophil Neutrophil Eotaxin
  13. 13. Specific IgE Testing Skin Prick Testing Blood Testing
  14. 14. Inhalent Allergens  Provoked by exposure to environmental allergens  Perennial (year round) (mites, molds, pets)  Seasonal (intermittent) (pollens)
  15. 15. Israel:  Egg  Milk  Sesame seeds Singapore:  Birdsnest  Seafood  Egg  Milk France:  Egg  Peanuts  Milk  Mustard USA:  Milk  Egg  Peanuts  Tree nuts  Seafood Australia:  Milk  Egg  Peanuts  Sesame seeds Italy:  Milk  Egg  Seafood Major Food Allergens Sampson et al.
  16. 16. Natural History of milk allergy

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