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  1. 1. Positive vs NegativeFeedback in Coaching By Nathan Blackburn S
  2. 2. OverviewS Positive vs negative feedback. It is a very critical and heavily analyzed part of coaching. Although generally, negative feedback from coach to athlete is despised of by the general sporting community, does it have its place in athletes minds, to make/help them perform better with the pressure of coach and environment?. Is having both forms but more negative in a coaches styles also genius? Source A
  3. 3. The Positive SideS As it is known widely within the coaching community positive feedback is crucial for an athlete to understand that they are doing the right thing and understand concepts, and that their coaches are delighted with the execution of the skill. It not only helps by means of someone believing in you, but is incredibly strong in raising an athletes level of self esteem, self belief and confidence.S Positive feedback that is delivered correctly and honestly by the coach is what the athlete needs so that they understand that the coach knows exactly what they are talking about and are critically analyzing the athletes movements.
  4. 4. ContinuedS Positive coaches who provide copious amounts of positivity usually reside an extremely close relationship with the athlete which also can bring a close net dimension to an athletes performance. Knowing that not only is there a coach on the sideline but a friend, helps the athlete to know that if they make a mistake there is a friend there to talk to about the situation in an open, honest and truthful manner.S Example of positive feedback “That’s great John, your hitting your targets every single time, keep it up !”
  5. 5. The Coach S Every coach has their own personal psychology, strategies and dominion in how they do things. Somecoaches are extremely friendly and humorous with their athletes, whilst others belief it is a job and athletes are not friends and the relationship shouldn‟t exceed coach to athlete. Positive coaches have athletes that are extremely high in confidence and believe that they are unstoppable, and on the other side the athletes believethat they are not good enough or fear being criticized so lift and surprise themselves in the pressure.
  6. 6. The Coach perspectiveS “In my experience, the best coaches are flexible and able to adapt to the requirements of different situations. This will nearly always involve criticism or punishment as well as praise, but will rely primarily on a positive approach in order to motivate players to perform at their best.” (Lee Crust)S Author of article Source D lecturer and researcher in sport and exercise psychology
  7. 7. The AthleteS Along with a coaches perspective the athlete themselves also have the choice of whom should coach them. Some athletes have very particular and varying tastes in types of coaching styles. Some like coaches that are extremely positive and supportive with boundless positivity, whilst others like coaches who are tough and negative and push them to their own limits. Although, some athletes have extremely strong hearts, and but only need to push themselves, whilst others need that push and positive reinforcement to help them to succeed. Sourc e E
  8. 8. Negative FeedbackS Negative feedback effects the athlete in an extreme way. With ongoing negative feedback athletes begin to feel a sense of uselessness, and their self esteem and self worth is lowered as a direct result. Fear also comes into play when performing as a result of this form of coaching.S Athletes who believe that they will become under scrutiny if they fail or make a mistake fail under pressure as their minds are not focusing on the task at hand but on the ramifications of if and when they do fail. This leads to not only low self worth, but even at worst the decision to quit the sport altogether.
  9. 9. Continued S Although there is a need for anxiety within performing, too much anxiety (fear) leads to poor performance.Source F
  10. 10. Example of negative coaching/feedbackS After Kelly Sotherton achieved a Bronze medal in the Olympic Heptathlon in Athens 2004 she was blasted by her coach, Charles van Commenee who described most of her performances as „mediocre‟ and criticised her for not tapping into her reserves. (Source D)
  11. 11. Continued..S Along with the athletes mindset the environment around the athlete/s plays a role in coaching. A coach that employs an extremely negative vibe and coaching style is not only viewed by the athletes but also the witnesses such as other coaches, players, officials and parents or supporters. This can effect not only the coach but the teams chemistry, clubs reputation, and even lead to violence and legal consequences. Source G
  12. 12. Neutral FeedbackS Some coaches utilize the neutral feedback in being both positive or negative feedback. Although both forms can be extremely detailed and instructive, neutral gives little detail and gives the athlete little to work off such as “Good work”. Athletes need deep insightful criticism on the skill or task in order to become more competent at the skill.
  13. 13. Other AthletesS Not only is the coach the only source of feedback. Other athletes can also be utilized such as having two other athletes being on opposing sides to view from another varying perspective and giving constructive feedback back to the athlete, as well as feedback from the coach. This approach of feedback being both positive and negative is useful as it allows athletes to see another point of view.
  14. 14. ConclusionS In Conclusion I believe that positive feedback when coaching is most beneficial in terms of self esteem and motivation. But there is a place within coaching for negative feedback because as long as it is constructive and gives the athlete some direction and education. Negative coaches may seem angry and irritated but they may just be fantastic tacticians and have a great understanding of the technique or skill.
  15. 15. Referencing S Source A (Image) –Author unknown. (date unknown) [Photograph] Retrieved from http://popular-sports-of-europe.com/sports/b-communication-between-coaches-and-athletes/S Source B (Book) – Kidman and Hanrahan (2011) The Coaching Process: A Practical Guide to Becoming an Effective Sports Coach, pg 136- 142.S Source C (Image) – Wilson, C. (2011). Mick Malthouse [photograph]. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/afl/afl-news/malthouses-selfish-act-infuriates-magpies-board- 20110718-1hlnm.html S Source D (Online source) – Lee Crust. (date unknown). Copyright article. Retrieved from http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/sport-motivation.htmS Source E (Image) – Wood J. (2011). Australian coach Tim Nielsen right, with captain Michael Clarke [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-08-20/michael-clarke- and-tim-nielsen/2848156 S Source F (Online source) –Jacofsky, Santos, Patel, Neziroglu, (2010). Copyright article. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=38465&cn=1 S Source G (Image) – Rumer, L (2011). Rick Carlisle [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.sportsencounter.com/news/nba-finals-2011-late-surge-excites-mavs-coach-23266.html

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