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All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
GENDER &
CULTURABILITY
IS YOUR WEBSITE ALIENATING
HALF YOUR AUDIENCE?
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  INTRODUCTION
2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
3  GENDER
4  KEY TAKEAWAYS
5  Q & A
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  INTRODUCTION
2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
3  GENDER
4  KEY TAKEAWAYS
5  Q & A
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  INTRODUCTION
2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
3  GENDER
4  KEY TAKEAWAYS
5  Q & A
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  INTRODUCTION
2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
3  GENDER
4  KEY TAKEAWAYS
5  Q & A
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  INTRODUCTION
2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
3  GENDER
4  KEY TAKEAWAYS
5  Q & A
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1
INTRODUCTION
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WEB PSYCHOLOGY
The empirical study of how
online environments influence
our attitudes and behaviours
“ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WEBPSYCHOLOGY
HCI
neuro-
aesthetics
user
experience
social
psychology
cognitive
psychology
neuroscience
cross-cultural
psychology
behavioural
economics
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
IT’S ABOUT
CONTEXT
PSYCHOLOGY
INDIVIDUAL
CULTURAL
@THEWEBPSYCH
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3 SECRETS
TO ONLINE SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WHAT IS CULTURE?
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CULTURE
A shared set of values that
influence societal perceptions, attitudes,
preferences, and responses
“ - Robbins & Stylianou (2002)
”@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
TRENDS
…some broad global trends but the
behaviour of consumers is increasingly
variable as you go from country to
country and region to region
- Global Web Index (Aug 2011)
[ ]
@THEWEBPSYCH
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WHY IS CULTURE
IMPORTANT ONLINE?
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A GLOBAL PICTURE
GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY
GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING
SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO
LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA)
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
A GLOBAL PICTURE
GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY
GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING
SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO
LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA)
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
A GLOBAL PICTURE
GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY
GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING
SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO
LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA)
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC
Different cultural groups employ
different usage strategies
when using the same interface
[ ]
@THEWEBPSYCH
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CULTURE-SPECIFIC
1  LANGUAGE
2  BODY POSITIONS
3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS
4  SYMBOLS
5  AESTHETICS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC
1  LANGUAGE
2  BODY POSITIONS
3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS
4  SYMBOLS
5  AESTHETICS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC
1  LANGUAGE
2  BODY POSITIONS
3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS
4  SYMBOLS
5  AESTHETICS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC
1  LANGUAGE
2  BODY POSITIONS
3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS
4  SYMBOLS
5  AESTHETICS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC
1  LANGUAGE
2  BODY POSITIONS
3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS
4  SYMBOLS
5  AESTHETICS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CULTURABILITY
The relationship between
culture and usability
in WWW design
“ - Barber & Badre (1998)
”@THEWEBPSYCH
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2
HOFSTEDE’S
DIMENSIONS
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CULTURE
The collective mental programming
of the human mind which distinguishes one
group of people from another
“ - Hofstede (2010)
”@THEWEBPSYCH
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HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
1  POWER DISTANCE
2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM
3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY
4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION
6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
1  POWER DISTANCE
2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM
3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY
4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION
6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
1  POWER DISTANCE
2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM
3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY
4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION
6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
1
POWER DISTANCE
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POWER DISTANCE
The extent to which less powerful
members of society expect and accept
unequal power distribution
“ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
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PSYCH PROFILE
HIGH PDI: SAUDI ARABIA
Huge divides between rich/poor, tall hierarchies,
centralised political power
LOW PDI: AUSTRIA
Equality, small differences in salary/status,
flatter hierarchies
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH PDI – DO THIS:
1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE
2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT
3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS
4  AUTHORITY FIGURES
5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH PDI – DO THIS:
1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE
2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT
3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS
4  AUTHORITY FIGURES
5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH PDI – DO THIS:
1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE
2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT
3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS
4  AUTHORITY FIGURES
5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH PDI – DO THIS:
1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE
2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT
3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS
4  AUTHORITY FIGURES
5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH PDI – DO THIS:
1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE
2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT
3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS
4  AUTHORITY FIGURES
5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
ORDER	
  
ORDER	
  
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HIERARCHY	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
NATIONAL SYMBOLS	
  
NATIONAL SYMBOLS	
  
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AUTHORITY FIGURES	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOW PDI – DO THIS:
1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE
2  EQUAL ACCESS
3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT
4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA
5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOW PDI – DO THIS:
1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE
2  EQUAL ACCESS
3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT
4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA
5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOW PDI – DO THIS:
1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE
2  EQUAL ACCESS
3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT
4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA
5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOW PDI – DO THIS:
1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE
2  EQUAL ACCESS
3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT
4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA
5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOW PDI – DO THIS:
1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE
2  EQUAL ACCESS
3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT
4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA
5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
LOOSE STRUCTURE	
  
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EARNED MEDIA	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
MERIT BASED	
  
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2
INDIVIDUALISM
VS
COLLECTIVISM
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INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM
Whether a culture’s members
define their self-image in
terms of ‘I’ or ‘we’
“ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
PSYCH PROFILE
HIGH IDV: USA
Loose-knit, autonomy, freedom, challenge,
personal time, motivated by extrinsic factors
HIGH COL: CHINA
Large cohesive social networks, loyalty,
physical conditions, intrinsic rewards
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH IDV – DO THIS:
1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS
2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY
3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES
4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.)
5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH IDV – DO THIS:
1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS
2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY
3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES
4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.)
5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH IDV – DO THIS:
1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS
2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY
3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES
4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.)
5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH IDV – DO THIS:
1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS
2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY
3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES
4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.)
5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH IDV – DO THIS:
1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS
2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY
3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES
4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.)
5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXCITEMENT	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXCITEMENT	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
COMPETITION	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
CONTRAVERSIAL	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
FAVOUR YOUTH	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
INDIVIDUALIST	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXCITING LANGUAGE	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH COL – DO THIS:
1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’
2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS
3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES
4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE
5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH COL – DO THIS:
1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’
2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS
3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES
4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE
5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH COL – DO THIS:
1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’
2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS
3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES
4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE
5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH COL – DO THIS:
1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’
2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS
3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES
4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE
5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH COL – DO THIS:
1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’
2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS
3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES
4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE
5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
TRADITIONS	
  
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3
MASCULINITY
VS
FEMININITY
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
MASCULINITY / FEMININITY
Masculine = distinct gender roles
Feminine = blurred gender roles, quality
of life, tenderness towards others
“ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
PSYCH PROFILE
HIGH MAS: JAPAN
Distinct roles, measure success by material
rewards, assertive, heroism, achievement
HIGH FEM: SWEDEN
Focus on relationships, consensus, social
cohesion, cooperation, home
@THEWEBPSYCH
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HIGH MAS – DO THIS:
1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC
2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING
3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES
4  USE MOTION, VIDEO
5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH MAS – DO THIS:
1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC
2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING
3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES
4  USE MOTION, VIDEO
5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH MAS – DO THIS:
1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC
2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING
3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES
4  USE MOTION, VIDEO
5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH MAS – DO THIS:
1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC
2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING
3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES
4  USE MOTION, VIDEO
5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH MAS – DO THIS:
1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC
2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING
3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES
4  USE MOTION, VIDEO
5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXCITING	
  
DYNAMIC	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
MOTION	
  
MOTION	
  
MOTION	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
COMPETITION	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXPLICIT	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH FEM – DO THIS:
1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP
2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES
4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS
5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH FEM – DO THIS:
1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP
2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES
4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS
5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH FEM – DO THIS:
1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP
2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES
4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS
5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH FEM – DO THIS:
1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP
2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES
4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS
5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
HIGH FEM – DO THIS:
1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP
2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES
4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS
5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
QUALITY OF LIFE	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WIDER GROUP	
  
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
3
GENDER
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
- Simon (2001)
[ ]Individualistic cultures express bigger
gender differences in website’s
attractiveness and usability
GENDER
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
- Conde et al. (2009)
[ ]Men and women have distinctly
different neural responses to
artistic and natural stimuli
NATURE VS NUTURE
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
BEHAVIOURS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@	
  
WOMEN: BEHAVIOURS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
- Hoy & Milne (2010)
[ ]Women tend to be more concerned
about third-party access to personal
information than men
WOMEN
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WOMEN
- Hoy & Milne (2010)
[ ]More likely to proactively protect their
privacy than a decade ago
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
MEN: BEHAVIOURS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
MEN
[ ]Men are generally less anxious
about going online
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
WEBSITES
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
EXPERIMENT
Which gender is this website targeting?
[ ]
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
EXPERIMENT
What about this one?
[ ]
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
MEN
1  FLASHY, INTERACTIVE AND ANIMATED
2  GOAL-ORIENTED, GAMIFIED
3  MANY SUB-LEVELS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
WOMEN
1  ATTRACTED TO WEBSITE’S COLOURS
2  CLEAN, UN-CLUTTERED
3  PREFER FEWER SUB-PAGE LEVELS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
@THEWEBPSYCH
SUBCONSCIOUS
Women subconsciously prefer
websites that have been designed
by other women
[ ]
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
4
KEY TAKEAWAYS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
KEY TAKEAWAYS
IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE,
YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE.
1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT
2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES
3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
KEY TAKEAWAYS
IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE,
YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE.
1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT
2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES
3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
KEY TAKEAWAYS
IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE,
YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE.
1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT
2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES
3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
REFERENCES
1  S. S. Robbins and A. C. Stylianou (2002). A study of cultural differences in global corporate websites. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42(2), pp. 3-9.
2  Global Web Index (August 2011) Wave 5 Trends.
http://www.slideshare.net/globalwebindex/wave-5-trends-master-august-2011-slideshare-version
3  Associated Press (2013). Google Translate reaches 1 billion translations per day.
http://www.oregonlive.com/today/index.ssf/2013/04/google_translate_reaches_1_bil.html
4  mobiThinking (2013). Global mobile statistics 2013 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators.
http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a#topmobilemarkets
5  IDC (2012). Top 10 Predictions. IDC Predictions 2013: Competing on the 3rd Platform.
http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/downloadable/238044.pdfm
6  A. Faiola and S. A. Matei (2005). Cultural cognitive style and web design: Beyond a behavioral inquiry into computer-mediated communication. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1).
7  N. C. Fernandez (2000). Web Site Localisation and Internationalisation: A Case Study. City University.
8  W. Barber and A. Badre (1998). Culturability: The merging of culture and usability. In Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Human Factors and the Web.
9  R. Robertson (1994). Mapping the global condition: Globalization as the central concept’, in M. Featherstone (ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, globalization and
modernity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. p. 36.
10  G. Hofstede (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.
11  http://www.aeroflot.ru
12  http://www.nana10.co.il
13  http://www.nastygal.com
14  http://www.kmb.hk/tc
15  http://www.cocacola.co.jp
16  http://sverigesradio.se
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
REFERENCES
17  http://tiu.ru
18  http://www.stumbleupon.com
19  http://www.suning.com
20  http://www.next.co.uk
21  http://www.neobux.com
22  http://www.offerna.com
23  S. Simon (2001). The impact of culture and gender on Web sites: An empirical study. The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 3(1), pp. 18-37.
24  C. Cela-Conde, F. Ayala, E. Munar, F. Maestú, M. Nadal, M. Capó, et al. (2009). Sex related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,106(10), 3847.
25  D. Cyr and C. Bonanni (2005). Gender and website design in e-business. International Journal of Electronic Business, 3 (6), pp. 565–82.
26  A. Acquisti and R. Gross (2006). Imagined communities: Awareness, information sharing, and privacy on the Facebook. Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, 4258, pp. 36–58.
27  E. Garbarino and M. Strahilevitz (2004). Gender differences in the perceived risk of buying online and the effects of receiving a site recommendation. Journal of Business
Research, 57, pp. 768–75.
28  M. Madden and A. Smith (2010). Reputation management and social media: How people monitor their identity and search for others online. Pew Internet & American Life
Project, 26 May. Available online at: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx
29  I. Oomen and R. Leenes (2008). Privacy risk perception and privacy protection strategies. In E. de Leeuw, S. Fischer Hubner, J. Tseng and J. Borking (eds), Policies and
Research in Identity. Boston, MA: Springer. pp. 121–38.
@THEWEBPSYCH
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
5
Q & A
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THANK YOU!
TheWebPsychologist.com/CS13
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST.COM
@THEWEBPSYCH

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Nathalie Nahai - Gender and culturability

  • 1. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. GENDER & CULTURABILITY IS YOUR WEBSITE ALIENATING HALF YOUR AUDIENCE?
  • 2. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  INTRODUCTION 2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 3  GENDER 4  KEY TAKEAWAYS 5  Q & A @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 3. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  INTRODUCTION 2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 3  GENDER 4  KEY TAKEAWAYS 5  Q & A @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 4. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  INTRODUCTION 2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 3  GENDER 4  KEY TAKEAWAYS 5  Q & A @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 5. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  INTRODUCTION 2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 3  GENDER 4  KEY TAKEAWAYS 5  Q & A @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 6. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  INTRODUCTION 2  HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 3  GENDER 4  KEY TAKEAWAYS 5  Q & A @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 7. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 9. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WEB PSYCHOLOGY The empirical study of how online environments influence our attitudes and behaviours “ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 10. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WEBPSYCHOLOGY HCI neuro- aesthetics user experience social psychology cognitive psychology neuroscience cross-cultural psychology behavioural economics @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 11. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT PSYCHOLOGY INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 12. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 3 SECRETS TO ONLINE SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 13. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING 2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY 3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 14. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING 2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY 3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 15. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING 2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY 3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 16. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WHAT IS CULTURE?
  • 17. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE A shared set of values that influence societal perceptions, attitudes, preferences, and responses “ - Robbins & Stylianou (2002) ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 18. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. TRENDS …some broad global trends but the behaviour of consumers is increasingly variable as you go from country to country and region to region - Global Web Index (Aug 2011) [ ] @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 19. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WHY IS CULTURE IMPORTANT ONLINE?
  • 20. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. A GLOBAL PICTURE GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA) @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 21. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. A GLOBAL PICTURE GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA) @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 22. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. A GLOBAL PICTURE GOOGLE TRANSLATE = 1 BILLION TRANSACTIONS / DAY GLOBAL INTERNET PENETRATION RATES RISING SMART PHONES & MOBILES BRINGING ACCESS TO LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS (CHINA, INDIA) @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 23. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC Different cultural groups employ different usage strategies when using the same interface [ ] @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 24. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC 1  LANGUAGE 2  BODY POSITIONS 3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS 4  SYMBOLS 5  AESTHETICS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 25. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC 1  LANGUAGE 2  BODY POSITIONS 3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS 4  SYMBOLS 5  AESTHETICS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 26. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC 1  LANGUAGE 2  BODY POSITIONS 3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS 4  SYMBOLS 5  AESTHETICS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 27. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC 1  LANGUAGE 2  BODY POSITIONS 3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS 4  SYMBOLS 5  AESTHETICS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 28. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE-SPECIFIC 1  LANGUAGE 2  BODY POSITIONS 3  SOCIAL CONTEXTS 4  SYMBOLS 5  AESTHETICS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 29. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURABILITY The relationship between culture and usability in WWW design “ - Barber & Badre (1998) ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 30. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 2 HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
  • 31. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CULTURE The collective mental programming of the human mind which distinguishes one group of people from another “ - Hofstede (2010) ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 32. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 1  POWER DISTANCE 2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM 3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY 4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE 5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION 6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 33. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 1  POWER DISTANCE 2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM 3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY 4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE 5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION 6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 34. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS 1  POWER DISTANCE 2  INDIVIDUALISM vs COLLECTIVISM 3  MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY 4  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE 5  LONG- vs SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION 6  INDULGENCE vs RESTRAINT @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 35. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 1 POWER DISTANCE
  • 36. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. POWER DISTANCE The extent to which less powerful members of society expect and accept unequal power distribution “ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 37. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. PSYCH PROFILE HIGH PDI: SAUDI ARABIA Huge divides between rich/poor, tall hierarchies, centralised political power LOW PDI: AUSTRIA Equality, small differences in salary/status, flatter hierarchies @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 38. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH PDI – DO THIS: 1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE 2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT 3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS 4  AUTHORITY FIGURES 5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 39. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH PDI – DO THIS: 1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE 2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT 3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS 4  AUTHORITY FIGURES 5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 40. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH PDI – DO THIS: 1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE 2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT 3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS 4  AUTHORITY FIGURES 5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 41. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH PDI – DO THIS: 1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE 2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT 3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS 4  AUTHORITY FIGURES 5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 42. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH PDI – DO THIS: 1  EMPHASISE ORDER WITHIN YOUR WEBSITE 2  CLEAR HIERARCHY OF CONTENT 3  CULTURAL / NATIONAL SYMBOLS 4  AUTHORITY FIGURES 5  OFFICIAL STAMPS, CERTIFICATIONS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 43. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 44. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. ORDER   ORDER  
  • 45. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIERARCHY  
  • 46. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. NATIONAL SYMBOLS   NATIONAL SYMBOLS  
  • 47. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. AUTHORITY FIGURES  
  • 48. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOW PDI – DO THIS: 1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE 2  EQUAL ACCESS 3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT 4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA 5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 49. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOW PDI – DO THIS: 1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE 2  EQUAL ACCESS 3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT 4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA 5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 50. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOW PDI – DO THIS: 1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE 2  EQUAL ACCESS 3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT 4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA 5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 51. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOW PDI – DO THIS: 1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE 2  EQUAL ACCESS 3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT 4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA 5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 52. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOW PDI – DO THIS: 1  TRANSPARENCY - DISCLOSURE 2  EQUAL ACCESS 3  REPUTATION BASED ON PROFESSIONAL MERIT 4  PEERS - EARNED MEDIA 5  LOOSE STRUCTURE - EXPLORATION @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 53. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 54. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. LOOSE STRUCTURE  
  • 55. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EARNED MEDIA  
  • 56. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. MERIT BASED  
  • 57. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 2 INDIVIDUALISM VS COLLECTIVISM
  • 58. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM Whether a culture’s members define their self-image in terms of ‘I’ or ‘we’ “ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 59. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. PSYCH PROFILE HIGH IDV: USA Loose-knit, autonomy, freedom, challenge, personal time, motivated by extrinsic factors HIGH COL: CHINA Large cohesive social networks, loyalty, physical conditions, intrinsic rewards @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 60. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH IDV – DO THIS: 1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS 2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY 3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES 4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.) 5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 61. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH IDV – DO THIS: 1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS 2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY 3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES 4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.) 5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 62. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH IDV – DO THIS: 1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS 2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY 3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES 4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.) 5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 63. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH IDV – DO THIS: 1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS 2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY 3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES 4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.) 5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 64. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH IDV – DO THIS: 1  PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATES ACTIONS 2  DIFFERENCE / NOVELTY 3  COMPETITION / CHALLENGES 4  USE CONTROVERSIAL LANGUAGE (IF APPROP.) 5  IMAGES - YOUTH, MATERIAL SYMBOLS SUCCESS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 65. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 66. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXCITEMENT  
  • 67. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXCITEMENT  
  • 68. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. COMPETITION  
  • 69. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. CONTRAVERSIAL  
  • 70. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. FAVOUR YOUTH  
  • 71. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. INDIVIDUALIST  
  • 72. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXCITING LANGUAGE  
  • 73. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH COL – DO THIS: 1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’ 2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS 3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES 4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE 5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 74. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH COL – DO THIS: 1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’ 2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS 3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES 4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE 5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 75. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH COL – DO THIS: 1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’ 2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS 3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES 4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE 5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 76. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH COL – DO THIS: 1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’ 2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS 3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES 4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE 5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 77. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH COL – DO THIS: 1  ENGAGE COMMUNITY – ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’ 2  RESPECT MORAL TENETS, TRADITIONS, STATUS 3  CAREFUL USE OF IMAGES – E.G. WOMEN / SMILES 4  WISDOM, EXPERIENCE OF AGE 5  PRIVACY / SECURITY OF PERSONAL INFO
  • 78. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 79. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. ‘WE’ NOT ‘ME’  
  • 80. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. TRADITIONS  
  • 81. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 3 MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY
  • 82. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. MASCULINITY / FEMININITY Masculine = distinct gender roles Feminine = blurred gender roles, quality of life, tenderness towards others “ ”@THEWEBPSYCH
  • 83. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. PSYCH PROFILE HIGH MAS: JAPAN Distinct roles, measure success by material rewards, assertive, heroism, achievement HIGH FEM: SWEDEN Focus on relationships, consensus, social cohesion, cooperation, home @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 84. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH MAS – DO THIS: 1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC 2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING 3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES 4  USE MOTION, VIDEO 5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 85. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH MAS – DO THIS: 1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC 2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING 3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES 4  USE MOTION, VIDEO 5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 86. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH MAS – DO THIS: 1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC 2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING 3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES 4  USE MOTION, VIDEO 5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 87. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH MAS – DO THIS: 1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC 2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING 3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES 4  USE MOTION, VIDEO 5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 88. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH MAS – DO THIS: 1  INTERACTIVE, EXCITING, DYNAMIC 2  BE EXPLICIT AS TO WHOM YOU’RE TARGETING 3  GAMIFICATION, GOAL-ORIENTED CHALLENGES 4  USE MOTION, VIDEO 5  LIMITED-TIME COMPETITIONS / OFFERS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 89. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 90. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXCITING   DYNAMIC  
  • 91. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. MOTION   MOTION   MOTION  
  • 92. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. COMPETITION  
  • 93. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXPLICIT  
  • 94. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH FEM – DO THIS: 1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP 2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES 4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS 5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 95. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH FEM – DO THIS: 1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP 2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES 4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS 5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 96. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH FEM – DO THIS: 1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP 2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES 4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS 5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 97. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH FEM – DO THIS: 1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP 2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES 4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS 5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 98. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. HIGH FEM – DO THIS: 1  BENEFIT THE WIDER GROUP 2  IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 3  DON’T PROJECT YOUR GENDER ROLES 4  COLLABORATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS 5  REFLECT AUDIENCE’S AESTHETIC PREFERENCES @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 99. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
  • 100. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. QUALITY OF LIFE  
  • 101. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WIDER GROUP  
  • 102. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 3 GENDER
  • 103. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. - Simon (2001) [ ]Individualistic cultures express bigger gender differences in website’s attractiveness and usability GENDER @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 104. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. - Conde et al. (2009) [ ]Men and women have distinctly different neural responses to artistic and natural stimuli NATURE VS NUTURE @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 105. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. BEHAVIOURS
  • 106. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @   WOMEN: BEHAVIOURS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 107. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. - Hoy & Milne (2010) [ ]Women tend to be more concerned about third-party access to personal information than men WOMEN @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 108. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WOMEN - Hoy & Milne (2010) [ ]More likely to proactively protect their privacy than a decade ago @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 109. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. MEN: BEHAVIOURS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 110. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. MEN [ ]Men are generally less anxious about going online @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 111. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. WEBSITES
  • 112. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. EXPERIMENT Which gender is this website targeting? [ ] @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 113. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 114. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH EXPERIMENT What about this one? [ ]
  • 115. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 116. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH MEN 1  FLASHY, INTERACTIVE AND ANIMATED 2  GOAL-ORIENTED, GAMIFIED 3  MANY SUB-LEVELS
  • 117. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH WOMEN 1  ATTRACTED TO WEBSITE’S COLOURS 2  CLEAN, UN-CLUTTERED 3  PREFER FEWER SUB-PAGE LEVELS
  • 118. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @THEWEBPSYCH SUBCONSCIOUS Women subconsciously prefer websites that have been designed by other women [ ]
  • 119. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 4 KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 120. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. KEY TAKEAWAYS IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE, YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE. 1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT 2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES 3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 121. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. KEY TAKEAWAYS IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE, YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE. 1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT 2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES 3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 122. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. KEY TAKEAWAYS IF YOU WANT TO ENGAGE AND CONVERT A GLOBAL AUDIENCE, YOU HAVE TO BE CULTURE-SENSITIVE. 1  WEB PSYCHOLOGY PROVIDES PSYCHOGRAPHIC CONTEXT 2  DIFFERENT CULTURES = DIFFERENT USAGE STRATEGIES 3  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOURS @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 123. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. REFERENCES 1  S. S. Robbins and A. C. Stylianou (2002). A study of cultural differences in global corporate websites. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42(2), pp. 3-9. 2  Global Web Index (August 2011) Wave 5 Trends. http://www.slideshare.net/globalwebindex/wave-5-trends-master-august-2011-slideshare-version 3  Associated Press (2013). Google Translate reaches 1 billion translations per day. http://www.oregonlive.com/today/index.ssf/2013/04/google_translate_reaches_1_bil.html 4  mobiThinking (2013). Global mobile statistics 2013 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators. http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a#topmobilemarkets 5  IDC (2012). Top 10 Predictions. IDC Predictions 2013: Competing on the 3rd Platform. http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/downloadable/238044.pdfm 6  A. Faiola and S. A. Matei (2005). Cultural cognitive style and web design: Beyond a behavioral inquiry into computer-mediated communication. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1). 7  N. C. Fernandez (2000). Web Site Localisation and Internationalisation: A Case Study. City University. 8  W. Barber and A. Badre (1998). Culturability: The merging of culture and usability. In Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Human Factors and the Web. 9  R. Robertson (1994). Mapping the global condition: Globalization as the central concept’, in M. Featherstone (ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, globalization and modernity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. p. 36. 10  G. Hofstede (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill. 11  http://www.aeroflot.ru 12  http://www.nana10.co.il 13  http://www.nastygal.com 14  http://www.kmb.hk/tc 15  http://www.cocacola.co.jp 16  http://sverigesradio.se @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 124. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. REFERENCES 17  http://tiu.ru 18  http://www.stumbleupon.com 19  http://www.suning.com 20  http://www.next.co.uk 21  http://www.neobux.com 22  http://www.offerna.com 23  S. Simon (2001). The impact of culture and gender on Web sites: An empirical study. The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 3(1), pp. 18-37. 24  C. Cela-Conde, F. Ayala, E. Munar, F. Maestú, M. Nadal, M. Capó, et al. (2009). Sex related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,106(10), 3847. 25  D. Cyr and C. Bonanni (2005). Gender and website design in e-business. International Journal of Electronic Business, 3 (6), pp. 565–82. 26  A. Acquisti and R. Gross (2006). Imagined communities: Awareness, information sharing, and privacy on the Facebook. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4258, pp. 36–58. 27  E. Garbarino and M. Strahilevitz (2004). Gender differences in the perceived risk of buying online and the effects of receiving a site recommendation. Journal of Business Research, 57, pp. 768–75. 28  M. Madden and A. Smith (2010). Reputation management and social media: How people monitor their identity and search for others online. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 26 May. Available online at: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx 29  I. Oomen and R. Leenes (2008). Privacy risk perception and privacy protection strategies. In E. de Leeuw, S. Fischer Hubner, J. Tseng and J. Borking (eds), Policies and Research in Identity. Boston, MA: Springer. pp. 121–38. @THEWEBPSYCH
  • 125. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. 5 Q & A
  • 126. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2013. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THANK YOU! TheWebPsychologist.com/CS13 THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST.COM @THEWEBPSYCH