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Psychological Principles
5
OF
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ENDOWED PROGRESS
1
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http://www.notonthehighstreet.com/
1
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http://www.londonreal.tv/
1
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THE RESEARCH
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
Randomly distributed 300 loyalty cards
to customers at a car wash
1
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HALF GOT THIS
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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THE OTHER HALF GOT THIS
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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1
Which had the highest redemption rate?
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8 STAMPS?
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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10 STAMPS?
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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RESULTS
19%
34%
8 stamps 10 stamps
Redemptionrate
1
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RESULTS
19%
34%
8 stamps 10 stamps
Redemptionrate
1
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WHAT HAPPENED?
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
Task requiring
8 steps
1
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WHAT HAPPENED?
Task requiring
8 steps
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
Task requiring
10 steps
(2 completed)
1
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WHAT HAPPENED?
Reframed the task so one was
perceived as undertaken & incomplete
(rather than not yet begun)
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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What’s the principle?
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ENDOWED PROGRESS
1
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1
People provided with
artificial advancement toward a
goal exhibit greater persistence
toward reaching that goal
“ ”
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort.
Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512.
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How does it work?
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CONSISTENCY
We’re naturally motivated to
complete tasks we’ve started & want to
remain consistent with previous intentions
Fox, S. & Hoffman, M. (2002). Escalation Behavior as a Specific Case of Goal-Directed Activity: A Persistence Paradigm. Basic and Applied
Social Psychology, 24 (4), 273-285.
1
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PROXIMITY
The closer we are to completing a goal
the more likely we are to increase our efforts
to close the last little gap
Hull, C. L. (1932). The goal-gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychological Review, 39(1), 25.
1
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TRIGGERS
Hull, C. L. (1932). The goal-gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychological Review, 39(1), 25.
Giving people a couple of free holes on a punch
card is enough to trigger both of these effects
1
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WHY IT’S USEFUL
•  Increases the likelihood of task completion
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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WHY IT’S USEFUL
•  Increases the likelihood of task completion
•  Decreases completion time
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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WHY IT’S USEFUL
•  Increases the likelihood of task completion
•  Decreases completion time
•  Effect depends on perception of task
completion rather than a desire to avoid
wasting the endowed progress
Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research,
32(4), 504-512.
1
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&
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IN REALITY
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39(4), 341.
1
“ ”
Losses loom larger than gains
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THIS MEANS
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal Of
Economic Perspectives, 193-206.
We feel a greater loss over something we own
than something we haven’t yet bought
1
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1
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This also works in gaming
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Sunk-cost fallacy
2
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GAMING
Players are more likely to return to look after items
they have been endowed (paid for / earned)
than goods they have simply been given
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal Of
Economic Perspectives, 193-206.
2
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SUNK-COST FALLACY
Rational player:
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society,
263-291.
2
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SUNK-COST FALLACY
Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society,
263-291.
2
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SUNK-COST FALLACY
Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs
Real player:
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society,
263-291.
2
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SUNK-COST FALLACY
Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs
Real player: reluctant to discontinue an activity
once they’ve already put effort in
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society,
263-291.
2
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Which is why this works
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https://www.facebook.com/FarmVille
2
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SUNK-COST FALLACY
Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society,
263-291.
The sunk-cost of planting the tomatoes
increases your desire to continue the game
2
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Which gives rise to yet another dynamic…
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Appointment dynamic
3
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APPOINTMENT DYNAMIC
http://badgeville.com/wiki/Game_Mechanics/Appointments
At a predetermined time / place user must login
or participate in the game for positive effect
3
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APPOINTMENT DYNAMIC
This keeps the customer coming back for more,
creating a habitual pattern of use
3
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How these work together
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Endowed progress
Customer is helped to begin
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Endowed progress
Customer is helped to begin
Consistency
Initial intention
fuels desire to
complete
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Endowed progress
Customer is helped to begin
Consistency
Initial intention
fuels desire to
complete
Sunk-cost fallacy
Encourages further investment
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Endowed progress
Customer is helped to begin
Appointment
dynamic
Habitual use is
reinforced
Sunk-cost fallacy
Encourages further investment
Consistency
Initial intention
fuels desire to
complete
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HOW TO USE IT
•  Research what motivates your users
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HOW TO USE IT
•  Research what motivates your users
•  Give relevant initial progress for free (e.g.
points, upgrade, virtual currency / product)
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HOW TO USE IT
•  Research what motivates your users
•  Give relevant initial progress for free (e.g.
points, upgrade, virtual currency / product)
•  Use these principles to create a user
journey that encourages completion
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Opportunity cost
4
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4
Imagine I give you $100 to
spend as you like
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4
Which of the following
would you choose?
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1  You buy some clothes
4
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1  You buy some clothes
2  You take your friends out for drinks
4
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1  You buy some clothes
2  You take your friends out for drinks
3  You save it for a rainy day
4
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1  You buy some clothes
2  You take your friends out for drinks
3  You save it for a rainy day
4
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1  You buy some clothes
2  You take your friends out for drinks
3  You save it for a rainy day
4
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HOW DID YOU DECIDE?
4
Resources are limited
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HOW DID YOU DECIDE?
You probably weighed up the value of each
alternative and made a decision
4
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What’s the principle?
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Opportunity cost
4
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4
Benefits forgone by
particular use of resources
“ ”
Palmer, S., & Raftery, J. (1999). Economics notes: Opportunity cost. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 318(7197), 1551.
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4
What you’re giving up by making
that particular choice
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How does it work?
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THREE MAIN COSTS
1  Attention
2  Time
3  Money
4
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1 - ATTENTION
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ATTENTION
4.1
Attention is limited, increasingly
fragmented & highly valued
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So how do you grab & hold attention?
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4.1
ATTENTION
Trigger an emotional / arousal response
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4.1
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4.1
ATTENTION
Serve a fundamental human need
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4.1
ATTENTION
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ATTENTION
4.1
Create a compelling cycle of variable rewards
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4.1
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2 - TIME
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When do you typically use the
following products?
4.2
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4.2
And why?
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4.2
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4.2
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You have to minimize TIME costs
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MINIMIZE TIME COSTS
Do this by understanding:
4.2
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MINIMIZE TIME COSTS
Do this by understanding:
•  Your customers’ incentives for using it
4.2
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INTERNET (APP) USE
Nielsen (2014). Tech-or-treat: Consumers are sweet on mobile apps, Q3 2014 Report.
http://acnielsen.Co.Uk/us/en/insights/news/2014/tech-or-treat-consumers-are-sweet-on-mobile-apps.Html
4.2
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MINIMIZE TIME COSTS
Do this by understanding:
•  Your customers’ incentives for using it
•  Their usage patterns
4.2
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4.2
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4.2
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MINIMIZE TIME COSTS
Do this by understanding:
•  Your customers’ incentives for using it
•  Their usage patterns
•  How to target specific ‘time packets’
4.2
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4.2
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4.2
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4.2
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3 - MONEY
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How do these products reduce the
perceived cost of paying?
4.3
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4.3
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4.3
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4.3
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4.3
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FREEMIUM
BetaBlog (2011). Roger Dickey's Tactics for Game Monetization:
http://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/BetableBlog/20111129/90708/Roger_Dickeys_Tactics_for_Game_Monetization.php
They create ‘fun pain’ by making us wait in real
time (e.g. for our city / fortress to be built)
4.3
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FREEMIUM
In Sim City, to solve this pain we need to buy
‘bliss’… But how do we value ‘bliss’?
4.3
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4
4.3
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FREEMIUM
We can’t
Instead we have to buy gems (intermediate
currency) in exchange for ‘bliss’
4
4.3
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FREEMIUM
Adding just one intermediate currency between
consumers and real money reduces our ability
to assess the value of the transaction
Gabaix, X., & Laibson, D. (2004). Shrouded attributes and information suppression in competitive markets. National Bureau of Economic
Research.
4
4.3
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FREEMIUM
Allowing people to earn currency
(albeit very slowly) and offering bulk discounts
cloaks the true cost of playing
4
4.3
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So, to reduce perceived cost of MONEY…
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HOW TO DO IT
•  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting)
4
4.3
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HOW TO DO IT
•  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting)
•  Use an intermediate currency
4.3
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HOW TO DO IT
•  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting)
•  Use an intermediate currency
•  Allow people to earn currency (albeit very
slowly) and offer bulk discounts
4.3
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Hedonic adaptation
5
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THE RESEARCH
Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research,
45(6), 654-664.
Group A
180 second massage
(total: 3 mins)
5
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THE RESEARCH
Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research,
45(6), 654-664.
Group B
80 second massage
20 second break
80 seconds
(total: 2 mins 40 secs)
5
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Which group reported
higher satisfaction and said they
would be willing to pay more for it?
5
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Group B
(the ones who had a shorter
massage & took a break)
5
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5
Why?
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Short break stymied their adaptation
to the pleasurable event and ‘reset’
their appreciation for it
5
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THE RESEARCH
Same effect for unpleasant
experiences
Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research,
45(6), 654-664.
5
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THE RESEARCH
Same effect for unpleasant
experiences
If you take a break, it
sucks more
Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research,
45(6), 654-664.
5
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This is why bad smells
fade the longer you’re
exposed to them
5
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It’s the same thing with products
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5
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5
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5
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What’s the principle?
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Hedonic adaptation
5
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5
“ ”
Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Hedonic adaptation to positive and negative experiences. Oxford handbook of stress,
health, and coping, 200-224.
People become accustomed
to a positive or negative stimulus…
emotional effects of that stimulus
are attenuated over time
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5
Over time, we become de-sensitized
or bored of the same thing (features,
concepts, rewards)
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WE ADAPT
Hedonic adaptation applies to everything:
apps, games, products, relationships…
5
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HEDONIC ADAPTATION
5
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HEDONIC ADAPTATION
5
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So how do we use it?
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HOW TO USE IT
•  Update your product frequently
5
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HOW TO USE IT
•  Update your product frequently
•  Change the layout / structure
5
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
HOW TO USE IT
•  Update your product frequently
•  Change the layout / structure
•  Alter the user experience
5
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
HOW TO USE IT
•  Update your product frequently
•  Change the layout / structure
•  Alter the user experience
•  Make the rewards unpredictable
5
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
You have to understand the
psychological triggers, biases & motivations
that drive your customers
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  Endowed progress
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  Endowed progress
2  Sunk-cost fallacy
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  Endowed progress
2  Sunk-cost fallacy
3  Appointment dynamic
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  Endowed progress
2  Sunk-cost fallacy
3  Appointment dynamic
4  Opportunity Cost
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  Endowed progress
2  Sunk-cost fallacy
3  Appointment dynamic
4  Opportunity Cost
5  Hedonic adaptation
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WEBS OF INFLUENCE
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE PERSUASION
bit.ly/websofinfluence
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
DOWNLOAD THE SLIDES
bit.ly/persuasive_products
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
Get in touch.
ANY QUESTIONS?
@NathalieNahai
TheWebPsychologist.com
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
REFERENCES & FURTHER READING
1  Meyer, R. (2014). Everything We Know About Facebook's Secret Mood Manipulation Experiment. The Atlantic, June 28th:
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/06/everything-we-know-about-facebooks-secret-mood-manipulation-
experiment/373648/
2  Horn, L. Study Finds Chemical Reason Behind Facebook 'Addiction'. PC Mag (2012). Available from
http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2400011,00.asp (retrieved 17th February 2015)
3  Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of
missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841-1848.
4  Muise, A., Christofides, E., & Desmarais, S. (2009). More information than you ever wanted: Does Facebook bring out the green-
eyed monster of jealousy? CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 441-444.
5  Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2013). Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology
influences face-to-face conversation quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(3), 237-246.
6  Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., & Dye, M. W. (2010). Children, wired: for better and for worse. Neuron, 67(5), 692-701
7  Harris Interactive (2013). Mobile Consumer Habits Study. Available from:
http://pages.jumio.com/rs/jumio/images/Jumio%20-%20Mobile%20Consumer%20Habits%20Study-2.pdf (retrieved 13th March 2015)
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
BUT
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There’s a deeper question we need to ask…
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ARE WE ADDICTED?
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Let’s take a quick quiz…
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1
Do you ever feel preoccupied
with the internet?
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2
Do you feel restless, moody,
depressed, or irritable when
attempting to cut down?
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3
Do you stay online longer
than originally intended?
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Have you lied to family and
friends to conceal the extent
of your internet use?
4
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Do you use the internet as
a way of escaping from
problems or relieving a
dysphoric mood?
(helplessness, guilt, anxiety, depression)
5
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HIDDEN PERSUADERS
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HIDDEN PERSUADERS
The reason we’ve all had these
kinds of experiences is because we’re
being persuaded all the time
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THE QUIZ
Diagnostic Questionnaire for internet addiction
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THE QUIZ
Q: When do you think it came out?
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THE QUIZ
Q: When do you think it came out?
A: Before twitter, Facebook, Whatsapp…
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THE QUIZ
Q: When do you think it came out?
A: In 1998
Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244.
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Folks, the research is in
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INTERNET (APP) USE
Nielsen (2014). Tech-or-treat: Consumers are sweet on mobile apps, Q3 2014 Report.
http://acnielsen.Co.Uk/us/en/insights/news/2014/tech-or-treat-consumers-are-sweet-on-mobile-apps.Html
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
And there’s an unseen impact
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IMPACT
1  Mood
Facebook research1,2, FOMO3
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IMPACT
1  Mood
Facebook research1,2, FOMO3
2  Relationships
Facebook jealousy4, phone stacking5, emotional cues6
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IMPACT
1  Mood
Facebook research1,2, FOMO3
2  Relationships
Facebook jealousy4, phone stacking5, emotional cues6
3  Sex life
Disruptive checking habits7
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THE RESULT?
Growing media attention & push-back:
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THE RESULT?
Growing media attention & push-back:
•  Blackout productivity apps
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THE RESULT?
Growing media attention & push-back:
•  Blackout productivity apps
•  Blackout vacations
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THE RESULT?
Growing media attention & push-back:
•  Blackout productivity apps
•  Blackout vacations
•  Tracker- and ad-blocking software
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
So where does that leave us?
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ETHICS
As designers, we have to decide
whether and in what way to use these
ethically in our product design
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BUT
How on earth do we decide?
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RISK / REWARD
•  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term
rewards
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RISK / REWARD
•  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term
rewards
•  Leverage heuristics with (e.g.) dark patterns
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RISK / REWARD
•  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term
rewards
•  Leverage heuristics with (e.g.) dark patterns
•  Blackhat practices
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
BALANCE
•  Short term vs. long term success
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BALANCE
•  Short term vs. long term success
•  Build trust to secure & increase sales
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
BALANCE
•  Short term vs. long term success
•  Build trust to secure & increase sales
•  Build advocacy to boost brand salience
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
BUT
There’s one crucial point we’re forgetting…
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WE ARE THE USER
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WHERE DO YOU SIT?
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WHERE DO YOU SIT?
Facilitation
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WHERE DO YOU SIT?
Facilitation Coercion
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INTENTION
The difference between
persuasion and manipulation is intent
Robin Dreeke, Head of the Behavioural Analysis Unit, FBI
“ ”
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WHERE DO YOU SIT?
Facilitation
Persuasion
Coercion
Manipulation
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WHERE DO YOU SIT?
Facilitation
Persuasion
Coercion
Manipulation
Intent
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
THE SILVER RULE
Do not do unto others what you
would not have them do unto you
Hillel the Elder in Talmud: Shabbat 31a
“ ”
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
BUT
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ACCOUNTABILITY
•  Good intentions aren’t enough
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ACCOUNTABILITY
•  Good intentions aren’t enough
•  We all need a system of checks & balances
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
ACCOUNTABILITY
•  Good intentions aren’t enough
•  We all need a system of checks & balances
•  Quality assurance is key
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
As designers…
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
You are both the
ARCHITECTS & THE USERS
of our future tech
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@NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD.
WHAT KIND OF WORLD
do you want to build?

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Nathalie Nahai - 5 psychological principles of persuasive design

  • 1. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Psychological Principles 5 OF
  • 2. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ENDOWED PROGRESS 1
  • 3. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. http://www.notonthehighstreet.com/ 1
  • 4. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. http://www.londonreal.tv/ 1
  • 5. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESEARCH Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. Randomly distributed 300 loyalty cards to customers at a car wash 1
  • 6. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HALF GOT THIS Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 7. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE OTHER HALF GOT THIS Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 8. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1 Which had the highest redemption rate?
  • 9. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 8 STAMPS? Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 10. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 10 STAMPS? Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 11. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. RESULTS 19% 34% 8 stamps 10 stamps Redemptionrate 1
  • 12. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. RESULTS 19% 34% 8 stamps 10 stamps Redemptionrate 1
  • 13. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHAT HAPPENED? Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. Task requiring 8 steps 1
  • 14. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHAT HAPPENED? Task requiring 8 steps Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. Task requiring 10 steps (2 completed) 1
  • 15. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHAT HAPPENED? Reframed the task so one was perceived as undertaken & incomplete (rather than not yet begun) Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 16. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. What’s the principle?
  • 17. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ENDOWED PROGRESS 1
  • 18. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1 People provided with artificial advancement toward a goal exhibit greater persistence toward reaching that goal “ ” Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512.
  • 19. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. How does it work?
  • 20. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. CONSISTENCY We’re naturally motivated to complete tasks we’ve started & want to remain consistent with previous intentions Fox, S. & Hoffman, M. (2002). Escalation Behavior as a Specific Case of Goal-Directed Activity: A Persistence Paradigm. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24 (4), 273-285. 1
  • 21. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. PROXIMITY The closer we are to completing a goal the more likely we are to increase our efforts to close the last little gap Hull, C. L. (1932). The goal-gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychological Review, 39(1), 25. 1
  • 22. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. TRIGGERS Hull, C. L. (1932). The goal-gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychological Review, 39(1), 25. Giving people a couple of free holes on a punch card is enough to trigger both of these effects 1
  • 23. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHY IT’S USEFUL •  Increases the likelihood of task completion Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 24. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHY IT’S USEFUL •  Increases the likelihood of task completion •  Decreases completion time Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 25. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHY IT’S USEFUL •  Increases the likelihood of task completion •  Decreases completion time •  Effect depends on perception of task completion rather than a desire to avoid wasting the endowed progress Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress effect: How artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 504-512. 1
  • 26. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. &
  • 27. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. IN REALITY Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39(4), 341. 1 “ ” Losses loom larger than gains
  • 28. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THIS MEANS Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 193-206. We feel a greater loss over something we own than something we haven’t yet bought 1
  • 29. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1
  • 30. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. This also works in gaming
  • 31. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Sunk-cost fallacy 2
  • 32. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. GAMING Players are more likely to return to look after items they have been endowed (paid for / earned) than goods they have simply been given Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 193-206. 2
  • 33. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. SUNK-COST FALLACY Rational player: Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 263-291. 2
  • 34. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. SUNK-COST FALLACY Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 263-291. 2
  • 35. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. SUNK-COST FALLACY Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs Real player: Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 263-291. 2
  • 36. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. SUNK-COST FALLACY Rational player: would ignore sunk-costs Real player: reluctant to discontinue an activity once they’ve already put effort in Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 263-291. 2
  • 37. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Which is why this works
  • 38. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. https://www.facebook.com/FarmVille 2
  • 39. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. SUNK-COST FALLACY Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 35(1), 124-140. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 263-291. The sunk-cost of planting the tomatoes increases your desire to continue the game 2
  • 40. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Which gives rise to yet another dynamic…
  • 41. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Appointment dynamic 3
  • 42. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. APPOINTMENT DYNAMIC http://badgeville.com/wiki/Game_Mechanics/Appointments At a predetermined time / place user must login or participate in the game for positive effect 3
  • 43. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. APPOINTMENT DYNAMIC This keeps the customer coming back for more, creating a habitual pattern of use 3
  • 44. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. How these work together
  • 45. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Endowed progress Customer is helped to begin
  • 46. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Endowed progress Customer is helped to begin Consistency Initial intention fuels desire to complete
  • 47. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Endowed progress Customer is helped to begin Consistency Initial intention fuels desire to complete Sunk-cost fallacy Encourages further investment
  • 48. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Endowed progress Customer is helped to begin Appointment dynamic Habitual use is reinforced Sunk-cost fallacy Encourages further investment Consistency Initial intention fuels desire to complete
  • 49. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Research what motivates your users
  • 50. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Research what motivates your users •  Give relevant initial progress for free (e.g. points, upgrade, virtual currency / product)
  • 51. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Research what motivates your users •  Give relevant initial progress for free (e.g. points, upgrade, virtual currency / product) •  Use these principles to create a user journey that encourages completion
  • 52. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Opportunity cost 4
  • 53. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4 Imagine I give you $100 to spend as you like
  • 54. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4 Which of the following would you choose?
  • 55. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1  You buy some clothes 4
  • 56. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1  You buy some clothes 2  You take your friends out for drinks 4
  • 57. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1  You buy some clothes 2  You take your friends out for drinks 3  You save it for a rainy day 4
  • 58. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1  You buy some clothes 2  You take your friends out for drinks 3  You save it for a rainy day 4
  • 59. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1  You buy some clothes 2  You take your friends out for drinks 3  You save it for a rainy day 4
  • 60. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW DID YOU DECIDE? 4 Resources are limited
  • 61. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW DID YOU DECIDE? You probably weighed up the value of each alternative and made a decision 4
  • 62. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. What’s the principle?
  • 63. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Opportunity cost 4
  • 64. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4 Benefits forgone by particular use of resources “ ” Palmer, S., & Raftery, J. (1999). Economics notes: Opportunity cost. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 318(7197), 1551.
  • 65. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4 What you’re giving up by making that particular choice
  • 66. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. How does it work?
  • 67. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THREE MAIN COSTS 1  Attention 2  Time 3  Money 4
  • 68. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1 - ATTENTION
  • 69. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ATTENTION 4.1 Attention is limited, increasingly fragmented & highly valued
  • 70. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. So how do you grab & hold attention?
  • 71. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.1 ATTENTION Trigger an emotional / arousal response
  • 72. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.1
  • 73. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.1 ATTENTION Serve a fundamental human need
  • 74. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.1 ATTENTION
  • 75. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ATTENTION 4.1 Create a compelling cycle of variable rewards
  • 76. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.1
  • 77. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2 - TIME
  • 78. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. When do you typically use the following products? 4.2
  • 79. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2 And why?
  • 80. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 81. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 82. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. You have to minimize TIME costs
  • 83. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. MINIMIZE TIME COSTS Do this by understanding: 4.2
  • 84. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. MINIMIZE TIME COSTS Do this by understanding: •  Your customers’ incentives for using it 4.2
  • 85. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. INTERNET (APP) USE Nielsen (2014). Tech-or-treat: Consumers are sweet on mobile apps, Q3 2014 Report. http://acnielsen.Co.Uk/us/en/insights/news/2014/tech-or-treat-consumers-are-sweet-on-mobile-apps.Html 4.2
  • 86. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. MINIMIZE TIME COSTS Do this by understanding: •  Your customers’ incentives for using it •  Their usage patterns 4.2
  • 87. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 88. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 89. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. MINIMIZE TIME COSTS Do this by understanding: •  Your customers’ incentives for using it •  Their usage patterns •  How to target specific ‘time packets’ 4.2
  • 90. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 91. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 92. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.2
  • 93. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 3 - MONEY
  • 94. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. How do these products reduce the perceived cost of paying? 4.3
  • 95. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.3
  • 96. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.3
  • 97. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.3
  • 98. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4.3
  • 99. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. FREEMIUM BetaBlog (2011). Roger Dickey's Tactics for Game Monetization: http://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/BetableBlog/20111129/90708/Roger_Dickeys_Tactics_for_Game_Monetization.php They create ‘fun pain’ by making us wait in real time (e.g. for our city / fortress to be built) 4.3
  • 100. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. FREEMIUM In Sim City, to solve this pain we need to buy ‘bliss’… But how do we value ‘bliss’? 4.3
  • 101. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 4 4.3
  • 102. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. FREEMIUM We can’t Instead we have to buy gems (intermediate currency) in exchange for ‘bliss’ 4 4.3
  • 103. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. FREEMIUM Adding just one intermediate currency between consumers and real money reduces our ability to assess the value of the transaction Gabaix, X., & Laibson, D. (2004). Shrouded attributes and information suppression in competitive markets. National Bureau of Economic Research. 4 4.3
  • 104. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. FREEMIUM Allowing people to earn currency (albeit very slowly) and offering bulk discounts cloaks the true cost of playing 4 4.3
  • 105. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. So, to reduce perceived cost of MONEY…
  • 106. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO DO IT •  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting) 4 4.3
  • 107. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO DO IT •  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting) •  Use an intermediate currency 4.3
  • 108. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO DO IT •  There has to be ‘fun pain’ (e.g. waiting) •  Use an intermediate currency •  Allow people to earn currency (albeit very slowly) and offer bulk discounts 4.3
  • 109. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Hedonic adaptation 5
  • 110. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESEARCH Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 654-664. Group A 180 second massage (total: 3 mins) 5
  • 111. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESEARCH Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 654-664. Group B 80 second massage 20 second break 80 seconds (total: 2 mins 40 secs) 5
  • 112. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Which group reported higher satisfaction and said they would be willing to pay more for it? 5
  • 113. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Group B (the ones who had a shorter massage & took a break) 5
  • 114. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5 Why?
  • 115. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Short break stymied their adaptation to the pleasurable event and ‘reset’ their appreciation for it 5
  • 116. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESEARCH Same effect for unpleasant experiences Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 654-664. 5
  • 117. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESEARCH Same effect for unpleasant experiences If you take a break, it sucks more Nelson, L. D., & Meyvis, T. (2008). Interrupted consumption: Disrupting adaptation to hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 654-664. 5
  • 118. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. This is why bad smells fade the longer you’re exposed to them 5
  • 119. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. It’s the same thing with products
  • 120. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5
  • 121. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5
  • 122. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5
  • 123. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. What’s the principle?
  • 124. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Hedonic adaptation 5
  • 125. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5 “ ” Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Hedonic adaptation to positive and negative experiences. Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping, 200-224. People become accustomed to a positive or negative stimulus… emotional effects of that stimulus are attenuated over time
  • 126. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 5 Over time, we become de-sensitized or bored of the same thing (features, concepts, rewards)
  • 127. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WE ADAPT Hedonic adaptation applies to everything: apps, games, products, relationships… 5
  • 128. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HEDONIC ADAPTATION 5
  • 129. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HEDONIC ADAPTATION 5
  • 130. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. So how do we use it?
  • 131. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Update your product frequently 5
  • 132. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Update your product frequently •  Change the layout / structure 5
  • 133. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Update your product frequently •  Change the layout / structure •  Alter the user experience 5
  • 134. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HOW TO USE IT •  Update your product frequently •  Change the layout / structure •  Alter the user experience •  Make the rewards unpredictable 5
  • 135. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 136. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS You have to understand the psychological triggers, biases & motivations that drive your customers
  • 137. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  Endowed progress
  • 138. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  Endowed progress 2  Sunk-cost fallacy
  • 139. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  Endowed progress 2  Sunk-cost fallacy 3  Appointment dynamic
  • 140. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  Endowed progress 2  Sunk-cost fallacy 3  Appointment dynamic 4  Opportunity Cost
  • 141. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  Endowed progress 2  Sunk-cost fallacy 3  Appointment dynamic 4  Opportunity Cost 5  Hedonic adaptation
  • 142. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WEBS OF INFLUENCE THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE PERSUASION bit.ly/websofinfluence
  • 143. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. DOWNLOAD THE SLIDES bit.ly/persuasive_products
  • 144. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Get in touch. ANY QUESTIONS? @NathalieNahai TheWebPsychologist.com
  • 145. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING 1  Meyer, R. (2014). Everything We Know About Facebook's Secret Mood Manipulation Experiment. The Atlantic, June 28th: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/06/everything-we-know-about-facebooks-secret-mood-manipulation- experiment/373648/ 2  Horn, L. Study Finds Chemical Reason Behind Facebook 'Addiction'. PC Mag (2012). Available from http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2400011,00.asp (retrieved 17th February 2015) 3  Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841-1848. 4  Muise, A., Christofides, E., & Desmarais, S. (2009). More information than you ever wanted: Does Facebook bring out the green- eyed monster of jealousy? CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 441-444. 5  Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2013). Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology influences face-to-face conversation quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(3), 237-246. 6  Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., & Dye, M. W. (2010). Children, wired: for better and for worse. Neuron, 67(5), 692-701 7  Harris Interactive (2013). Mobile Consumer Habits Study. Available from: http://pages.jumio.com/rs/jumio/images/Jumio%20-%20Mobile%20Consumer%20Habits%20Study-2.pdf (retrieved 13th March 2015)
  • 146. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BUT
  • 147. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. There’s a deeper question we need to ask…
  • 148. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ARE WE ADDICTED?
  • 149. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Let’s take a quick quiz…
  • 150. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 1 Do you ever feel preoccupied with the internet?
  • 151. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2 Do you feel restless, moody, depressed, or irritable when attempting to cut down?
  • 152. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 3 Do you stay online longer than originally intended?
  • 153. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Have you lied to family and friends to conceal the extent of your internet use? 4
  • 154. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Do you use the internet as a way of escaping from problems or relieving a dysphoric mood? (helplessness, guilt, anxiety, depression) 5
  • 155. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HIDDEN PERSUADERS
  • 156. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. HIDDEN PERSUADERS The reason we’ve all had these kinds of experiences is because we’re being persuaded all the time
  • 157. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE QUIZ Diagnostic Questionnaire for internet addiction
  • 158. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE QUIZ Q: When do you think it came out?
  • 159. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE QUIZ Q: When do you think it came out? A: Before twitter, Facebook, Whatsapp…
  • 160. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE QUIZ Q: When do you think it came out? A: In 1998 Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244.
  • 161. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. Folks, the research is in
  • 162. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. INTERNET (APP) USE Nielsen (2014). Tech-or-treat: Consumers are sweet on mobile apps, Q3 2014 Report. http://acnielsen.Co.Uk/us/en/insights/news/2014/tech-or-treat-consumers-are-sweet-on-mobile-apps.Html
  • 163. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. And there’s an unseen impact
  • 164. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. IMPACT 1  Mood Facebook research1,2, FOMO3
  • 165. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. IMPACT 1  Mood Facebook research1,2, FOMO3 2  Relationships Facebook jealousy4, phone stacking5, emotional cues6
  • 166. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. IMPACT 1  Mood Facebook research1,2, FOMO3 2  Relationships Facebook jealousy4, phone stacking5, emotional cues6 3  Sex life Disruptive checking habits7
  • 167. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESULT? Growing media attention & push-back:
  • 168. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESULT? Growing media attention & push-back: •  Blackout productivity apps
  • 169. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESULT? Growing media attention & push-back: •  Blackout productivity apps •  Blackout vacations
  • 170. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE RESULT? Growing media attention & push-back: •  Blackout productivity apps •  Blackout vacations •  Tracker- and ad-blocking software
  • 171. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. So where does that leave us?
  • 172. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ETHICS As designers, we have to decide whether and in what way to use these ethically in our product design
  • 173. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BUT How on earth do we decide?
  • 174. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. RISK / REWARD •  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term rewards
  • 175. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. RISK / REWARD •  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term rewards •  Leverage heuristics with (e.g.) dark patterns
  • 176. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. RISK / REWARD •  Easier to take immediate risk for short-term rewards •  Leverage heuristics with (e.g.) dark patterns •  Blackhat practices
  • 177. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BALANCE •  Short term vs. long term success
  • 178. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BALANCE •  Short term vs. long term success •  Build trust to secure & increase sales
  • 179. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BALANCE •  Short term vs. long term success •  Build trust to secure & increase sales •  Build advocacy to boost brand salience
  • 180. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BUT There’s one crucial point we’re forgetting…
  • 181. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WE ARE THE USER
  • 182. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHERE DO YOU SIT?
  • 183. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHERE DO YOU SIT? Facilitation
  • 184. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHERE DO YOU SIT? Facilitation Coercion
  • 185. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. INTENTION The difference between persuasion and manipulation is intent Robin Dreeke, Head of the Behavioural Analysis Unit, FBI “ ”
  • 186. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHERE DO YOU SIT? Facilitation Persuasion Coercion Manipulation
  • 187. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHERE DO YOU SIT? Facilitation Persuasion Coercion Manipulation Intent
  • 188. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. THE SILVER RULE Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you Hillel the Elder in Talmud: Shabbat 31a “ ”
  • 189. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. BUT
  • 190. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ACCOUNTABILITY •  Good intentions aren’t enough
  • 191. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ACCOUNTABILITY •  Good intentions aren’t enough •  We all need a system of checks & balances
  • 192. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. ACCOUNTABILITY •  Good intentions aren’t enough •  We all need a system of checks & balances •  Quality assurance is key
  • 193. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. As designers…
  • 194. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. You are both the ARCHITECTS & THE USERS of our future tech
  • 195. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2015. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. @NATHALIENAHAITHE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. WHAT KIND OF WORLD do you want to build?