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Direito ingles - Professor Luiza

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História do Direito - Professora Luiza
Direito Inglês

Published in: Law
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Direito ingles - Professor Luiza

  1. 1. DIREITO INGLÊS * Statute Law (leis promulgadas p/ legislador)  resulta das lutas internas entre reis e nobres/ burgueses. Desenvolveu-se à margem do Common Law, importância primordial no séc. XX * Common Law fundamentação: conceito de justiça  e construção da nacionalidade Inglesa * Equity (jurisdições do Chancheler) 1. COMMON LAW • Contexto - Inglaterra sécs. XI e XII monarquia poderosa  Tendência à limitação do poder nos sécs. Seguintes: - disputa pelo poder: Rei X Nobres;  Burgueses - Henrique II artífice unificação Inglaterra  através da lei ==> leis comuns a todo o reino; nomeou juízes p/ tribunais locais. Tribunais do Estado (Cortes Reais)  Common Law • Características - não códigos escritos. Apenas em matérias especiais o Direito tem forma sistemática -jurisprudencial  forjado p/ precedente: seguir os precedentes ==> sem negar decisões anteriores, completá-las, reformulá-las visando solução “razoável”p/ o litígio ==> diferente direito fundado em legislações estabelecidas p/ legisladores - lei: papel secundário na sua evolução - conjunto de regras processuais e materiais elaborados p/ Tribunais Reais de Justiça - regra de Direito condicionada p/ PROCESSO (escrito) NÃO caráter de generalidade ==> processo mais importante que regras de direito positivo - categorias e conceitos derivam de regras processuais formalistas
  2. 2. - WRITS caráter direito público; não distinção entre direito público e privado - nasce (séc. XII) como a lei comum X aos direitos locais feudais ==> corresponde a um direito costumeiro (costumes do reino), consagrado e perpetuado pela jurisprudência - relação c/ Equity (regras de jurisdição especial  Tribunal de Chancelaria) meio de atenuar as regras do direito comum, modo de evitar a sua imobilidade, tendendo facultar a evolução do direito. - diferente quanto ao sentido do “ius commune”  designa o direito erudito, a partir século XVI na Europa utilizado c/ direito supletivo às leis dos países • Formação Common Law (sécs. XII - XV) a. o direito na Inglaterra até o séc. XII: - romanização pouco significativa - invasões bárbaras  formação reinos germânico ==> redigidas “leis bárbaras” => língua germânica - Séc. XI => Inglaterra conquistada p/ duque da Normandia ==>implanta o feudalismo - costume permanece única fonte de direito: locais- anglo-saxônicos; das cidades; dos mercadores b. organização das jurisdições reais – WRITS - competência das jurisdições reais (séc. XII e XIII) progressivamente suplantam as jurisdições senhoriais  graças ao processo técnico para requerê-las - qualquer pedido de justiça ao rei ==> se aprovado pelo Chanceler  Writ (ordem) ao Xerife(agente local do rei) - sistema dos WRITS:origem-> adaptado a cada caso -> transformados em fórmulas estereotipadas com objetivo atrair maior número de litígios jurisdições reais ==> ações senhores feudais que tentam frear avanço das jurisdições reais ==> . Magna Carta (1215) . Provisões de Oxford (1258) =>proíbe novos WRITS . Statute of Westerminster II (1285) -> concilia Interesses ==> Chanceler proibido criar novos Writs mas pode passar Writs em casos similares ==> Lista limitada aos Writs existentes (séc. XIII) => aplicados p/ princípio semelhança
  3. 3. • Fontes do Common Law - criado p/ juízes dos Tribunais reais de Westerminster; eles declaram o que é direito, constatam o que existe, fundamentados a princípio (séc. XIII e XIV) no costume geral imemorial do Reino ; principais decisões registradas e conservadas nos Year Books. A partir séc. XVI  compilações impressas de jurisprudência: Law Reports - grandes compilações de direito (a partir séc. XII)  ex. De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae (séc.XIII) • Common Law: relação c/ Equity - decorrer séculos XIV e XV Common Law: técnico, limitado no quadro estreito e rígido do processo dos Writs e rotina dos juízes ==> não solução satisfatória novas questões econômico-sociais ==> recorrer diretamente ao rei => nasce (séc.XV) nova jurisdição e novo processo ==> Chanceler decidia por equidade; processo escrito inspirado no direito canônico - Conflitos (séc. XVII): Rei => jurisdições de Equity->afirmação poder real X Parlamento => defesa Common Law c/ resistência ao absolutismo ==> Sistema dualista de direito => dois tipos de jurisdições, de processos e mesmo de regras de fundo -> fusão em 1873 e 1875: reforma da organização judiciária => integra regras de Equity no Common Law corrigindo e completando • Trial by jury - Júri: em matéria judiciária surge séc. XII => c/ medida na luta contra os ordálios ==> acusação pública em matéria criminal entregue à comunidade local (não mais a um funcionário)  um júri denuncia os crimes aos juízes. Sistema suprimido parcialmente em 1933 e definitivamente em 1948. • Difusão do Common Law no mundo País de Gales; Irlanda; Estados Unidos; Canadá, com exceção de Quebeque; Austrália; Nova Zelândia; Jamaica; ex-colônias inglesas da África do Sul e Central; Índia; Birmânia; Malásia; Israel (como direito supletivo).

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