Week6 mediterranean greek_part1


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mediterranean, greek, classical, helenistic, sculpture, ancient, egyptian, art, art appreciation, art history

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  • Students need to recognize the major characteristics of cultures, or particular time periods. An important factor in understanding and appreciating any work of art is some knowledge of its place in time: CONTEXT.
  • Week6 mediterranean greek_part1

    1. 1. Chapter Fourteen Ancient Mediterranean Worlds Major characteristics & Context: Egypt Greece Rome Vocabulary: Earliest art Ziggurat Kouros Sunken Relief Classical Hellenistic
    2. 2. How vs. Why Place and Time - CONTEXT
    3. 3. Why this art? <ul><li>Durable Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Art preserved in places of limited or no accessibility </li></ul>
    4. 4. Functions of Art <ul><li>Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ritual or Spiritual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many of these early societies, earthly order and cosmic order were viewed as interrelated and mutually dependent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian (architecture, jewelry, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of culture and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Commemoration </li></ul>
    5. 5. Origins of Art <ul><li>To construct meaningful images and forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremonial, ritual, spiritual, or magical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record History </li></ul><ul><li>Create order and structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A desire to make sense of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To explore aesthetic possibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A desire to make something beautiful </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Art is part of the humanities, therefore we need to know how humans developed </li></ul><ul><li>Art and sculpture develop about 30,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ceremony lies at the taproot of what we are. We are ceremonial creatures…The more important an event or experience is for us mortals, the more we ceremonialize it…Ceremony assists us to cope with the otherwise unmanageable.” – Thomas Howard </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Thomas Cole's series &quot;The Course of Empire&quot; from 1834-36
    8. 8. The Savage State
    9. 9. Pastoral State
    10. 10. The Consummation of Empire
    11. 11. The Destruction of Empire
    12. 12. Desolation, 1836 Oil on canvas
    13. 13. The world's oldest example of abstract art, dating back more than 70,000 years, has been found in a cave in South Africa.
    14. 14. Aurochs, horses, and rhinoceroses, wall painting in Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche, France, ca. 30,000–28,000 or ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. Approx. half life-size. <ul><li>Layering </li></ul><ul><li>process more important than documentation </li></ul><ul><li>power over image = power over animals </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cave painting, Lascaux, France, c. 13,000 BCE
    16. 16. <ul><li>When Pablo Picasso visited the newly-discovered Lascaux caves, in the Dordogne, in 1940, he emerged from them saying of modern art, &quot;We have discovered nothing&quot;. </li></ul>
    17. 17. 36,000 years old - discovered in May 2009
    18. 18. Nude woman (Venus of Willendorf), from Willendorf, Austria, ca. 28,000–25,000 BCE. Limestone, approx. 4 1/4” high. Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna.
    19. 19. Lucian Freud's 1995 painting Benefits Supervisor Sleeping
    20. 20. <ul><li>Beginning around 9000 BCE through 5000 BCE is the Paleolithic Period or Old Stone Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed by Neolithic or New Stone Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,500 -2500 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture/Civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of plants and animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deveolpment of towns and cities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Figure 1-19 Aerial view of Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain,Wiltshire, England, ca. 2550–1600 BCE. Circle is 97' in diameter; trilithons approx. 24' high.
    22. 22. <ul><li>Stonehenge (c. 3100 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Post and lintel construction </li></ul><ul><li>Megaliths are 21 to 24 feet tall, including height of lintel, and buried four feet in the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Solar and lunar orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Stones dragged from far away to this site </li></ul><ul><li>Circle of megaliths embrace structure, enclosing it </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” The stones are great </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And magic power they have </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men that are sick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fare to that stone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And they wash that stone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And with that water bathe away their sickness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layamon, 1200 CE </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. National Lampoon’s European Vacation Rock Garden, Fort Collins, Colorado
    24. 27. The Ancient Near East
    25. 28. <ul><li>“ Art is exalted above religion and race. Not a single solitary soul these days believes in the religion of the Assyrians, the Egyptians, or the Greeks…Only their art, whenever it was beautiful, stands proud and exalted, rising above all time.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emil Nolde </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Early Mesopotamian art has no unifying theme that kingship provided for Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The Fertile Crescent (between the Tigris and Euphrates) was the natural habitat of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild ancestors of domesticated plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, Barley, Legumes (beans and peas) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild ancestors of domesticated animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle, Sheep, Pigs ,Goats </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 30. <ul><li>Sumerian Ca 7000-6300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Akkadian 2,350 - 2,150 BCE Neo-Sumerian 2,150 - 2,000 BCE Babylonian 2125 – 1750 BCE Neo-Assyrian 911 - 612 BCE Neo-Babylonian 1000-538 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups invaded, conquered, and ruled until they themselves were conquered. Early cities arose around Sumer, in what is now Iraq. The Sumerians developed into a writing system called cuniform. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Sumerians <ul><li>Cuneiform (wedge-shaped writing form) </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurat </li></ul><ul><li>Ca 7000-6300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>City-state, kingship, political system, religious system all developed by Sumerians(!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temples, elaborate rituals – for the welfare of the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingship was a divine gift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed sophisticated irrigation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with metals such as copper, silver and gold </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE. Marble, approx. 8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
    30. 33. Statuettes of two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone, tallest figure approx. 2’ 6” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. Based on cones and cylinders rather than the grids/cubes in Egypt Acted as eternal worshippers
    31. 35. <ul><li>Standard of Ur </li></ul><ul><li>( c. 2600 – 2400 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>'War' and 'Peace‘ narrative. </li></ul>
    32. 36. Ziggurat (northeastern facade with restored stairs), Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE.
    33. 37. <ul><li>Ziggurat at Ur </li></ul><ul><li>Mud-brick construction </li></ul><ul><li>Solid, no interior </li></ul><ul><li>Large ceremonial staircases </li></ul><ul><li>Temple at top now missing </li></ul><ul><li>Functioned as religious site and center of civic pride </li></ul><ul><li>Oriented by the points of the compass </li></ul><ul><li>Painted surface </li></ul>
    34. 39. BILL AMUNDSON’s NEW BABEL 2009 Pencil on paper 50&quot; by 40&quot;
    35. 40. Ziggurat vs Pyramids <ul><li>Ziggurats were ritual and administrative centers </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids were intended to be eternal homes of the pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>The pyramids were made of stone; Ziggurats were built of mud bricks in a stone-poor region </li></ul>
    36. 41. Mayan Pyramid – ca. 1000 BCE
    37. 45. Akkadians <ul><li>2350-2150 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Early Bronze Age </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic </li></ul>
    38. 46. Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 2250–2200 BCE. Copper, 1’ 2 3/8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
    39. 47. Babylonia <ul><li>2000-1600 BCE – Old Babylonian Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1830 BCE Babylon Capital City </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hammurabi’s Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000-539 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-Babylonians – Late 7 th Century BCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative designs for architecture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 48. <ul><li>Stele with law code of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1780 BCE. Basalt, approx. 7’ 4” high. Louvre, Paris. “ to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak...” </li></ul><ul><li>300 law codes at bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments depend on social standing </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest body of laws in existence </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi standing saluting god Shamash </li></ul><ul><li>Divinely inspired law </li></ul>
    41. 49. Lamassu (winged, human-headed bull), from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720–705 BCE. Limestone, approx. 13’ 10” high. Louvre, Paris.
    42. 50. <ul><li>Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 645–640 BCE. Gypsum, 5’ 4” high. </li></ul><ul><li>Relief sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Animals show emotion, humans none </li></ul><ul><li>Humans as stoic and severe </li></ul>
    43. 51. Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), Persepolis, Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.
    44. 52. Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.