Week10 19th C./Early 20th C.

Apr. 4, 2010

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Week10 19th C./Early 20th C.

  1. • We ended chapter 17 with the rejection of Baroque & Rococo in the Neoclassical work of David. – Neoclassical artists favored emotional reserve, classical compositions, and precise draftsmanship. Their work was of high moral seriousness and political purposefulness.
  2. ISMS • Neoclassicism • Romanticism • Realism • Impressionism • Post-Impressionism • Expressionism • Cubism • Futurism • Abstract Art • Dada and Surrealism • Abstract Expressionism • Pop Art • Op Art • Minimalism • Environmental Art • Postmodernism • New Realism • Process and Conceptual Art • Neo-Expressionism • Feminist Art • Post-Post Modern Modernism in art is characterized by the development of a rapid succession of movements, each one attempting to redefine art's purpose, its subjects, its forms, and the role artists were to play in creating art. All modern “isms” share a feeling that the modern world was fundamentally different from its past
  3. • Late 18th Century – industrialization creates larger middle class • Revolutionary political changes built on concept of deserving equal rights – American Revolution – 1776 – French Revolution – 1789 • During the 19th C. artists increasingly rejected the authority of Art Academies and conservative bourgeois tastes • This was the world of – mass production – mass advertising – mass consumption – the world of leisure activities, shopping, entertainment, and visiting Art museums/galleries. • placing art that had been private property of kings and royalty on public view
  4. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11’ x 14’. Louvre, Paris.
  5. Jacques-Louis David Napoleon Crossing the St Bernard Pass c. 1801 Oil on canvas 259x221cm •Master of nature – different than Romantic era
  6. Super A, Reign supreme, acrylic on canvas, 100 cm x 120 cm, 2009 Kehinde Wiley
  7. Jean-Agusute-Dominique Ingres, Jupiter and Thetis, 1811, Oil on Canvas, 10’9”x8’7” Great Art = Great subject matter (according to Ingres) •Ingres was a pupil of David, the leading painter of Neoclassicism •Ingres inherited his master's admiration of ancient Greek and Roman Art, and emphasis on clean contours, a smooth finish, and precise draftsmanship.
  8. Ingres
  9. David Hockney
  10. Jean-Aguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque, 1814 “Art consists above all in taking nature as a model and copying it with scrupulous care, choosing however its loftiest sides. Ugliness is an accident and not one of the features of nature.” - Ingres
  11. Giorgione's Sleeping Venus, 1510 TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Ingres, Odalisque, 1814 Eugene Delacroix, Odalisque, 1845
  12. Romanticism • The Romantics believed the individual was the engineering force of history and progress. • Rejected the Neo-Classical belief that man could be perfected through reason • Romanticism was not a style so much as a set of attitudes and characteristic subjects – Literature – anti-heroic, rebellious, unusual (Frankenstein, Hunchback, Muskateers) – Music – individualism – piano sonatas
  13. Romanticism – Individual styles – Encounters with the immensity of nature in which man recognizes his or her transience (sunsets) and moral character – Emotional, irrational, mystical, intuitive, symbolic, subjective and imaginative • The rational thought/action from the classical age couldn’t explain the war and carnage of the Napoleonic era • Personal response to politics, events, culture of the time • Dramatic subject matter, turbulent emotions, and complex compositions – Painting about the present day
  14. The Third of May 1808 - Francisco Goya, 1814 Oil on canvas, 268 cm × 347[1] cm Not a hero – but a victim
  15. •Direct imagery •Understood without an education in the arts or religion
  16. Theodore Gericault, “The Raft of the Medusa”, 1819, Oil on canvas, 491 x 716 cm •Officers commandeer the lifeboats •150 people left on a makeshift raft •Ten survived •Created painting from scale model of raft based on survivor’s account
  17. NADAR, Eugène Delacroix, ca. 1855. Modern print from original negative in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. French Romanticism = Delacroix
  18. EUGÈNE DELACROIX: “Liberty leading the People”, 1830 - oil on canvas, 260- 325 cm
  19. Eugene Delacroix, The Women of Algiers, 1834, Oil on Canvas, 5’10”x7’6” •Exotic •Painterly/brushy, •Lacking contours
  20. Rubens, Garden of Love, c. 1638.
  21. Romantic Landscape Painting • Dramatic – Emphasizing turbulent scenes – Storms, shipwrecks, polar exploration, etc – To stir the viewers emotion and evoke a sense of the sublime • Naturalistic – Closely observed images of tranquil nature – A sort of religious reverence or awe for the landscape – Counter to the effects of industrialization and urbanism
  22. "Dream of Arcadia" by Thomas Cole
  23. Albert Bierstadt, 1863, The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak
  24. Caspar David Friedrich, The Sea of Ice aka Polar Sea, Oil on Canvas, 50x38”, 1823 German Romanticism
  25. Caspar David Friedrich, The wanderer above the sea of fog, Oil on Canvas, 39x29”, 1818
  26. Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, Oil on Canvas, 110x172cm, 1809 Man is no longer master of nature
  27. Joseph M.W. Turner, 1803 Romanticism in England
  28. JACOB VAN RUISDAEL, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas, approx. 1’ 10” x 2’ 1”.
  29. Joseph M.W. Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840
  30. Joseph Mallowrd William Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Parliament, Oil on Canvas, 93x123cm, 1835
  31. J M W Turner War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet 1842 Tate Oil on canvas, 79.4x79.4cm Nature vs. Man
  32. Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway painted (1844).
  33. Tonalism – 1880-1915 • James McNeill Whistler, in 1880 said, "Paint should not be applied thick. It should be like breath on the surface of a pane of glass." • Primarily landscape paintings made with an overall tone of colored atmosphere or mist • Emphasis on mood and shadow
  34. Eduard Steichen, Cooper's Bluff—Moonlight Strollers, 1905, Oil on canvas
  35. JAMES ABBOTT MCNEILL WHISTLER, Nocturne in Black and Gold (The Falling Rocket), ca. 1875. Oil on panel, 1’ 11 5/8” x 1’ 6 1/2”.
  36. James McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Blue and Silver: The Lagoon, Venice, 1879–80, Oil on canvas
  37. James McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Silver—Battersea Reach, 1872–78, Oil on canvas
  38. George Inness, The Trout Brook
  39. Realism • Depict the everyday and ordinary rather than the historic, heroic or exotic (as with NeoClassical) – Reaction to Neoclassicism and Romanticism. – Painters are less attracted to myths or ancient history – instead fining their subjects in the everyday (genre) • Objected to academic art – it did not accurately depict life as it really was • Rendered subjects as they saw them optically rather than conceptually • Emphasized 2-dimensionality of the canvas and asserted the painting process itself
  40. GUSTAVE COURBET, The Stone Breakers, 1849. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3” x 8’ 6”.
  41. GUSTAVE COURBET, Burial at Ornans, 1849. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ x 22’. Louvre, Paris. •Anti-heroic, not epic •“dared” to do a life-sized genre painting •The deceased is not identified or emphasized in the painting
  42. Courbet Courbet’s manifesto La Realisme claimed that art should be an objective record of the world – without consideration of “appropriate” and “inappropriate” subject matter. • “Art must be brought down to the low life” • “Realist means sincere friend of the real truth” • “When I am dead, let it be said of me: 'He belonged to no school, to no church, to no institution, to no academy, least of all to any regime except the regime of liberty.”
  43. GUSTAVE COURBET. Studio of a Painter: A Real Allegory Summarizing My Seven Years of Life as an Artist. 1854-1855. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
  44. Joel-Peter Witkin, Studio of the Painter (Courbet), Paris, 1990
  45. Vincent Desiderio, "An Allegory of Painting", 2003, oil on linen, 121.9 x 188 cm
  46. Courbet, Les Baigneuses, 1853
  47. John Currin
  48. John Currin
  49. Honore Daumier, Le Wagon de troisième classe (The third-class wagon), 1864.
  50. JOHN SINGER SARGENT, The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882. Oil on canvas, 7’ 3 3/8” x 3 5/8”.
  51. John Singer Sargent, El Jaleo, 1882.
  52. Sargent, John Singer Madame Pierre Gautreau (Madame X) 1884 Oil on canvas 82 1/2 x 43 1/4 in.
  53. HENRY OSSAWA TANNER, The Thankful Poor, 1894. Oil on canvas, 3’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 11 1/2”.
  54. Manet and Impressionism
  55. • We are, thank God, delivered from the Greeks and Romans…we shall encourage our painters to portray us on their canvases, just as we are, with our modern clothes and ways.” – Emile Zola, May 23, 1868
  56. Manet, Portrait d'Emile Zola 1868, Oil on canvas, (57 1/2 x 44 7/8 in)
  57. Titian, Pastoral Symphony, ca. 1508. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 7” x 4’ 6”. Louvre, Paris.
  58. ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ x 8’ 10”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
  59. • In 19th century France, acceptance to the annual Salon exhibition was the mark of an artist’s success. – Rejection of almost 3,000 works resulted in an uproar and a second exhibition called “Salon des Refuses.” Manet’s painting was the most notorious among them. • Manet seems to have wanted to accomplish 2 goals with his work. – The first was to paint modern life. – The other was to prove that modern life could produce subjects worthy of the great masters/museums
  60. Bow Wow Wow
  61. Manet, "The Dead Toreador" 1867
  62. Johannes Kahrs, Man putting finger into his finger, 2004, Oil on canvas, 94.5x 98.5 inches
  63. Giorgione's Sleeping Venus, 1510 TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Ingres, Odalisque, 1814 Manet, Olympia, oil on canvas, 1863.
  64. Manet, Olympia, 1863 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 130.5 x 190 cm (51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in) Musee d'Orsay, Paris “It’s flat and lacks modelling, it looks like the Queen of Spades coming out of a bath.” - Courbet
  65. Henri Matisse, Madame Matisse (The Green Line), 1905
  66. • “A painting is first of all a product of the artist’s imagination, it must never be a copy. If he can afterwards add two or three accents from nature, obviously that will do no harm. The air we see in the pictures of the old masters is not the air we breathe.” – Degas “Let those who wish to do history painting do the history of their own time instead of shaking up the dust of past centuries.” • Georges Riviere
  67. Edgar Degas, Races at Longchamp, Oil on Canvas, 1873-1875
  68. Impressionism • Painting outdoors – Paint tubes • interested in the effects of color based on observation • Capturing fleeting light • Used broken color/impasto and ala prima • Not interested in politics, moral tales, religion, history painting – Interested in how paint could capture sensory impressions – light, color, and movement • "art for art's sake“ • Shaped by experience and sensibility, not by tradition.
  69. William Bouguerreau, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873 Bouguereau was one of the most successful Salon painters under Napoleon III and a hostile contemporary of the Impressionists. He believed anyone could paint what he or she saw around them – how ridiculous to go out painting trees and sunspots when the museums were full of paintings of the gods!
  70. CLAUDE MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 1 1/2”. Musée Marmottan, Paris.
  71. CLAUDE MONET, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun), 1894. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3 1/4” x 2’ 1 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Painted the Rouen Cathedral thirty times
  72. John Singer Sargent (1856–1925), Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood, 1885, Oil on canvas; 21 1/4 x 25 1/2 in. (54 x 64.8 cm)
  73. Claude Monet, Haystacks 1890-1891
  74. PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 5’ 8”. Louvre, Paris.
  75. EDGAR DEGAS, The Tub, 1886. Pastel, 1’ 11 1/2” x 2’ 8 3/8”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
  76. Claude Monet, Japonnerie, 1876
  77. Mary Cassatt (American, 1844– 1926) Maternal Caress, 1891 Drypoint and soft-ground etching, third state, printed in color; 14 3/8 x 10 9/16 in. Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1790 Midnight: The Hours of the Rat; Mother and Sleepy Child, Kitagawa Utamaro (Japanese, 1753–1806) Polychrome woodblock print; H. 14 3/8 in. (36.5 cm), W. 9 5/8 in. (24.4 cm)
  78. • Broad term used to cover art produced between the 1880s and early 20th C. • Generally, they considered Impressionism too casual or too naturalistic, and sought a means of exploring emotion in paint. • what they had in common was the rejection of the transient moment in favor of enduring concepts. Post Impressionism
  79. The Post-Impressionists Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec known as one of the first Graphic Designers Paul Cezanne Large block-like brushstrokes; Still lifes, Landscapes Vincent Van Gogh Emotional, loose brushstrokes and bright, vivid colors George Seurat Founder of Pointillism; Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Auguste Rodin Bronze sculptor; Very loose and not detailed Paul Gauguin Emphasis on spiritual aspects, broad color areas, strong outlines, tertiary color harmonies, exotic subjects
  80. Henri de Toulouse- Lautrec ” At the Moulin Rouge” . 1895
  81. Edgar Degas, The Absinthe Drinker, 1876
  82. Degas, Women on the Terrace of the Café, 1877
  83. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec La Goulue, 1891.
  84. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Ambassadeurs: Aristide Bruant 1892.
  85. Paul Cezanne, Card Players, 1890-92.
  86. Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Apples, 1890.
  87. Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Peppermint Bottle, 1890-94.
  88. PAUL CÉZANNE, The Basket of Apples, ca. 1895. Oil on
  89. Paul Cezanne, Mont Saint Victoire, 1885.
  90. Instead of flattening space, he did the opposite. He actually broke space up into geometric, solid forms: rectangular landscape, pyramid-shaped mountain
  91. "Everything we see falls apart, vanishes. Nature is always the same, but nothing in her that appears to us, lasts. Our art must render the thrill of her permanence along with her elements, the appearance of all her changes. It must give us the taste of her eternity." --Paul Cezanne
  92. Piet Mondrian
  93. Van Gogh, The Potato Eaters, 1885.
  94. Van Gogh, The Fourteenth of July in Paris, 1886-1887
  95. Van Gogh Sunflowers, 1888.
  96. Van Gogh The Night Cafe, 1888.
  97. Vincent Van Gogh, Bedroom at Arles #3, 1889.
  98. Egon Schiele Artist's Room in Neulengbach, 1911 | oil on wood | 40x32cm
  99. VINCENT VAN GOGH, Starry Night, 1889. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 5” x 3’ 1/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York
  100. Paul Gauguin, Te Aa No Areois (the Seed of Areoi), Oil on Burlap, 1892, 36x28”
  101. PAUL GAUGUIN, The Vision after the Sermon or Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, 1888. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4 3/4” x 3’ 1/2”.
  102. PAUL GAUGUIN, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, 1897. Oil on canvas, 4’ 6 13/ 16” x 12’ 3”.
  103. GEORGES SEURAT, A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884–1886. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” ´ 10’. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
  104. Georges Seurat's The Circus (oil on canvas, 73x 59-1/8 inches), 1890
  105. Fauves • The fauves (wild beasts) gained this name through the use of wild, subjective colors. • Fauvism did not last long, a mere three years or so, but was crucial for the development of modern art. • Fauvism was part of a larger trend in Europe called Expressionism – artists who believed the fundamental purpose of art was to express their intense feelings toward the world.
  106. Henri Matisse, Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life), 1905-06. Oil on canvas, 5’ 8” x 7’ 9”
  107. HENRI MATISSE, Red Room (Harmony in Red), 1908–1909. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 11” x 8’ 1”.
  108. ANDRÉ DERAIN, The Dance, 1906. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7/8” x 6’ 10 1/4”.
  109. Impressionism to Expressionism • Expressionism is primarily Norther European • Art of unrest • Strong color, distorted and abstracted figures
  110. EDVARD MUNCH, The Cry, 1893. Oil, pastel, and casein on cardboard, 2’ 11 3/4” x 2’ 5”. National Gallery, Oslo. Andy Warhol, Scream, 1984Andy Warhol, Scream, 1984Andy Warhol, Scream, 1984
  111. Edward Munch, "Madonna" ,1894.
  112. Jasper Johns SCENT Lithograph, linocut and woodcut, 1976 Edward Munch, Self Portrait: Between Clock and Bed 1940-42; Oil on canvas, 149.5 x 120.5 cm
  113. Daniel Richter "tuwenig„, 2004 212 x 261 cm / 83 3/7 x 102 3/4 "
  114. Francis Bacon
  115. Egon Schiele, Seated Nude with Extended Right Arm, 1910, Black chalk and watercolor on paper Secessionism
  116. • Die Brucke (the bridge) – Kirchner • Influence of Munch • Der Blaue Reiter (the blue rider) – Vasili Kandinsky – Franz Marc
  117. Expressionism and the Avant-Garde • The avant-garde was originally a military term, referring to the detachment of soldiers that went first into battle. • Expressionism, which arose as artists came to believe that the fundamental purpose of art was to express their intense feelings toward the world.
  118. ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER, Street, Dresden, 1908 (dated 1907). Oil on canvas, 4’ 11 1/4” x 6’ 6 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York
  119. VASSILY KANDINSKY, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 7/8” x 5’ 3 7/8”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  120. FRANZ MARC, Fate of the Animals, 1913. Oil on canvas, 6’ 4 3/4” x 8’ 9 1/2”.
  121. Otto Dix "Machine Gunners Advancing" from Der Krieg (1924)
  122. OTTO DIX, Der Krieg (The War), 1929–1932. Oil and tempera on wood, 6’ 8 1/3” x 13’ 4 3/4”.
  123. EMIL NOLDE, Saint Mary of Egypt among Sinners, 1912. Left panel of a triptych, oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 3”.
  124. • Harsh emotion, social criticism, subjective color, dynamic compositions, frequently used contour lines – Expressionism as seen in the work of Schiele, and Kirchner
  125. Picasso • Blue Period • Rose Period • African- Influenced Period • Cubism • Classicism and Surrealism • Later Works
  127. Pablo Picasso,”First Communion”, 1895-6, oil on canvas, 166 x 118 cm, Museu Picasso, Barcelona. The Tragedy 1903, oil on wood, 1.053 x .690 m (41 7/16 x 27 3/16 in.), National Gallery of Art, Washington Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Paris, 1907 Oil on canvas 8' x 7'8" (243.9 x 233.7 cm.) The Museum of Modern Art, New York
  128. Picasso (Rose period)
  129. Egon Schiele, Fraulein Beer, Oil on Canvas, 190x120 cm, 1914
  130. Pablo Picasso The Tragedy, 1903
  131. GEORGES BRAQUE, The Portuguese, 1911. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10 1/8” x 2’ 8”.
  132. GEORGES BRAQUE, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913. Charcoal and various papers pasted on paper, 1’ 6 7/8” x 2’ 1 1/4”.
  133. Guernica shows the Nazi German bombing of Guernica, Spain, by twenty-eight bombers, on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. The attack killed between 250 and 1,600 people, and many more were injured.
  134. PABLO PICASSO, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’ 5 1/2” x 25’ 5 3/4”. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid.
  135. Picasso Basquait
  136. • Responses to Cubism: 1. Italian Futurism: – Began in February 1909 – Futurists decided that motion itself was the glory of the new 20th century. Celebrated speed, energy, industrialization 2. Russian Suprematism: – Kazimir Malevich was leader of the Russian avant- garde. - Founded in 1915.
  137. Giacomo Balla, Swifts Paths of Movement – Dynamic Sequences
  138. UMBERTO BOCCIONI, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 (cast 1931). Bronze, 3’ 7 7/8” high x 2’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 3 3/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York
  139. Umberto Boccioni. States of Mind: The Farewells. 1911. Oil on canvas. 70. x 96cm.
  140. Umberto Boccioni, Charge of the Lancers, Tempera and collage on board, 32x50 cm, 1915
  141. GINO SEVERINI, Armored Train, 1915. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10” x 2’ 10 1/8”. Collection of Richard S. Zeisler, New York.
  142. CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI, Bird in Space, 1928. Bronze (unique cast), 4’ 6” x 8” x 6” high.
  143. Kazimir Malevich. Suprematist Painting (Eight Red Rectangles). 1915. Oil on canvas. 57 x 48 cm
  144. KAZIMIR MALEVICH, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915 (dated 1914). Oil on canvas, 1’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 7”.
  145. • De Stijl: – Dutch = ‘The style’ – Founded in Leiden in 1917 – Style of austere (severe) abstract clarity
  146. Art Nouveau • Popular at the turn of the century – 1890- 1905 • Style of art, architecture and decorative arts • Characterized by organic, floral, plant- inspired motifs, with highly stylized curvilinear forms.’ • Bridges Neoclassicism and modernism
  147. • Organic, floral, plant-like motifs, stylized curvilinear forms – Art Nouveau
  148. Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) 'Job' 1898 Colour lithograph
  150. Gustav Klimt, Judith, 1901