Weather Information

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Weather forecast and printed weather reports for pilots.

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Weather Information

  1. 1. Weather Information Nathan Reed
  2. 2. OVERVIEW
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF A THOROUGH PREFLIGHT / INFLIGHT WEATHER BRIEFING <ul><li>Study all weather reports and forecasts. Pay particular attention to temperature and dew point spreads to detect the possibility of fog formation. </li></ul><ul><li>In flight, look for signs of changing weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust what you see outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Continually reevaluate. </li></ul><ul><li>The key: Always leave an out! </li></ul><ul><li>VFR Flight into IMC </li></ul>
  4. 5. MEANS AND SOURCES OF OBTAINING WEATHER INFORMATION <ul><li>Individual briefing obtained from a briefer at FSS (Flight Service Station) / AFSS (Automated Flight Service Station), 1-800-WX-BRIEF. </li></ul><ul><li>The Direct User Access System (DUAT, DUATS) ‏ . </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS). </li></ul><ul><li>En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) “Flight Watch” found on 122.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS), AWOS, ASOS. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather and aeronautical information from numerous private industry sources. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Weather Briefings
  6. 8. OBTAINING WEATHER INFORMATION
  7. 9. PRINTED FORECASTS AND REPORTS METAR PIREP TAF FB FA
  8. 10. METAR <ul><li>KLIT 211553Z 20006KT 10SM SCT250 19/04 A3014 RMK AO2 SLP207 T01890044 </li></ul><ul><li>KORD 211551Z 08014KT 8SM –FZRA FG FEW011 BKN026 OVC055 M01/M02 A3008 RMK AO2 RAE08SNB08SNE32 SLP191 P0001 </li></ul>
  9. 11. METAR Reportable Contraction Summation Amount of Layer VV 8/8 SKC or CLR 0 FEW 1/8 – 2/8 SCT 3/8 – 4/8 BKN 5/8 – 7/8 OVC 8/8
  10. 12. METAR <ul><li>KLIT 211553Z 20006KT 10SM SCT250 19/04 A3014 RMK AO2 SLP207 T01890044 </li></ul><ul><li>KORD 211551Z 08014KT 8SM –FZRA FG FEW011 BKN026 OVC055 M01/M02 A3008 RMK AO2 RAE08SNB08SNE32 SLP191 P0001 </li></ul><ul><li>KCAR 211554Z AUTO 29022G32KT 1/4SM BLSN OVC001 M07/M12 A2912 RMK AO2 PK WND 29034/1530 SLP872 P0010 T10721117$ </li></ul><ul><li>KYGP 211600Z 08003KT 3/4SM +SN BR SCT003 OVC008 M03/M07 A2872 RMK SNB23 WET SN PRESRR SLP728 </li></ul><ul><li>SPECI KYMT 211630Z 20017G27KT 1SM +TSRA SQ VV005CB DU 28/23 A3000 RMK TSB24 TS OHD MOV NE </li></ul>
  11. 13. PRINTED FORECASTS AND REPORTS METAR PIREP TAF FB FA
  12. 14. PIREP <ul><li>UA /OV ABQ270035 /TM 1435 /FL115 /TP C404 /TB NEG /RM SMTH </li></ul><ul><li>UA /OV HYS 180015 /TM 1400 /FL340 /TP A320 /TB MOD CHOP /RM FM ZKC </li></ul><ul><li>UUA /OV PIR /TM 1340 /FL040 /TP C172 /TB MOD-SEV </li></ul><ul><li>UA /OV KTUS / TM 1845 /FL UNKN /TP UNKN /RM REDINGTON PASS CLSD DUE TO FG AND LOW CLDS UNA VFR RTN KTUS </li></ul><ul><li>UA /OV KMRB-KPIT /TM 1600 /FL 100 /TP BE55 /SK BKN024-TOP032/ BKN-OVC043-TOPUNKN /TA M12/ IC LGT-MOD RIME 055-080 </li></ul>
  13. 15. PRINTED FORECASTS AND REPORTS METAR PIREP TAF FB FA
  14. 16. TAF
  15. 17. TAF <ul><li>KLUK 061128Z 0612/0712 VRB03KT P6SM SCT100 </li></ul><ul><li>FM1400 24008KT P6SM SCT250 </li></ul><ul><li>FM0000 VRB03KT P6SM BKN250 </li></ul><ul><li>FM0800 VRB03KT P6SM BKN080 </li></ul><ul><li>KSFO 061455Z 0615/0721 17010KT P6SM SCT030 BKN250 </li></ul><ul><li>FM2100 17014KT P6SM VCTS BKN035CB </li></ul><ul><li>FM0100 16011KT P6SM BKN025 </li></ul><ul><li>FM0400 16011KT P6SM OVC015 </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPO 0706/0709 19011KT 2SM +TSRA BR OVC008CB </li></ul><ul><li>FM1100 VRB06KT 5SM BR OVC030 </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPO 0714/0716 14012G22KT VCTS FEW010CB OVC025 </li></ul><ul><li>FM1600 16008KT 5SM VCTS FEW030CB SCT030 OVC060 </li></ul><ul><li>KACV 172006Z 1720/1818 30003KT 1 1/2SM BR BKN001 OVC006 </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPO 1720/1723 5SM BR SCT003 SCT008 </li></ul><ul><li>FM172300 27004KT 6SM HZ SCT003 BKN008 </li></ul><ul><li>FM180200 VRB03KT 2SM -DZ BR BKN002 </li></ul><ul><li>FM181400 09004KT 3SM BR BKN008 </li></ul>
  16. 18. PRINTED FORECASTS AND REPORTS METAR PIREP TAF FB FA
  17. 19. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY * * * 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  18. 20. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>Wind forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 1500 feet of a location’s elevation. </li></ul>
  19. 21. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY * * * 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  20. 22. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>Wind forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 1500 feet of a location’s elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 2500 feet of a location’s elevation (no temperature for 3000). </li></ul>
  21. 23. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  22. 24. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>Wind forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 1500 feet of a location’s elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 2500 feet of a location’s elevation (no temperature for 3000). </li></ul><ul><li>Wind direction is indicated in tens of degrees (two digits) with reference to true north, wind speed is given in knots (two digits) and temperature is indicated in degrees Celsius (two digits) and is preceded by the appropriate algebraic sign for the levels from 6000 through 24000 feet. Above 24000 feet, the sign is omitted since temperatures are always negative at those altitudes. </li></ul>
  23. 25. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  24. 26. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>Wind forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 1500 feet of a location’s elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 2500 feet of a location’s elevation (no temperature for 3000). </li></ul><ul><li>Wind direction is indicated in tens of degrees (two digits) with reference to true north, wind speed is given in knots (two digits) and temperature is indicated in degrees Celsius (two digits) and is preceded by the appropriate algebraic sign for the levels from 6000 through 24000 feet. Above 24000 feet, the sign is omitted since temperatures are always negative at those altitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Light and variable wind or wind speeds of less than 5 knots are expressed by 9900. </li></ul>
  25. 27. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  26. 28. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>Wind forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 1500 feet of a location’s elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature forecasts are not issued for altitudes within 2500 feet of a location’s elevation (no temperature for 3000). </li></ul><ul><li>Wind direction is indicated in tens of degrees (two digits) with reference to true north, wind speed is given in knots (two digits) and temperature is indicated in degrees Celsius (two digits) and is preceded by the appropriate algebraic sign for the levels from 6000 through 24000 feet. Above 24000 feet, the sign is omitted since temperatures are always negative at those altitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Light and variable wind or wind speeds of less than 5 knots are expressed by 9900. </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast wind speeds of 100 through 199 knots are indicated by adding100 from the speed and subtracting 50 to the coded direction. Forecast wind speeds of 200 knots or greater are indicated as a forecast speed of 199 knots. </li></ul>
  27. 29. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT <ul><li>DATA BASED ON 061200Z VALID 061800Z FOR USE 1400-2100Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000 FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000 </li></ul><ul><li>BIH 9900 3409+08 3411-01 3518-15 3424-27 344342 344951 355262 </li></ul><ul><li>BLH 2006 0307+11 0313+03 0321-05 0343-20 0250-32 027845 752144 779947 </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9900 3410+13 3313+07 3407+00 3523-14 3430-27 344442 344851 354562 </li></ul><ul><li>FOT 3625 3424+10 3417+04 2911-02 2723-15 2732-27 273742 274551 774761 </li></ul><ul><li>ONT 9900 0107+13 0112+06 0122-02 0134-18 0255-27 366942 017552 365858 </li></ul><ul><li>SFO 3009 2806+14 2908+08 3114+02 3122-14 3027-27 303341 803151 813661 </li></ul><ul><li>SIY 2815-03 2727-16 2732-27 283943 274652 285461 </li></ul><ul><li>WJF 2909 3308+06 3620-01 0131-16 0144-27 366041 366351 365661 </li></ul><ul><li>AST 3315 3114+00 2911-02 9900-08 2725-19 2643-30 266545 267354 265959 </li></ul><ul><li>IMB 2912-02 2614-06 2639-17 2742-29 284645 286253 285661 </li></ul>
  28. 30. PRINTED FORECASTS AND REPORTS METAR PIREP TAF FB FA
  29. 31. FA
  30. 32. FA Area Forecast (FAUS) Boston and Miami (UTC) Chicago and Fort Worth (UTC) San Francisco and Salt Lake City (UTC) 1st Issuance 0845 DT 0945 ST 0945 DT 1045 ST 1045 DT 1145 ST 2nd Issuance 1745 DT 1845 ST 1845 DT 1945 ST 1945 DT 2045 ST 3rd Issuance 0045 DT 0145 ST 0145 DT 0245 ST 0245 DT 0345 ST
  31. 33. FA <ul><li>SLCC FA 061045 </li></ul><ul><li>SYNOPSIS AND VFR CLDS/WX </li></ul><ul><li>SYNOPSIS VALID UNTIL 070500 </li></ul><ul><li>CLDS/WX VALID UNTIL 062300...OTLK VALID 062300-070500 </li></ul><ul><li>ID MT WY NV UT CO AZ NM . </li></ul><ul><li>SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDS AND MTN OBSCN. </li></ul><ul><li>TS IMPLY SEV OR GTR TURB SEV ICE LLWS AND IFR CONDS. </li></ul><ul><li>NON MSL HGTS DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG. </li></ul><ul><li>SYNOPSIS...ALF..11Z UPR LVL LOW NRN BAJA CA. MOD SW FLOW AZ/NM. </li></ul><ul><li>LGT WNDS ELSW. 05Z LOW MOVG TO SW NM. MOD SW WNDS NM. SFC...11Z WK LOW ERN MT WITH CDFNT ACRS S CNTRL MT THRU SWRN ID. TROF ERN WY THRU ERN CO/NM. WK HIGH PRES WRN CO. SLGTLY MOIST UNSTBL AMS THRUT FA RGN. 05Z LOW SRN MN WITH CDFNT ACRS CNTRL NEB CONTG WWD ACRS SRN WY. TROF NRN TX PNHDL THRU SE NM. LOW PRES OVR GRT BASIN. </li></ul><ul><li>ID </li></ul><ul><li>NRN...BKN100 TOP 160. 16Z SCT080 BKN CI. BY 20Z ISOL -TSRA. CB TOP FL300. OTLK...VFR. </li></ul><ul><li>CNTRL MTNS/SRN ID...SCT150 SCT CI. 21Z SCT100 BKN150 TOP FL250. ISOL -TSRA. CB TOP FL300. OTLK...VFR. </li></ul><ul><li>NV </li></ul><ul><li>NWRN/NERN...SCT CI. 20Z SCT150. ISOL -TSRA. CB TOP FL380. OTLK...VFR. </li></ul><ul><li>SRN...SCT150 SCT CI. OTLK...VFR. </li></ul>Heading Section Precautionary Statements Synopsis VFR Clouds and WX
  32. 34. OBTAINING WEATHER INFORMATION
  33. 35. SEVERE WEATHER REPORTS AND FORECASTS AIRMET SIGMET CONVECTIVE SIGMET CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS
  34. 36. AIRMET <ul><li>CHI Z WA 080245 </li></ul><ul><li>AIRMET ZULU FOR ICE AND FRZLVL VALID UNTIL 080900 </li></ul><ul><li>AIRMET ICE...ND SD NE MN </li></ul><ul><li>FROM FAR TO FSD TO SNY TO BFF TO 80SW DIK TO FAR </li></ul><ul><li>MOD ICE BTN FRZLVL AND FL200. FRZLVL 060-100. CONDS CONTG BYD 09Z THRU 15Z. </li></ul><ul><li>FRZLVL...RANGING FROM SFC-125 ACRS AREA 040 ALG 60NE MOT-20WSW BRD-50NE MSP-40ENE EAU-70SSE SSM-70SE SSM 080 ALG 60WNW RAP-50SW DPR-20ESE FSD-60SSW ODI-20S MKG-20W ECK-60SSW YVV </li></ul><ul><li> ---------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>DFW T WA 080245 </li></ul><ul><li> AIRMET TANGO FOR TURB VALID UNTIL 080900 </li></ul><ul><li>AIRMET TURB...OK TX AR TN LA MS AL SD NE KS MN IA MO WI LM LS MI </li></ul><ul><li>LH IL IN KY </li></ul><ul><li>FROM DLH TO SSM TO YVV TO 50ENE ECK TO 30SE ECK TO FWA TO CVG TO HNN TO HMV TO GQO TO AEX TO SJT TO 50W LBL TO GLD TO DLH </li></ul><ul><li>MOD TURB BTN FL240 AND FL400. CONDS CONTG BYD 09Z THRU 15Z. </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>SLC S WA 080245 </li></ul><ul><li> AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL 080900 </li></ul><ul><li>AIRMET MTN OBSCN...CO </li></ul><ul><li>FROM 20N CHE TO 30SSW CYS TO 30SSW PUB TO 50SW HBU TO 20N CHE </li></ul><ul><li>MTNS OCNL OBSC BY CLDS/PCPN. CONDS DVLPG 06-09Z AND CONTG BYD 09Z THRU 15Z. </li></ul>
  35. 37. SEVERE WEATHER REPORTS AND FORECASTS AIRMET SIGMET CONVECTIVE SIGMET CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS
  36. 38. SIGMET <ul><li>SFOR UWS 100130 </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMENT ROMEO 1 VALID UNTIL 100530 </li></ul><ul><li>OR WA </li></ul><ul><li>FROM SEA TO PDT TO EUG TO SEA </li></ul><ul><li>OCNL MOGR CAT BTN FL280 AND FL350 EXP DUE TO JTSTR. CONDS BGNG AFT 0200Z CONTG BYD 0530Z AND SPRDG OVER CNTRL ID BY 040700Z. </li></ul><ul><li>DFWY WS 121450 COR </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMET YANKEE 4 VALID UNTIL 121700 </li></ul><ul><li>MO AR LA MS </li></ul><ul><li>FROM STL TO 30 N MEI TO BTR TO MLU TO STL </li></ul><ul><li>OCNL SVR MXD ICING 90 TO 130 EXPCD. FRZLVL 80 E TO 120 W. CONDS CONTG BYD 1700Z CORRECTS YANKEE 3 </li></ul>
  37. 39. SEVERE WEATHER REPORTS AND FORECASTS AIRMET SIGMET CONVECTIVE SIGMET CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS
  38. 40. CONVECTIVE SIGMET
  39. 41. CONVECTIVE SIGMET <ul><li>WSUS32 KKCI 080455 </li></ul><ul><li>SIG C </li></ul><ul><li>CONVECTIVE SIGMET 13C </li></ul><ul><li>VALID UNTIL 0655Z </li></ul><ul><li>MS LA AR TX </li></ul><ul><li>FROM 30E LIT-50SSE MEM-20WNW JAN-50E LFK-30W TXK-30E LIT </li></ul><ul><li>AREA SEV TS MOV FROM 23045KT. TOPS TO FL390. </li></ul><ul><li>TORNADOES...HAIL TO 1.5 IN...WIND GUSTS TO 60KT POSS. </li></ul><ul><li>OUTLOOK VALID 080655-081055 </li></ul><ul><li> AREA 1...FROM BVT-30WNW BWG-MEI-40NW LCH-60NW IAH-FSM-30SW BUM-BVT </li></ul><ul><li>REF WW 275 276. </li></ul><ul><li>WST ISSUANCES EXPD. REFER TO MOST RECENT ACUS01 KWNS FROM STORM </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICTION CENTER FOR SYNOPSIS AND METEOROLOGICAL DETAILS. </li></ul><ul><li>AREA 2...FROM 90SE MLS-40E RAP-30S AKO-40S HBU-70NW LAR-90SE MLS </li></ul><ul><li>WST ISSUANCES POSS. REFER TO MOST RECENT ACUS01 KWNS FROM STORM </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICTION CENTER FOR SYNOPSIS AND METEOROLOGICAL DETAILS. </li></ul>
  40. 42. SEVERE WEATHER REPORTS AND FORECASTS AIRMET SIGMET CONVECTIVE SIGMET CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS
  41. 43. CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS Convective Outlook Issuance Time (UTC) Valid Period (UTC) Day 1 0600 1200 – 1200 1300 1300 – 1200 1630 1630 – 1200 2000 2000 - 1200 0100 0100 - 1200 Day 2 0730 DT 0830 ST 2 / 1200 - 1200 1730 2 / 1200 - 1200 Day 3 1100 3 / 1200 - 1200
  42. 44. CONVECTIVE OUTLOOKS
  43. 45. OBTAINING WEATHER INFORMATION
  44. 46. AIRMET/ SIGMET/ CONVECTIVE SIGMET
  45. 47. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  46. 48. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  47. 49. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  48. 50. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  49. 51. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  50. 52. SURFACE ANALYSIS
  51. 53. WEATHER DEPICTION
  52. 54. WEATHER DEPICTION
  53. 55. RADAR SUMMARY
  54. 56. RADAR SUMMARY
  55. 57. RADAR SUMMARY
  56. 58. SURFACE PROGNOSTIC CHARTS Present 12 HR 24 HR 36 HR
  57. 59. LOW-LEVEL SIGNIFICANT WEATHER (SIGWX) CHARTS
  58. 60. LOW-LEVEL SIGNIFICANT WEATHER (SIGWX) CHARTS
  59. 61. LOW-LEVEL SIGNIFICANT WEATHER (SIGWX) CHARTS
  60. 62. FORECAST WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT
  61. 64. RECOGNITION OF AVIATION WEATHER HAZARDS <ul><li>Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Microbursts </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Shear </li></ul>
  62. 65. RECOGNITION OF AVIATION WEATHER HAZARDS <ul><li>Pilots should not hesitate to ask questions and discuss factors they do not fully understand. </li></ul><ul><li>The briefing should be considered complete only when the pilot has a clear picture of what weather to expect. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots should also make a final weather check immediately before departure if at all possible. </li></ul>
  63. 67. Go / No-Go Decision
  64. 68. Go / No-Go Decision

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