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motivating employees

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motivating employees

  1. 1. Motivating Employees CHAPTER 17 0
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Define motivation and explain the difference between current approaches and traditional approaches to motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe content theories of motivation based on employee needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain process theories of motivation . </li></ul><ul><li>Describe reinforcement theory and how it can be used to motivate employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss major approaches to job design and how job design influences motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how empowerment heightens employee motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe ways that managers can create a sense of meaning and importance for employees at work. </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  3. 3. Are You Engaged or Disengaged? <ul><li>Employee Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people begin new jobs with energy and enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees can lose their drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivated and engaged employees contribute to organizational success </li></ul><ul><li>But motivation is a challenge for managers…. </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  4. 4. Concept of Motivation <ul><li>Arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee motivation affects productivity . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A manager’s job is to channel motivation. </li></ul></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  5. 5. Two Types of Rewards <ul><li>Intrinsic rewards- -satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic rewards- -given by another person. </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  6. 6. A Simple Model of Motivation  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0 <ul><li>Motivation can lead to behaviors that reflect high performance within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>High employee motivation is related to high organizational performance and profits. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Content Perspectives on Motivation <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>ERG Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. These theories emphasize the needs that motivate people. 0
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0 According to Maslow’s Theory, low-order needs take priority—they must be satisfied before higher-order needs are activated.
  9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated </li></ul><ul><li>There are opportunities for fulfillment off the job and on the job in each of the five levels of needs </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  10. 10. ERG Theory <ul><li>ERG is a simplification of Maslow. </li></ul><ul><li>Three categories of needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence needs. The needs for physical well-being. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatedness needs. The needs for satisfactory relationships with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth needs. The needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth. </li></ul></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  11. 11. Two-Factor Motivation Theory  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  12. 12. Acquired Needs Theory  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. <ul><li>Need for Achievement. desire to accomplish something difficult, master complex tasks, and surpass others. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation. desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power. desire to influence or control others. </li></ul>0
  13. 13. Process Perspectives on Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. These theories explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs. 0
  14. 14. Goal-Setting <ul><li>Specific, challenging targets significantly enhance people’s motivation and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers can improve performance by setting specific goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-setting theory requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  15. 15. Equity Theory <ul><li>Focuses on individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  16. 16. Methods for Reducing Perceived Inequities <ul><li>Change Work Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Change Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Change Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the Job </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0 Employees evaluate the perceived equity of their rewards compared to others’.
  17. 17. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  18. 18. Major Elements of Expectancy Theory  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. Valence – the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome 0
  19. 19. Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  20. 20. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job Design - application of motivational theories to the structure of work </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  21. 21. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job Simplification - improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rotation - moving employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enlargement - combining a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  22. 22. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job Enrichment - incorporating achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work </li></ul><ul><li>Work redesign – altering jobs to increase both the quality of employee’s work experience and their productivity </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  23. 23. Job Characteristics Model  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  24. 24. Innovative Ideas for Motivating  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  25. 25. Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs <ul><li>Information - Employees receive information about company performance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals </li></ul><ul><li>Power - Employees have the power to make substantive decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards - Employees are rewarded based on the company performance </li></ul> Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  26. 26. A Continuum of Empowerment  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0
  27. 27. Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement  Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.  All rights reserved. 0 There is growing recognition that it is the behavior of managers that makes the biggest difference in whether people feel engaged at work.

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