Algae Book

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Algae Book

  1. 1. sunlight pollution control glow plates biohydrogen biomass water carbon dioxide biofuel minerals algae definition growing algae photobioreactor system algae as next energy energy source site conditions algae nutrients OILGAE
  2. 2. algae 1794, from alga (sing.), 1551, from L. alga ETYM[O][L][O]GY quot;seaweed,quot; of uncertain origin, perhaps from a PIE base meaning quot;to putrefy, rot.quot; brown algae green algae red algae
  3. 3. –plural noun, singular -ga ALGAE any of numerous groups of chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms 100 ft. (30 m) or more long, distinguished from plants by the absence of true roots, stems, and leaves and by a lack of nonreproductive cells in the reproductive structures: classified into the six phyla Euglenophyta, Crysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. BLUE-GREEN ALGAE –noun Biology a widely distributed group of predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms of the subking- DEF[I]N[I]T[I][O]N dom Cyanophyta, resembling phototrophic bacteria, occurring singly or in colonies in diverse habitats: some species can fix atmospheric nitrogen. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=algae
  4. 4. OLIVE OIL WHALE OIL OIL NEXT ?
  5. 5. OLIVE OIL WHALE OIL OIL NEXT from Gk. elaion quot;olive treequot;,[13] Whale oil is the oil obtained from the 3000 B.C. which may have been borrowed blubber of various species of whales. Mesopotamians of that era used through trade networks from the Whale oil is chemically a liquid wax rock oil in architectural adhesives, Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon and not a true oil. It flows readily, is ship caulks, medicines, and roads. clear, and varies in colour from a meaning quot;superiorquot; , bright honey yellow to a dark brown, 2000 B.C. The Chinese refined crude oil for probably in recognized comparison according to the condition of the to other vegetable or animal fats blubber from which it has been use in lamps and in heating homes. available at the time. extracted. 600-700 A.D. ORIGIN 8th millennium BC 1500 – 1800 Arab and Persian chemists wild olives were collected by amp fuel discovered that petroleum’s lighter ? Neolithic peoples as early soap elements could be mixed with the first cultivation of the olive tree Lubricator for fine instruments and quicklime to make Greek fire, the took place on the island of Crete. machinery napalm of its day. manufacture of varnish, leather, 3500 BC linoleum, and rough cloth (especially 1859 the earliest surviving olive oil jute). Oil was first discovered when a amphorae date to homemade rig drilled down 70 feet 1900 and came up coated with oil. This 4000 BC margarine rig was near Titusville (in the production of olive is assumed soap northwestern Pennsylvania) and to have started before manufacture of nitroglycerin for was owned by quot;Colonelquot; Edwin L. explosives in both world wars Drake 4500 BC whale liver oil - was a major source in present-day Israel of vitamin D through the an alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil 1960s cosmetics fuels trucks, ships, cars detergent jet fuel USE food heating fuel cosmetics used in every coal-fired power plant pharmaceuticals cooking fuel - portable stove soaps petrochemicals fuel for traditional oil lamps paint lipophilic drug ingredients solvents laxative - stool softener motor oil ear wax softener. asphalt
  6. 6. Biofuels production Hydrogen production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil ALGAE as next ENERGY source Hydrocracking to traditional transport fuels Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture
  7. 7. ALGAE as next ENERGY source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control In the presence of light, the single-celled traditional algae take up CO2 to produce the energy that fuels plant life -- with a general rule of thumb being that two tons of algae remove one ton of CO2. Once the algae are harvested, they can be converted to generate commercially viable byproducts such as ethanol or biodiesel.
  8. 8. ALGAE as next ENERGY source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control The depleting the amount traditional of sulfur available to the algae interrupted its internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environ- ment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen.
  9. 9. Biofuels production Hydrogen production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil ALGAE as next ENERGY source Hydrocracking to traditional transport fuels Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control as wood, to produce heat and electricity. burned in the same manner can then be harvested and produce biomass, which Algae can be grown to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture
  10. 10. Biofuels production Hydrogen production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil ALGAE as next ENERGY source Hydrocracking to traditional transport fuels Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control can be methane. broken down into cultures, various ture grown organisms and Through the use of algacul- polymeric materials http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture
  11. 11. ALGAE as next ENERGY source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control Many vegetable oils have similar traditional fuel properties to diesel fuel, except for higher viscosity and lower oxidative stability. If these differences can be overcome, vegetable oil may substitute for #2 Diesel fuel, most significantly as engine fuel or home heating oil.
  12. 12. ALGAE as next ENERGY source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control The oil of algae strain traditional Botryococcus braunii is different from other algal oils, in that it contains a class of oils which can be reduced to chemicals traditionally extracted from petroleum and used for transport fuels, such as octane (gasoline, a.k.a. petrol), diesel, and aviation-grade kerosene.
  13. 13. ALGAE as next ENERGY source Algae are cultivated to serve many commercial and industrial uses. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control traditional Bioplastics Dyes and Colorants Feedstock Nutritional Pharmaceutical Pollution Control CO2 sequestration Fertilizer Runoff reclamation Sewage treatment
  14. 14. ALGAE as next ENERGY source seaweed http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control There are many algae that are traditional cultivated for their nutritional value, either for supplemental use, or as a food source. The plants also produce Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, which are commonly found in fish oils, and which have been shown to have positive medical benefits to humans.
  15. 15. ALGAE as next ENERGY source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture An alternative to carbon capture Hydrocracking to transport fuels Hydrogen production Biofuels production Biomass Methane Straight Vegetable Oil Commercial and industrial uses Nutritional Pollution Control traditional and storage, by attaching an algae pond, or photobioreactor to any fuel burning plant, the carbon dioxide produced during combustion can be fed into the algae system. Nutrients can be sourced from sewage, thus turning two pollutants into resources for the production of biodiesel, with a land requirement much smaller than other crop sources.
  16. 16. A[L]GAE NUTR[I]ENTS carbon dioxide water minerals light
  17. 17. photosynthetic derive energy for cell synthesis from light autotrophic derive cell carbon from inorganic carbon dioxide A[L]GAE NUTR[I]ENTS A stream of gas is drawn from the carbon dioxide smokestack by a blower and passed through the bioreactor where the algae, bathed in sunlight, consume the CO2 component for photosynthesis. They can also break down nitrogen oxide pollutants.
  18. 18. fresh salty artesian recycled A[L]GAE NUTR[I]ENTS poor quality water
  19. 19. nitrogen phosphorus potassium A[L]GAE NUTR[I]ENTS fish waste uneaten food metabolism of beneficial bacteria minerals decay of other organics :: plant debris :: dead algae phosphorus :: tap water nitrogen :: in water change phosphates :: using phosphate-removal media in an external filter or by using reverse osmosis water for the aquarium
  20. 20. The light source for a Another means of supplying glow plate can be light is GLOW PLATES - artificial, such as fluores- sheets of glass or plastic cent light, or natural, with that quot;glowquot; when light is sunlight being directly supplied to one of their exposed to the plate or edges. fed through a fiber-optic system. natural sunlight fluorescent light A[L]GAE NUTR[I]ENTS light need 1/10th of the direct sunlight Direct sunlight is too strong for algae
  21. 21. GR[O]W[I]NG A[L]GAE bioreactor close system photosynthetic open system glass tube raceway-type pond
  22. 22. Raceway-type Pond GR[O]W[I]NG A[L]GAE Algae can be cultured in raceway-type ponds and lakes. Because these systems are open to the elements, sometimes called quot;open-pondquot; systems, they are much more vulner- able to contamination by other microorganisms, such as invasive algal species or bacteria. In open systems one does not have control over water temperature and lighting conditions. raceway-type pond A raceway pond is a shallow artificial pond used in the cultivation of algae. The pond is divided into a rectangular grid, with each rectangle containing one channel in the shape of an oval, like an automotive raceway ciruit. From above, many ponds look like a maze. Each rectangle contains a paddle wheel to make the water flow continuously around the circuit.
  23. 23. Photobioreactor GR[O]W[I]NG A[L]GAE A photobioreactor is a bioreactor which incorporates some type of light source. Virtually any translucent container could be called a photobioreactor, however the term is more commonly used to define a closed system, as opposed to an open tank or pond. Because these systems are closed, all photobioreactor essential nutrients must be introduced into the system to allow algae to grow and be cultivated. Essential nutrients include carbon dioxide, water, miner- als and light. A pond covered with a greenhouse could be considered a photobioreactor. A photobioreactor can be operated in quot;batch modequot; but it is also possible to introduce a continuous stream of sterilized water containing nutrients, air, and carbon dioxide.
  24. 24. photobioreactor Polyethylene Sleeves Or Bags Photobioreactor GR[O]W[I]NG A[L]GAE A closed system composed polyethylene sleeves for outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The productivity of several microalgal species grown in this system was 3-10 times higher than that in open ponds. polyethylene sleeves or bags
  25. 25. photobioreactor Tubes Photobioreactor Glass Or Plastic GR[O]W[I]NG A[L]GAE It offers maximum efficiency in using light and therefore greatly improves productivity. Typically the culture density of algae produced is 10 to 20 times greater than bag culture - and can be even greater. Can be mounted indoors or outdoors. Systems can be operated for long periods without culture crashes occurring. glass or plastic tubes Easy patented self cleaning system can dramatically reduce fouling. Closed, controlled, continuous automated systems and therefore cultures may be more easily kept hygieni- cally. Environmental parameters are simply controlled. Can be build at any size. Oxygen poisoning can't occur. System release automatically all Oxygen. Reactor stimulate rapid algae grow. Fully automated and controlled and monitored via a high tech computer system.
  26. 26. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM photosynthetic autotrophic
  27. 27. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM photosynthetic http://seedmagazine.com/news/2007/05/cribsheet_10_photosynthesis.php
  28. 28. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM photosynthetic SUGAR CARBON DIOXIDE WATER OXYGEN LIGHT http://seedmagazine.com/news/2007/05/cribsheet_10_photosynthesis.php
  29. 29. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM autotrophic Source :: www.jmkcontact.com/services/presentations/Rodzianko.ppt
  30. 30. autotrophic PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM Cleaned Gases Source :: www.jmkcontact.com/services/presentations/Rodzianko.ppt sunlight biodiesel biogas Flue Gases algae dry biomass bio-oils Energy Source Green Fuel System
  31. 31. autotrophic scrubbed flue gas PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM Source :: www.jmkcontact.com/services/presentations/Rodzianko.ppt sunlight Algae digests CO2 and NOx flue gas in flue gas in algal biofuel out
  32. 32. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM assembling photobioreactor Source :: www.jmkcontact.com/services/presentations/Rodzianko.ppt
  33. 33. gas in gas filters assembling photobioreactor PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM Source :: www.jmkcontact.com/services/presentations/Rodzianko.ppt foam trap gas out drain sample loop liquids in and out sterile connector bioreactor floating in water
  34. 34. transparent tubes automated tube cleaning system automatic cleaning system connected tubes filled connected tubes easy assembling of tubes http://www.algaefuels.org
  35. 35. PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM hydrogen production http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/search?q=algae
  36. 36. hydrogen production PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM algae algae 1/12 acre (3,630 sq. feet) pond H2 1/12 acre (3,630 sq. feet) pond H2 = 2 ponds = H2 Fuel for max 24 cars/households http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/search?q=algae
  37. 37. hydrogen production PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM The hydrogen is finally captured and stored within a high performance fabric balloon. Flexible collection tubes carry hydogen from the lower tank upwards for H2 Storage storage. A unique dual chambered hot=pot houses the algae. The upper pot, visible above http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/search?q=algae ground, is used for algae growth. Within the lower pot, the algae is deprived of nutrients, which causes the release of hydrogen. The light weight hydrogen rises to the top of the pot and on towards the collection tubes. H2 Production Astana’s abundant supply of water provides the environment needed for algae to thrive.
  38. 38. hydrogen production day 3 day 7 day 10 PH[O]T[O]B[I][O]REACT[O]R SYSTEM H2 Respiration The balloon inflates and deflates throughout the algae’s production cycle, H2 Captured H2 Captured crating a living hydroscape light with a breathing canopy. O2 out algae algae http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/search?q=algae H2 Seasons During summer months Astana’s long days provide enough solar energy to feed the algae. During winter months, artificial lighting with melanin filters are used to nourish plants and people. The lights are housed within the sides of the pot and are detailed to prevent light pollution.
  39. 39. SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN groundwater levels temperature daily sunshine pollution algae swamp precipitation
  40. 40. algae as next energy source SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN KAZAKHSTAN OIL KAZAKHSTAN ALGAE
  41. 41. alternative energy interest SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN http://www.portofentry.com/site/root/resources/industry_news/4705.html Green Star Algae Biodiesel Interest Expands Globally 30 May 2007 “Over the past few weeks, companies from over 20 countries on five continents have expressed their interest in GSPI's biodiesel and microalgae technology. These countries include: South Africa, India, China, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Costa Rica, Sweden, Czech Republic, Zimbabwe, Spain, Italy, Nicaragua, Mexico, Russia, Kazakhstan, etc. This surge in quot;microalgae-oil-to-biodieselquot; interest is accred- ited to two media events. algae to biodisel
  42. 42. caspian sea growth of algae SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN This phenomenon of excessive growth of algae was rare in the Caspian Sea, but situation have changed in recent years (2003, 04); about 40 blooms of Cyanophyta were reported. The algae have the shape of individual or group lines, which are straight or area of the bloom was curved and have milky or brown color. The estimated 300 square kilometers, but only satellite images can give an accurate size. Algae blooms have existed in oceans and seas during all periods, but the frequency of the phenomenon during last years have increased. caspian sea
  43. 43. waterlogging SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN Growth of silt sediments gave rise to subsoil waters in the left-bank part of Astana, waterlogging of around 7,500 ha, rush bushes and swamp vegetation, mosquitoes colonies. There are marshy areas just to the northwest and to the south of Astana and a reservoir to the southwest. waterlogging
  44. 44. precipitation levels [mm] 147 SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN 71 76 71 64 53 56 53 extreme monthly 38 41 precipitation 30 23 january february march april may june july august september october november december 48 28 33 33 25 23 30 15 23 25 15 13 mean monthly precipitation
  45. 45. groundwater levels, meters [feet] SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN 25m [82’] 20m [65’] 18m [59’] 15m [49’] 12m [39’] 10m [32’] 5m [16’] 4m [13’] 3m [9’]
  46. 46. SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN january 3.3 february 5.2 mean daily sunshine [hours] march 6.2 april 7.9 may 9.7 june 11.2 july 10.8 august 9.5 september 7.7 october 4.4 november december 3.3 3.0
  47. 47. temperature levels [Celsius] SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN 40 42 39 36 33 29 26 26 27 24 23 18 17 15 17 13 12 8 7 mean high temperature 6 7 8 4 4 -1 -2 0 -1 extreme high temperature -4 -4 -6 -10 -11 -11 -10 -13 -12 -14 -17 -19 -20 mean low temperature -28 -26 extreme low temperature -40 -42 -45 -51 -50 february march december january april may june july august september october november
  48. 48. level of air pollution [iap] SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN sources of pollution of air in atmosphere of At present time the main Astana are automobile transport and energy enterprises. Both of indicated groups of pollution sources have a trend to the increase. The growth of energy consumption implies the growth of discharge from heat electrical stations. Besides due to the lack of heat sources the number of mini-boilers grows in the city, there are about 250 of them. The small boilers use coal, mazut, stove oil fuel, and liquefied gas as fuel.
  49. 49. SITE CONDITIONS :: ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN 5.2 1991 2.5 1992 level of air pollution [iap] 2.7 1993 2.4 1994 2.3 1995 3.3 1996 0.4 1997 1.7 1999

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