Like SAND Through the Hourglass


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This presentation was accepted to present at the American College Professional Association's National Conference in March 2010

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  • Before we start what would you like to learn from this presentation….
  • Mid YearWhere are you at?What are you strong at?What can you be strengthening?AnnualWhere were you and where are you now?Did you overcome any obstacles?What areas can you improve on/maintain?
  • Discuss paying attention to the little things….remember how when I was an RA, I burnout easily, SAND was created to appreciate the positive interactions…
  • The need for achievement (n-ach)The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment.The need for authority and power (n-pow)The n-pow person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige.The need for affiliation (n-affil)The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players.
  • Motivation:The Occupational-Professional Model
  • “Positive reinforcement is anything that occurs after a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur.” This reinforcement can be a supportive word, such as “good job on that group project,” or an extrinsic reward such as candy or extra recess time. At the beginning of every school day, start the day off on a supportive note. Look for a student that is following directions well and praise this student instead of reprimanding the students that are disruptive or noisy. I feel this tip is helpful, because perhaps the misbehaving students will observe the praise a student that behaves is receiving and follow suit. Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory is based on the work of Ivan Pavlov on behavioral conditioning and the later work of B. F. Skinner on operant conditioning.[368] According to reinforcement theory, behavior is a function of its outcomes. Imagine that even though no one asked you to, you stayed late and drafted a report. When the manager found out, she was ecstatic and took you out to lunch and thanked you genuinely. The consequences following your good deed were favorable, and therefore you are more likely to demonstrate similar behaviors in the future. In other words, your taking initiative was reinforced. Instead, if your manager had said nothing about it and everyone ignored the sacrifice you made, you are less likely to demonstrate similar behaviors in the future.Reinforcement theory is based on a simple idea that may be viewed as common sense. Beginning at infancy we learn through reinforcement. If you have observed a small child discovering the environment, you will see reinforcement theory in action. When the child discovers manipulating a faucet leads to water coming out and finds this outcome pleasant, he is more likely to repeat the behavior. If he burns his hand while playing with hot water, the child is likely to stay away from the faucet in the future.Despite the simplicity of reinforcement, how many times have you seen positive behavior ignored, or worse, negative behavior rewarded? In many organizations, this is a familiar scenario. People go above and beyond the call of duty, yet their actions are ignored or criticized. People with disruptive habits may receive no punishments because the manager is afraid of the reaction the person will give when confronted. Problem employees may even receive rewards such as promotions so they will be transferred to a different location and become someone else’s problem. Moreover, it is common for people to be rewarded for the wrong kind of behavior. Steven Kerr has labeled this phenomenon “the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B.”[369] For example, a company may make public statements about the importance of quality. Yet, if they choose to reward shipments on time regardless of the amount of defects contained in the shipments, employees are more likely to ignore quality and focus on hurrying the delivery process. Because people learn to repeat their behaviors based on the consequences following their prior activities, managers will need to systematically examine the consequences of employee behavior and make interventions when needed.Reinforcement InterventionsReinforcement theory describes four interventions to modify employee behavior. Two of these are methods of increasing the frequency of desired behaviors, while the remaining two are methods of reducing the frequency of undesired behaviors.
  • Theory of Support & Challenge: Sanford, 1967Sanford developed his theory for student development based on a balance of challenge and support. Too much support with too little challenge creates a comfortable environment for the student, where little development is possible. However, too little support with too much challenge makes development an impossible and negative experience.
  • Forming: What you get when you put a bunch of strangers in a room together: polite, superficial, neutral, non-invasive conversation about inoffensive topics such as weather. People get to know each other at a safe distance. Some personal information is cautiously volunteered. Roles and responsibilities are unclear. The team members don't really know what the team's aims are, other than what they have been told. A leader must give direction and answer lots of question during this stage. Storming: People get to know each other, and get close enough to occasionally get too close. People's comfort zones are challenged as a safe distance is established. Cliques and factions may form, and the appointed leader may be challenged. A pecking order is hammered out and people jostle for status and to find niches for themselves, and define their specialities. If there are powers struggles, this is when they will be. Decisions do not come easily. The team's aims become clearer to individual team members, but there may be disagreements or differences of approach. A leader may need to set expectations of suitable behaviour. Norming: If the storming issues are resolved, consensus is reached, and the social structure becomes stable. Trust deepens, norms coalesce, expectations are named and negotiated, bonding occurs, in-jokes are established and people feel comfortable with each other and their roles and responsibilities in the team. Team members learn each other's strengths and weaknesses. Mostly there is now there is agreement. Where there isn't, facilitation generally works. Socialisation, having fun together, blossoms at this stage. Performing: The team works together without friction. The level of efficiency may be less than it could be, depending on what happened in the last two stages, but it is consistent, and higher than it was while storming conflicts were consuming energy. Members know each other's strengths and weaknesses. Loyalty is a benefit of this stage. Disagreements can generally be resolved within the team. At this stage, teams can work mostly autonomously, with members understanding not only what they should be doing, but also why. Hopefully they can also use the why as a guideline, to vary what they do in response to changing circumstances. Later on, a fifth stage, Adjourning was added. I don't know much about it, but turiya adds: "Adjourning was added because every team/group eventually ends. A good leader/facilitator will make sure there's some kind of proper closing, as people do mourn the ending of groups, even those focused on inane tasks."
  • Numbers may not add up if Ras expressed multiple ways of feeling appreciated.
  • Like SAND Through the Hourglass

    1. 1. S.A.N.D.Student Appreciation:Nurturing & Developing Presented by Mathew Gregory and Natalie Munoz
    2. 2. Goals of this Presentation• To understand the theories and research that exist around motivation and staff development.• To reflect on and share your own motivational tools and staff development techniques.• To implement S.A.N.D. to fulfill the needs of your staff.
    3. 3. About Stony Brook’s Campus Residences• Twenty-six residence halls grouped into six quads offering specialized housing options• Three on-campus apartment complexes• Over 9,500 students in housing and approximately 220 Resident Assistants
    4. 4. Natalie’s Staff• Manages 3 Upperclassman/Graduate Apartment Buildings• Supervises 450 students and 9 Resident Assistants
    5. 5. Matthew’s Staff• Manages a corridor style residence hall with over 280 undergraduate residents• Supervises 6 Resident Assistants• Academic College Theme of Information and Technology Studies
    6. 6. Current Student Staff Development Practices at SBU• Undergraduate College Themes• Student Employee Learning Outcomes – Personal Development• 360⁰ Evaluations with Student Staff – Professional Development • Community Development/Activities Planner • Administrative • Helper • Limit Setter • Overall Staff Member
    7. 7. What Do You Do…• with your staff to motivate them?• with your staff to appreciate them?
    8. 8. What is S.A.N.D?• A motivational tool• A team building exercise• An opportunity for student staff to assess their professional development needs on a weekly basis
    9. 9. How To Set Up S.A.N.D.• Purchase glass jars and different colors of sand• Determine goals and/or mission of your university or department• Assign a color of sand to each goal• At each staff meeting allow students to nominate themselves and/or their staff members for accomplishing one of the goals• As students are nominated fill their jar with the correlating color of sand.
    10. 10. History of S.A.N.D. An organization elicits the performance it rewards. -Diane Hodges
    11. 11. What is a Competency?• The term competency implies a level of understanding and confidence that must be reached before one can hope to perform at a satisfactory level.
    12. 12. ACPA Professional Competencies• Advising and Helping• Assessment, Evaluation, and Research• Ethics• Legal Foundations• Leadership and Management/Administration• Pluralism and Inclusion• Student Learning and Development• Teaching
    13. 13. S.A.N.D. Competencies ACPA Competencies S.A.N.D.Advising and Helping CompassionateAssessment, Evaluation and Research PurposefulEthics VirtuousLegal Foundations DiplomatLeadership and LeaderManagement/AdministrationPluralism and Inclusion IncluderStudent Learning and Development EducatorTeaching
    14. 14. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Advising & Helping • Compassionate – Application of theories – A student staff member and skills related to who builds meaningful providing support, relationships. They direction, feedback, establish healthy, mutually beneficial critique, and guidance relationships with other to individuals and staff members and groups. residents.
    15. 15. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Ethics • Virtuous – The ability to assess – A staff member that daily activities from an demonstrates ethical perspective, as humanitarianism. They well as understanding understand, appreciate, and applying ethical and promote service learning while upholding standards to one’s work all policies and following proper procedures.
    16. 16. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Leadership & Management • Leader Administration – A student staff – Influencing, motivating, member who and enabling others to demonstrates effective leadership. They are contribute toward the skilled in guiding and effectiveness and success assisting their staff, of their organization… peers, and community deployment of resources in meeting goals. to advance mission, goals, initiatives.
    17. 17. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Assessment, Evaluation & • Purposeful Research – A student staff member – Design and who appreciates the implementation of application of theory to quantitative and practice. Identifies a qualitative techniques need/learning outcomes and tools focused on and evaluates process student learning and satisfaction…and other emergent issues
    18. 18. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Pluralism & Inclusion • Includer – An understanding and – A student staff member valuing of diverse who understands and groups and views, civic appreciates cultural and engagement, and social human differences. They responsibility. encourage multiculturalism and cross-cultural interaction
    19. 19. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Legal Foundations • Diplomat – A student staff member – The ability to assess who is the peacemaker. daily activities from a They incorporate the legal perspective as well ethical reasoning into as understanding and action and appropriately applying knowledge of challenge the unfair, unjust, or uncivil behavior legal issues to one’s of other individuals or work environment and groups. relationships.
    20. 20. “Keep it Simple” ACPA Competency S.A.N.D. Competency• Teaching • Educator – Knowledge and understanding – A student staff member of concepts and principles of teaching, learning, and training who understands their theory and how to apply them role in student learning to improve student affairs and development. They practice thrive on sharing newly• Student Learning and Development learned information with – Knowledge and understanding of concepts and principles of others. student development and student learning theories.
    21. 21. “Keep it Simple”• Supervisor Recognition – This award is specifically from the RHD regarding things that may not exactly fit into a S.A.N.D. category, but is deserving of recognition.
    22. 22. Theory Concepts Behind S.A.N.D.
    23. 23. Theoretical Concepts• Professional Development – Assessment of Needs (McClelland, 1985) – Motivation (Carpenter)• Positive Reinforcement (Pavlov, 1890)• Staff Development – Challenge and Support (Sanford, 1967)• Staff Dynamics (Tuckman, 1965)
    24. 24. Professional Development: Assessment of Needs (McClelland, 1985)• The need for achievement (n-ach)• The need for authority and power (n-pow)• The need for affiliation (n-affil)
    25. 25. Professional Development: Motivation (Carpenter)Dimensions Occupation ProfessionTheory, intellectual Absent PresentRelevance to social values Not relevant RelevantTraining period Short Long Non-specialized Specialized Involves things Involves symbols Subculture Subculture Unimportant ImportantMotivation Self-interest ServiceAutonomy Absent PresentCommitment Short term Long termSense of Community Low HighCode of Ethics Underdeveloped Highly developed Source: D. Stanley Carpenter, Student Services: A Handbook for the Profession
    26. 26. Reinforcement Methods (Pavlov, 1890)Source: Principles of Management and Organizational Behavior by Bauer, Carpenter, and Erdogan
    27. 27. Challenge and Support (Sanford, 1967)
    28. 28. Staff Dynamics (Tuckman, 1965)• Forming• Storming• Norming• Performing• Adjourning Source: "Bruce Tuckmans 1965 Forming Storming Norming Performing team development model"
    29. 29. RESULTS
    30. 30. Pre-Test Results & Feedback3.5 3 7 Being purposeful is an important aspect of the RA position2.5 2 13 Being an educator is an important aspect of the RA1.5 position 10.5 14 I feel competent in my ability to educate others 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree Strongly Agree Slightly Slightly Disagree
    31. 31. Post-Test Results & Feedback3.5 Post-Test Results 3 Being purposeful is an2.5 important aspect of the RA position 21.5 Being an educator is an 1 important aspect of the RA position0.5 0 I feel competent in my ability to educate others
    32. 32. Qualitative Feedback• 100% (11/11) of the Student Staff reported that SAND made them feel appreciated. – Peer Recognition-7 – Contributes to a sense of caring among staff-2 – Encouragement-1 – Supervisor Recognition-1 – Role Model-1
    33. 33. Qualitative Research• 100% reported that SAND contributed to their understanding of their role as a Resident Assistant – Understand areas of improvement as a Resident Assistant – Understand the different roles of the Resident Assistant – Learn from their peers and gain valuable knowledge
    34. 34. Qualitative Research• 9 out of 11 Student Staff reported feeling motivated to fulfill a competency by participating in SAND.• 1 out of 11 Student Staff reported feeling not motivated.• 1 out of 11 Student Staff reported feeling internal motivation.
    35. 35. Qualitative ResearchStrengths WeaknessesAwareness of strengths and weaknesses ModestyPositively impacted staff dynamics Not willing to go above and beyondMotivated to acquire new competencies Feeling of disappointmentEnhanced Staff Morale Non –enthusiastic staff memberPeer Recognition Limited staff relationshipsAppreciation Students may feel they have a competency, but do not receive a nominationKeepsake
    36. 36. Qualitative Feedback• 10 out of 11 Student Staff reported that S.A.N.D. positively impacted their staff dynamics. – Appreciation has built community – Humor
    37. 37. Qualitative Feedback• 10 out of 11 Student Staff reported that they enjoyed SAND. – Recognition-5 – Fun-5 – Challenge -1• 1 out of 11 Student Staff reported mixed emotions.
    38. 38. Reflection• Are any of your techniques/tools research based?• How do you assess your staff’s needs?• What steps can you take to ensure that the needs of your staff are being met?
    39. 39. S.A.N.D.Giveaway!
    40. 40. • Citations Dweck, C.S. (2001). Resources in education. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Pr.• McClelland, D.C. (1985). Human motivation. United States: Scott, Forseman and Company.• Komives, S.R. , & Woodward, D.B. (2003). Student services. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass Inc Pub.• DeNisi, A.S., & Griffin, R.W. (2004). Human resource management. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH).• Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guid-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.• Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass.• Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson - Prentice Hall.• ACPA. About ACPA. Retrieved from• Deluga, R.J., & Winters Jr., J.J. (1991). Why the Aggravation? Reasons students become resident assistants, interpersonal stress, and job satisfaction. Journal of College Student Development, 32, 546-552.• Bierman, S.E., & Carpenter, D.S. (1994). An Analysis of resident assistant work motivation. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 467-474.• Tuckman, Bruce. (1965) Forming Storming Norming Performing team development model.