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Psicologia Cognitiva & Desenvolvimento de Software

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Pensamentos inconscientes influenciam o modo como as pessoas se comportam e interagem com o ambiente em que estão inseridas, e nós não temos nenhum controle sobre isso. Porém, com um pouco de instrução podemos prever e explicar como se formam esses pensamentos e usar esse conhecimento ao nosso favor em todas as etapas do desenvolvimento de software. Essa palestra visa explicar brevemente quais são as capacidades e limitações da mente humana e por que algumas interfaces funcionam melhor do que outras, para assim ajudá-lo a projetar experiências mais ricas e eficientes para os seus usuários.

Palestra apresentada durante o Agile Trends 2015, em São Paulo/SP.

Published in: Technology
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Psicologia Cognitiva & Desenvolvimento de Software

  1. 1. NATALIA ARSAND Designer de Experiência @
  2. 2. Psicologia Cognitiva & DESENVOLVIMENTO DE SOFTWARE
  3. 3. PSICOLOGIA COGNITIVA Ciência que estuda a mente e os processos mentais. Imagen por Vol-au-Vent.
  4. 4. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE SOFTWARE Pessoas interagem com software através de processos cognitivos. Imagen por Charis Tsevis.
  5. 5. Foto por Heather Katsoulis. 1.O Efeito do Falso Consenso 2.O Princípio do Menor Esforço 3.Percepção 4.Memória 5.Modelos Mentais
  6. 6. EFEITO DO FALSO CONSENSO1
  7. 7. EXPERIMENTO Ler uma história sobre um conflito e responder a três perguntas. Foto por JD Hancock.
  8. 8. EXPERIMENTO A maioria achou que outros escolheriam a mesma coisa que elas. Foto por Elton Harding.
  9. 9. PRINCÍPIO DO MENOR ESFORÇO2
  10. 10. ESFORÇO Explicação da Psicologia Cognitiva Foto por San José Library.
  11. 11. Atenção Atenção Foto por San José Library.
  12. 12. Atenção Interação Interação Atenção Foto por San José Library.
  13. 13. Atenção Interação Interação Interpretação Interpretação Atenção Foto por San José Library.
  14. 14. Atenção Interação Interação Interpretação Interpretação Atenção Entendimento Foto por San José Library.
  15. 15. O MENOR ESFORÇO Criamos atalhos cognitivos para chegar a um entendimento mais rápido. Foto por Stephen Coles.
  16. 16. HEURÍSTICAS As “Regras de Ouro”. Foto por d-frag.
  17. 17. VIESES COGNITIVOS (BIASES) Tendência a falsos julgamentos.
  18. 18. VIESES COGNITIVOS (BIASES) Tendência a falsos julgamentos.
  19. 19. Foto por Elliott Brown. PERCEPÇÃO3
  20. 20. PERCEPÇÃO Organização, identificação e interpretação de informação sensorial. Visão Paladar Tato Olfato Audição Foto por Dan Foy.
  21. 21. PERCEPÇÃO Organização, identificação e interpretação de informação sensorial. 1. Objetivos & Tarefas Foto por Dan Foy.
  22. 22. PERCEPÇÃO Organização, identificação e interpretação de informação sensorial. 1. Objetivos & Tarefas Foto por Dan Foy. 2. Contexto
  23. 23. PERCEPÇÃO Organização, identificação e interpretação de informação sensorial. 1. Objetivos & Tarefas Foto por Dan Foy. 2. Contexto 3. Experiência Prévia
  24. 24. 1. OBJETIVOS & TAREFAS Nossos objetivos determinam no que vamos prestar atenção. Foto por Fabio Bertolotti.
  25. 25. GRANDE CONJUNTO DE TAREFAS Cada tarefa com início, meio e fim. Foto por Dominiek ter Heide.
  26. 26. 2. CONTEXTO Tiramos significado sem prestar atenção em detalhes. Foto por Kaytee Riek.
  27. 27. 2. CONTEXTO Tiramos significado sem prestar atenção em detalhes. Foto por Kaytee Riek.
  28. 28. 3. EXPERIÊNCIA PRÉVIA Experiências anteriores afetam a percepção. Foto por lu_lu.
  29. 29. Um novo usuário do seu produto 
 não é um novo usuário da internet.
  30. 30. MEMÓRIA4
  31. 31. Foto por nick chapman.
  32. 32. Foto por nick chapman. Evento
  33. 33. Foto por nick chapman. EpisódicaEvento
  34. 34. Foto por nick chapman. Conhecimento EpisódicaEvento
  35. 35. Foto por nick chapman. Episódica Semântica Evento Conhecimento
  36. 36. Foto por nick chapman. Episódica Semântica Evento Conhecimento Recordação
  37. 37. Foto por nick chapman. Episódica Semântica Evento Conhecimento Recordação Reconhecimento
  38. 38. Foto por nick chapman. Recordação Reconhecimento<
  39. 39. Foto por nick chapman. Recordação Recordação com dica Reconhecimento Explique o primeiro tópico que falei a respeito. O que é o efeito do falso consenso? Verdadeiro ou falso: O efeito do falso consenso faz com que achemos que outras pessoas fariam as mesmas escolhas que nós.
  40. 40. MODELOS MENTAIS5 Foto por Paulo Valdivieso.
  41. 41. Foto por Paulo Valdivieso.
  42. 42. Modelo representadoModelo de implementação Modelo mental Pior Melhor Reflete a visão do usuárioReflete a tecnologia
  43. 43. Construímos software para pessoas. Foto por Ignacio Palomo Duarte.
  44. 44. OBRIGADA! @nataliarsand
  45. 45. • Pessoas tendem a achar que outras pessoas percebem da mesma forma elas (Efeito do Falso Consenso). • Pessoas tendem a optar pelo caminho do menor esforço. • Heurísticas são atalhos mentais que ajudam a resolver problemas de forma rápida. • Vieses Cognitivos são falsos julgamentos que levam a conclusões erradas. • A percepção é baseada em Objetivos & Tarefas, Contexto e Experiência prévia. • Objetivos determinam no que prestar atenção. • O Contexto ajuda a tirar significado sem prestar atenção em detalhes. • Experiência Prévia afeta a percepção e exige menos esforço. • Reconhecimento é mais fácil do que recordação. • Modelo Mental é o que o usuário acredita ser verdade a respeito de um sistema. RESUMO
  46. 46. REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS • Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. 1977. The false consensus effect: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13(3), 279-301. • R. J. Sternberg. & K. Sternberg. 2009. Cognition (6th edition) Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. • Eysenck, M, W. & Keane, M, T. 2010. Cognitive Psychology (6th edition) Sussex: Psychology Press. • Nielsen, J. 2007. Banner Blindness: Old and New Findings. nngroup.com. • Nielsen, J. & Pernice, K. 2009. Eyetracking Web Usability. Upper Saddle River, NJ: New Riders Publishing. • Nielsen, J. 2010. Mental Models. nngroup.com. • Budiu, R. 2014. Memory Recognition and Recall in User Interfaces. nngroup.com. • Norman, D. 2007. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books; 1 edition. • Cooper, A. & Reimann, R. Cronin, D. 2007 About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Wiley; 3rd edition. • McCloskey, M. 2014. Human Mind and Usability. NNGroup Usability Week Training, New York City. • Kolko, J. 2011. Thoughts on Interaction Design. Morgan Kaufmann. • Parkin, A. 2000. Essential Cognitive Psychology. Psychology Press; 1 edition. • Nielsen, J. & M., Tahir. 2001. Homepage Usability: 50 websites Deconstructed. New Riders Publishing. • Redish, J.G. 2007. Letting Go of the Words: Writing web Content that Works (Interactive Technologies). Morgan Kaufmann. • Adams, J. W. 2014. Writing for the Web: Keep It Short, Relevant, Clear, Scannable. • Nielsen, J. 1999. Designing web Usability. Peachpit Press. • Plous, S. 2014. Social Psychology Course. Wesleyan University, Coursera.

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