Methods of Assessing Speaking Structured Approach Observational Approach -Perform one or more - Student’s behavior is specific oral observed and assessed communication tasks unobtrusively - Performance is evaluated-Communicate meaningful content to real audience- Tasks should focus on topics students can easily talk about
Rating Systems for Structured and Observational Approaches Holistic Rating Analytic Rating- General impression of - Capture the studentsthe performance performance on various- Primary trait score aspects ofassesses the students communicationability to achieve aspecific communicationpurpose
Language StructuresLinguistic CompetenceUses grammar accurately with variety? Adequate vocabulary?Clear pronunciation?Functional CompetenceAnswers the question completely and logically?Strategic CompetenceCan use repair strategies when conversation breaks down?Sociolinguistic/ Cultural CompetenceUses language appropriate to the situation?
Testing SpeakingFormat Will an interactive or solo format be used? Will the topic material to be used oldContent or new? What language functions, forms and structures will be assessed? Will the performance be rehearsed orPerformance impromptu? Will it be live or taped?
How many students will there be to a group? How many groups will therePartnering/ be? How will the pairs/groups beGrouping and formed? How will the sequence ofSequencing presentation be determined-drawing lots, volunteering or naming? Will the stimulus be oral, written orStimulus non-verbal? Will the stimulus be presented in cue cards or on tape?Time and When and where will the test be held?Place How long will the testing be?
What scoring procedure will be used –Scoring impressionistic, holistic or analytical? Which instrument will be used? Language How much oral language is each testee sample expected to produce? How many size utterances or sentences is deemed a reasonable basis for rating?
Valid Formats1. Spoken Essay/ Verbal Essay2. Free vs. Controlled Interview3. Information Transfer Techniques 3. 1. Description of a Picture Sequence 3. 2. Questions on a Single Picture4. Interaction Tasks 4.1. Information Gap (Student-to-Student) 4. 2. Information Gap (Student-to-Examiner)5. Role Play
Sample Assessment for Speaking Activities Extensive Speaking Responsive Speaking Giving Instructions and Directions-Picture-cued story telling - Question and answer - Question and answer- Retelling a story or newsevent Test of Spoken English Interactive Speaking Interview• Categories -Interpersonal tasks -Oral proficiency interview-Give a opinion - Interview- Describe something - Role play• Specific Tasks - Discussions-Give an opinion about - Conversations(specific topic) - Games- Giving a personal direction- Defining a technical term
Construct-Related Evidence Criterion-Related Evidence Reliability Content-Related EvidencePracticality Validity Principles of Assessment SpeakingApproach Wash Back Authenticity