Stem Cells in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

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Stem Cells in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

  1. 1. Stem Cells in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease<br />Natasha M. Delgado<br />Literature and Bibliography<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Alzheimer’s Disease<br />Neurodegenerative disease<br />Loss of cholinergic neurons<br />Cognitive impairment<br />
  3. 3. Background<br />Stem Cells<br />Self-renewal<br />Differentiation<br />Types of stem cells<br />Embryonic Stem Cells<br />Adult Stem Cells<br />Neural Stem Cells<br />Bone Marrow Stromal Cells<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Neural Stem Cells<br />Differentiation capabilities<br /> neurons<br />astrocytes<br />oligodendrocytes<br />Exogenous neural stem cells<br /> Grafts<br />Endogenous neural stem cells<br />Neurotrophins<br />Nerve Growth Factor<br />Brain-derived neurotrophic factors<br />Glial cell derived neurotrophic factors<br />
  6. 6. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells<br />Cells extracted from bone marrow<br />Advantages<br /> Migration of cells<br /> Integration of cells into system<br />
  7. 7. Embryonic Stem Cells<br />Neural cells derived from embryonic stem cells<br />Advantages<br /> Differentiate more<br /> Better Quality<br />
  8. 8. Limitations<br />Multifocality of Alzheimer’s Disease<br />Route of cell administration<br />Migration<br />Integration<br />Immunological response<br />Differentiation<br />
  9. 9. References<br />Alzheimer’s Association. 2009 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. 2009. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 5: 234–270<br />Heese K, Low JW, Inoue N. Nerve Growth Factor, Neural Stem Cells and Alzheimer’s Disease. 2006-2007 Neurosignals 15:1–12<br />Heikkilä TJ, Ylä-Outinen L, Tanskanen J, Lappalainen RS, Skottman H, Suuronen R, Mikkonen JE, Hyttinen JA, Narkilahti S. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells form spontaneously active neuronal networks in vitro. 2009. Experimental Neurology 218: 109–116<br />Lee JK, Jin HK , Bae J. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce brain amyloid- deposition and accelerate the activation of microglia in an acutely induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. 2009. Neuroscience Letters 450: 136–141.<br />
  10. 10. References<br />Lerou PH, Daley GQ. Therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells. 2005. Blood Reviews 19: 321–331.<br />Lindvall O, Kokaia Z. Stem cells for the treatment of neurological disorders. 2006. Nature 441(29): 1094-1096<br />Pluchino S, Zanotti L, Deleidi M, Martino G. Neural stem cells and their use as therapeutic tool in neurological disorders. 2005. Brain Research Reviews 48: 211–219<br />Spiliotopoulos D, Goffredo D, Conti L, Di Febo F, Biella G, Toselli M, Cattaneo E. An optimized experimental strategy for efficient conversion of embryonic stem (ES)-derived mouse neural stem (NS) cells into a nearly homogeneous mature neuronal population. 2009. Neurobiology of Disease 34: 320–331.<br /> Stem Cell Basics [Internet]. [NIH] National Institutes of Health. [cited 2009]. Available from: http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/<br />
  11. 11. References<br />Sugaya K, Brannen C.L. Stem cell strategies for neuroreplacement therapy in Alzheimer&apos;s disease. 2001. Medical Hypotheses 57(6): 697-700<br />Wu QY, Li J, Feng ZT, Wang TH. Bone marrow stromal cells of transgenic mice can improve the cognitive ability of an Alzheimer’s disease rat model. 2007. Neuroscience Letters 417: 281–285<br />Xuan AG, Luo M, Ji WD, Long DH. Effects of Engrafted Neural Stem Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease Rats. 2009. Neuroscience Letters 450:167-171.<br />Zeng X, Rao MS. Human embryonic stem cells: long term stability, absence of senescence and a potential cells source for neural replacement. 2007. Neuroscience 145:1348-1358.<br />

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