Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Home zone by Nastaran Shishegar

238 views

Published on

Although the street was once a multi-use space, the rise of vehicles has resulted in the street being regarded as a place for motorists with the primary purpose of moving vehicles quickly. Home zone represents an opportunity to restore the role of streets as a shared space to be used by pedestrians and cyclists as well as motorists with the privilege of pedestrians over the other road users. The most important aim of a Home Zone is to improve the quality of life in residential streets by making them
places for people not for vehicles. Research conducted on residents’ feelings about their neighbourhoods before and after implementing Home Zone show, if principles of Home Zone design are fully implemented, Home Zones can be safe, secure, pleasant, and attractive areas which not only decrease through traffic and vehicles’ speed but also improve social interactions and residents’ quality of life.

Published in: Design
  • Be the first to comment

Home zone by Nastaran Shishegar

  1. 1. 1 Home Zone: Improving the quality of life in residential streets Nastaran Shishegar1 , Master of Architecture, Iran University of Science and Technology Department of Architecture and Urban design, College of Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology 1. Introduction Before the necessity of using vehicles arises as the main way of transportation, traffic was very calm in cities. Streets were areas for learning where children explored environments around them (Roger, 2002; Mackey, 2008; Carver et al., 2008). As usage of vehicles increased, particularly after World War II, streets lost their main role as a multi-use space where different types of activities used to take place. Appleyard (1983) declares that in many communities, streets are overdesigned for the traffic that they have to carry. This not only changes the face of cities, but also it imposes heavy damages to social, cultural, and environmental aspects of residents’ lives (Ben-Joseph, 1995). In his investigations from 1960 to 1981 on residential streets, Appleyard finds out that social interactions among residents living in heavy traffic streets are lesser than one third of those of residents living in low traffic streets. This illustrates the impacts of traffic on human lives (Appleyard, 1981) (See Figure 1). Harmful effects of over-number vehicles on streets force urban designers and planners to find a solution in order to reduce traffic influences on human lives (DFT, 2006). Pedestrians and vehicles have been side by side for a long time on streets. With regards to their relationships four patterns are recommended (Gehl, 1985): - Privilege of vehicles over pedestrians (vehicle-oriented) - Full Separation of vehicles and pedestrians - Privilege of pedestrians over vehicles (pedestrian-oriented) - Vehicles removal Advantages and disadvantages of these patterns can be found at Table 1. According to the table and also considering the impossibility of vehicles removal from human life, it seems that the most logical and 1 Tel: +98 912 2073482 Email: nastaran.shishegar98@gmail.com reasonable pattern is “pedestrian-oriented”. As it promotes safety, social interactions, side walking and cycling opportunities, and reduces vehicles’ speed (Dumbaugh and Li, 2010). However, speed limit and increase in travel time are its disadvantages (Gehl, 1985). Figure 1 Comparison of social interactions in three streets with different traffic volume. Black lines show the level of interactions (Appleyard, 1969: 92). One pedestrian-oriented approach is Home Zone which is introduced to improve safety and quality of residential streets (McBeath, 2009). This article explores Home Zones’ applicability, objectives, principles, and rules of design. ABSTRACT Although the street was once a multi-use space, the rise of vehicles have resulted in the street being regarded as a place for motorists with the primary purpose of moving vehicles quickly. Home zone represents an opportunity to restore the role of streets as a shared space to be used by pedestrians and cyclists as well as motorists with the privilege of pedestrians over the other road users. The most important aim of a Home Zone is to improve the quality of life in residential streets by making them places for people not for vehicles. Research conducted on residents’ feelings about their neighbourhoods before and after implementing Home Zone show, if principles of Home Zone design are fully implemented, Home Zones can be safe, secure, pleasant, and attractive areas which not only decrease through traffic and vehicles’ speed but also improve social interactions and residents’ quality of life. Keywords: Home Zone, Pedestrian-oriented, Traffic calming, Residential streets Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2. 2 Pattern of Pedestrians and Vehicle Relationships Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Example Vehicle-oriented -Vehicles in Majority -Fast Speed - Increase in relocating speed -Limitless travels -Low safety in simple and straight travels -Elimination of cultural and social roles of streets -Less social interactions -Less physical activities -More accidents, injuries and deaths -Environmental pollution -Major cities such as New York, Paris, London, Tehran, and Tokyo Full Separation of vehicles and pedestrians -Independent pathways for pedestrians and vehicles -More safety for pedestrians -No danger for children to play -Less security due to no supervision on pathways and conversion to lost space -Radburn Proposal Pedestrian- oriented -People in Majority -Low Speed -Vehicles’ speed reduction -More safety -More social interactions -Enhancement of Side- walking culture and cycling -Speed limit -Increase in travel time -30 km/h Zone -Shared Space -Home Zone Vehicle removal -Conversion from fast to low speed Pedestrian City -More safety and less accident -More social interactions -More physical activities -Less environmental pollution -More security through people presence -Speed limit -Increase in travel time -Limits to disable people -Limits to public and emergency vehicles -Venice Table 1. Patterns of pedestrians and vehicles relationships 2. Home Zone Definition Home Zone concept is first introduced in the Netherlands under the name of “Woonerf” which decreases vehicles’ velocity in residential areas and improves quality of its residents’ lives. There are other similar concepts such as “Residential Yard”, “Living Yard”, and “Shared Space”. Home Zones are residential streets. In a Home Zone, road space is shared between vehicles and other users with the wider needs of residents in mind. The goal is to adjust the way that streets are employed and to enhance the quality of life by creating them for people and not just for traffic (Biddulph, 2007; Macdonald, 2002). The layout of Home Zones needs to be in a way that drivers of motor vehicles understand they should give way to other users (IHIE, 2002; JMU, 2007). They should perceive that they have entered an area in which people use the whole of the street (DFT, 2005)(See Figure 2). In designing a Home Zone, it is necessary to utilise environmental design elements such as trees, plants, and paving. Moreover, providing facilities like playground for children, social spaces, seats, and pathways is required so that people are motivated to come to streets and vehicles’ speed reduces to 10 km/h at the close rate to that of pedestrians (Biddulph, 2001; Freeman and Quigg, 2009). This will be achieved through making use of different design approaches of street, landscape, and roads along with existing rules and ideas. Figure 2. View of a Home Zone (Shishegar, 2011) 3. Advent and Development of Home Zone Home Zone approach triggered from a design approach by Colin Buchanan called “Environmental Areas” or “Urban Rooms” in 1963 in order to reduce the impacts of vehicles on residential areas in the United Kingdom (McBeath, 2009). Buchanan suggests that unnecessary traffic should not exist in residential areas and more consideration needs to be taken into the environment over vehicles (Clayden et al., 2006). De Boer, a Dutch urban design specialist, utilises Buchanan idea and finds a method to implement this theory. He tries to convert streets to a shared space for pedestrians and vehicles (Ben-Joseph, 2003). This idea has been implemented by municipality of Delft known as “Woonerf” in 1969 in inner-city area to improve safety of children on streets. As a result of its success in different aspects such as safety, security, and social interactions, “Woonerf” or “Home Zone” developed quickly and Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  3. 3. 3 until 1980, 220 Home Zones were built (Appleyard and Cox, 2006). Low traffic volume and enhanced safety on streets, particularly for children, in Home Zones in the Netherlands (Vis et al., 1992) encouraged other countries such as Germany in 1976, Sweden and Denmark in 1977, France and Japan in 1979, Switzerland in 1982, and the United Kingdom in 1999 to make use of this approach. Considering its success in European and Asian countries, Home Zones are being used in America and Canada as a successful method in improving the quality of residential area, hence, number of Home Zones is increasing day by day (Ben-Joseph, 1995; McBeath, 2009). 4. Home Zone Objectives The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers of the UK in 2002 (IHIE, 2002: 11) defines Home Zone and outlines its objectives as follow, “Home Zones are about people; improving the quality of life of residents by removing the traffic barriers that militate against neighbourliness”. Meanwhile, In 2005 Department For Transportation (DFT) of the UK (DFT, 2005: 5) explains the objectives of Home Zones as follow, “The aim is to improve the quality of life in residential roads by making them places for people, instead of just being thoroughfares for vehicles. This should encourage people to use streets in different ways”. Here are the most significant objectives of a Home Zone: - Converting residential streets to a space containing social values and not just a place for vehicles - Improving safety through reducing vehicles’ speed to 10 km/h - Creating social emotions in residents - Encouraging residents to do different activities on streets - Decreasing limits of those with less mobility - Creating chances for children to play - Increasing residents’ informal surveillance over streets hence decreasing crimes - Enhancing beauty of streets through landscape design, trees, plants, and paving - Encouraging people to walk and cycle - Encouraging greater care for streets from residents and enhance sense of belongings - Improving quality of urban environment attractiveness, and urban living (Biddulph, 2001; JMU, 2007) 5. Principles of Home Zone design Features of Home Zone design are different from country to country and even from one street to another in a same city. Special situation of any area, culture, residents’ values, and budget should be considered when designing a Home Zone. Nevertheless, there are critical principles which have to be implemented in all streets similarly. Hereafter, the most important principles of Home Zone design are addressed. Make the entrance clear: Entrances to Home Zones need to be clear, as drivers should easily understand that they are in a different area in which more human activities are taking place. Using Home Zone sign at the entrance, narrowing pathways, a ramp up to the shared surface, plants and trees, statues and other artworks, and ultimately unique and different paving (Figure 3) are solutions to make the entrance clear. Of course, residents’ cooperation in designing the entrance could be valuable (Biddulph, 2010; IHIE, 2002; DFT, 2005). Figure 3. designing the entrance of a Home Zone (Biddulph, 2007: 224) Streets as a shared space: In order to form a shared space for all road users, paving the pathways should be at a single grade in Home Zones. On traditional streets “A raised kerb gives a powerful message to all road users that the street is divided into vehicular and pedestrian areas” (Jones and IHIE, 2002: 29). Eliminating this obstacle strengthens the idea that the street is a place for pedestrians and cyclist as well as motorists (See Figure 4). Smudging divisions between motor vehicle paths and pedestrian-only areas brings about a sense of uncertainty for drivers, persuading them to drive more carefully (Barrelly and Whitehouse, 2004; Movahed et al., 2012). Applying traffic calming features such as speed humps, changing width and continuity of streets (Figure 5), narrowing streets, designing vague intersections, and changing paving colour and materials in shared spaces (Hamilton-Baillie, 2008; Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  4. 4. 4 Granà et al., 2010), if of course, they are placed in right and suitable spots, could encourage motorists to drive slowly within Home Zones and would create a safer environment for pedestrians and cyclists. Subsequently, shared spaces possess an important role to achieve Home Zones’ objectives as they make it easier for people to move around, improve social life, and form a space in which pedestrians are not threatened by vehicles. Figure 4. Street as a place for all road users in Home Zone (Shishegar, 2011) Figure 5. Changing Continuity of a Street in Home Zone (Biddulph, 2007: 227) Create a Streetscape: In Home Zones, vehicles cannot move near houses, neither could they park close to them. There is already a space between these two. Width of streeetscape depends on the width of streets and at least needs to be 1 meter (Biddulph, 2010). Types of materials used in this space are different from streets. Streetscapes could be separated from streets by elements such as trees and planters. However, paving of the pathways should be at a single grade in Home Zones. Streetscape needs to be in a way that increases residents’ natural surveillance of streets and encourages them to customise the space in front of their houses. Streetscapes can be in the form of a semi-private yard or a small garden (Macdonald, 2002; Biddulph, 2010). Make landscape unique and attractive: In designing and creating a Home Zone, improper and unsuitable signage, landscape, and public seating should be avoided. Instead traffic calming and landscaping features of Home Zones can be utilised to make streets beautiful and friendly (Kjemtrup and Herrstedt, 1992; Biddulph, 2001; Biddulph, 2007). As the beauty of a street is one the most significant factors which encourages people to come to, lots of thoughts and efforts need to be made in designing a friendly and unique Home Zone. Using trees and plants, beautiful public seating, various and colourful paving in different areas, public lighting, various materials in building facade, and also creating different perspectives on the road are methods to increase the attractiveness of a Home Zone (Clayden et al., 2006). Table 2 illustrates few design standards of Home Zones in the UK and the Netherlands. As shown, standards are different from country to country depending on their situation and environment. Designing adequate on-street parking: There should be reasonable number of parking lots for residents and guests in a Home Zone. Parking vehicles on streets as one of the traffic calming features could have positive impacts on social interactions. Moreover, empty space of parking can be used by children as a playground or a place to sit for all. It should be noted that views of parking should be concealed by planting. There are different arrangements for parking spaces which are shown in Figure 6 below (Gill, 2006; McBeath, 2006). Figure 6. Different arrangements of parking (Biddulph, 2003: 55) Accessibility of oversized Vehicles: As mentioned earlier, reducing vehicles’ speed is one of the important objectives of designing a Home Zone which can be achieved with the help of narrowing the pathways and using traffic calming features. However, accessibility of oversized vehicles such as emergency and waste collection services which are necessary for residents’ safety, security, and welfare have to be considered when a Home Zone is being designed. Therefore, traffic calming features in a Home Zone should not create barriers for the mentioned vehicles to enter and move along (DFT, 2005). Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  5. 5. 5 English Home Zone design standards Dutch design standards for a Woonerf Maximum length of the street 400 meters 400-600 meters Minimum carriageway width 3 meters 3 meters (straight stretches) 6.15 meters (at intersections) Minimum streetscape width 1.8 meters 1 meter (over short distance) 1 meter (over short distance) 1.5 meters ( over longer distance) Minimum distance between widened areas 40 meters 40 meters Minimum width of widened areas 4.5 meters 4.5 meters Minimum distance between speed reducing provisions 30 meters 50 meters Appropriate vehicle speeds 16 kilometers per hour Walking speed Table 2. Dutch and English Home Zone design standards (CROW, 1998; IHIE, 2002) Suitable Public Lighting on Streets: Professional lighting can decrease vehicles’ speed at night which again improves quality of Home Zone. Suitable public lighting makes drivers aware of traffic calming features which forces them to pay more attention. Meanwhile, proper lighting can enhance nightlife on streets and improve natural surveillance which decreases crimes. Also in order to diminish street clutter and obstacles for pedestrians, street lighting can be mounted on building facades. They need to be mounted in a way so that any glare into the rooms of the buildings is minimised. Also it is worthwhile to mention that white lighting works better than yellow as it improves drivers’ sight. Moreover, legal agreements with householders are required (Macdonald, 2009). Inclusive Design of Streets: In designing a Home Zone, all needs of residents particularly those with less mobility such as children, old and disable people should be considered (Figure 7). Eliminating curbs could improve mobility for those in wheelchairs, while removing danger for elderly and less mobile. Nonetheless, curbs work as navigation tools for visually impaired. Therefore, other techniques could be utilised to facilitate movement for these people in the absence of curbs. Possible solutions are separating pedestrian-only areas from pathway of vehicles with the help of bollards or changing textures at borders of footpaths. Moreover, in order to help those with limited vision, contrasting colours on surface treatment is suggested. Ultimately, residents’ contribution to create a Home Zone would reduce their fear of being on streets (Biddulph, 2001). Figure 7. Inclusive design of a Home Zone (Shishegar, 2011) Children should be able to play freely and do other activities on streets of a Home Zone. However, residents should not get disturbed. In addition, informal equipments can be installed in proper spots for children in order to encourage them to play on streets while boosting the beauty of streets (Gill, 2006). Playing on streets enhances happiness and social interactions which improves quality of social life. Thus, it is necessary to provide environment for children to play (Gehl, 1985; Gill, 2007; Gill, 2006; Freeman, 2010). Designing a social space on streets: A social space is a part of a street where people talk, sit, watch, and do group activities (Malone, 2002). As increase in social interactions is one of the most important objectives of Home Zones, social spaces on streets need more attention. Design of a social space in a Home Zone can be done separated from design of streets or as a part of it in which streetscapes, pathways, empty parking lots, playground, small gardens, and seating are themselves social spaces. A separated social space is better to be located in a space between buildings (Beer, 1984) and in a direct touch with streets, as it is proved when these spaces are in the corners and out of sight, they do not have the meant outcomes (Passmore, 2005; DFT, 2005). Figure 8. A social space in a Home Zone (Shishegar, 2011) Utilise residents’ cooperation in design of a Home Zone: Residents’ cooperation in design, building, and maintenance of a Home Zone not only improves social life and relationships but also it is effective in creating a unique street which meets its residents’ needs. Depending on their Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  6. 6. 6 capabilities, residents can play different roles in various steps of building a Home Zone from which items below are mentioned: - Providing the designer with their needs and desires - Accelerating the design and building process - Sharing their artworks for different areas of streets - Planting, growing, and maintaining trees and planters - Taking care of streets after construction (DFT, 2005). Residents’ cooperation in design of a Home Zone could improve their sense of belongings which enhances quality of life. Finally, it is necessary to mention that although Home Zones should be designed appropriately for the particular area, they should not be separated from their neighbour areas or in isolation. Home Zones should be considered as a part of a whole which could access streets, shops, and other useful networks. 6. Success of Home Zones in reaching their objectives Department For Transportation (DFT) in 2000 appointed Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) to review and evaluate primary Home Zones in England and Wales. TRL conducted research on residents’ feeling towards their neighbourhood in early 2000 before any Home Zone had been built and thereafter from 2002 to 2004. Moreover, traffic and accidents data have been collected for both above-mentioned periods (Wheeler, 2005; Tilly et al., 2005; Webster et al., 2006). Here are results of TRL research conducted in four Home Zones. These four Home Zones are Morice Town in Plymouth, The Methleys in Leeds, Noble Road in Nottingham, and the Five Roads Area in the London Borough of Ealing. The general objectives of these Home Zones were outlined as below (Wheeler, 2005; Webster et al., 2006): - Improving quality of streets environment - Improving safety for all road users - Enhancing quality of social life on streets - Reducing vehicles’ speed and through traffic - Increasing equipments for children to play on streets Design of these Home Zones includes different features to meet the meant objectives. Principles mentioned in section 5 are utilised when designing these Home Zones such as clear and narrow entrance, creating an inclusive street, various paving, trees and planters, speed humps, public seating, and areas for playgrounds and social activities (McBeath, 2009). Residents of these Home Zones are asked to find out if the objectives have been achieved. Results are shown in Table 2. Home Zone is a good idea Yes (71%) Appearance of streets is improved Yes (86.5%) Motorists more considerate towards children playing in/ near the street Yes (61%) Speed of traffic Decreased (61%) Adults pedestrians and cyclists safer from traffic Yes (66.6%) Child pedestrians and cyclists safer from traffic Yes (59%) Friendliness on streets More (32%) Time spent outside More (21.5%) Table 2. Results of research conducted in four Home Zones in the United Kingdom (Wheeler, 2005). In addition, data regarding traffic and vehicles’ speed are illustrated in Charts 1 and 2 showing significant decreases in through traffic and vehicles’ speed in Home Zones. These, of course, bring about safety enhancement and encourage residents to come to streets more often. Therefore, it can be concluded that Home Zones are successful in calming the traffic and improving quality of its residents’ life (Biddulph, 2012). Chart 1. Average of traffic volume before and after creation of Home Zone in four mentioned areas in the UK (Wheeler, 2005). Chart 2. Average of Vehicles’ Speed before and after creation of Home Zone in four mentioned areas in the UK (km/h) (Wheeler, 2005). Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  7. 7. 7 7. Conclusion Home Zone is a residential street in a city in which qualities of life have privilege to traffic and vehicles. In such streets, there are always two rules. First, pedestrians have priority in coming and going to pathways and second, streets are shared spaces for all road users. Although the objective of designing a Home Zone were primarily increasing safety and security on streets and slowing vehicles’ speed, thereafter few other objectives joined these two from which enhancing social life is the most important one. As data and research show, if principles of a Home Zone design are fully implemented, Home Zones can be secure, desirable, attractive, and safe areas which not only prove that streets are multi-use places but also enhance social interactions. Hence, Home Zones could improve residents’ sense of belongings. Ultimately, all mentioned benefits enhance quality of residents’ lives and their satisfaction. Therefore, it can be concluded that idea of Home Zone is a pedestrian-oriented idea and is aligned with people needs which can be utilised in both existing and new streets in order to improve quality of its residents’ lives. References Appleyard, B. and Cox. L., 2006. At Home in the Zone: How to Create Liveable Streets With Lessons from Europe and the US Planning. Planning. Vol. 72(9), 30-35. Appleyard, D., 1969. The Environmental Quality of City Streets: The Residents Viewpoint. Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 35, 84-101. Appleyard, D., 1981. Liveable streets. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Appleyard, D., 1983. Streets can kill cities: Third World beware: Guidelines for street design in Third World cities. Habitat International. Vol. 7 (3-4), 111-122. Barrelly, Whitehouse, j., 2004. Home Zones on Evolving Approach to Community Streets. Municipal Engineer, Vol. 157(4), 257-265. Beer, A., 1984. Housing areas: factors that need to be considered in the site layout and design process. Planning Outlook. Vol. 27(2), 63-68. Ben-Joseph, E., 1995. Changing the Residential Streets scene: Adapting the Shared Street (Woonerf) concept to the Suburban Environment. Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 61(4). 504- 515. Ben-Joseph, E., 2003. Subdivision Guidelines and Standards For Residential Streets. University of California at Berkeley: UMJ. Biddulph, M., 2001. Home Zones: A Planning and Design Handbook. 1st ed. Bristol: The Policy Press. Biddulph, M., 2003. Towards Successful Home Zones in The UK. Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 8(3), 217- 241. Biddulph, M., 2007. Introduction to Residential Layout. London: Elsevier limited. Biddulph, M., 2010. Evaluating the English Home Zone Initiatives. Journal of the American Planning Association.Vol. 76(2), 1-21. Biddulph, M., 2012. Street Design and Street Use: Comparing Traffic Calmed and Home Zone Streets. Journal of Urban Design. Vol. 17(2), 213-232. Carver, A., Timperio, A., and Crawford, D., 2008. Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children's physical activity-A review. Health & Place. Vol. 14 (2), 217-227. Clayden, A., Mckoy, K. and Wild, A., 2006. Improving Residential Liveability in the UK: Home Zones and Alternative Approaches. Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 11(1), 55-71. CROW (Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil Engineering), 1998. Recommendations for Traffic Provisions in Built-up Areas: ASVV. The Netherlands: CROW. DFT (Department For Transport), 2005. Home Zones: Challenging the Future of our Streets, London. DFT (Department For Transport), 2007. Manual for streets. London, UK: Thomas Telford. Dumbaugh, E., and Li, W., 2010. Designing for the Safety of Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Motorists in Urban Environments. Journal of the American Planning Association. Vol. 77(1), 69-88. Freeman, C., 2010. Children's neighbourhoods, social centres to ‘terra incognita’. Children's Geographies. Vol. 8(2), 157-176. Freeman, C., and Quigg, R., 2009. Commuting lives: children's mobility and energy use. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. Vol. 52(3), 393-412. Gehl, J., 1985. Life Between Buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Gill, T., 2006. Home zones in the UK: History, policy and impact on children and youth. Children, Youth and Environment. Vol. 16 (1), 90–103. Gill, T., 2007, Can I play out: Lessons From London Playe’s Home Zones. London: London Play. Granà, A., Giuffrè, T., and Guerrieri, M., 2010. Exploring Effects of Area-Wide Traffic Calming Measures on Urban Road Sustainable Safety. Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 3(4), 38-49. Hamilton-Baillie, B., 2008. Towards Shared Space. Urban Design International. Vol. 13, 130-138. IHIE (The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers), 2002. Home Zone Design Guidelines, London. JMU Access Partnership, 2007. Designing For Disabled People in Home Zones, Leeds. Jones, P. and IHIE (Institude of Highway Incorporated Engineers, 2002. Home Zone: Design Guidlines. London: Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers. Kjemtrup, K., and Herrstedt, L., 1992. Speed management and traffic calming in Urban areas in Europe: a historical view. Accident Analysis & Prevention. Vol. 24 (1), 57-65. Macbeath, C., 2009. Home Zones: Shared Streets in Halifax. Dissertation, University of Halifax. Macdonald, L., 2002. Home Zones: Guidance Consultation. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Mackey, P., 2008. The Design of Street. Plan Canada, Vol. 30(1), 2-10. Malone, K., 2002. Street life: youth, culture and competing uses of public space. Environment and Urbanization. Vol. 14: 157-168. Movahed, S., Payami Azad, S., and Zakeri, H., 2012. A Safe Pedestrian Walkway; Creation a Safe Public Space Based on Pedestrian Safety. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol. 35, 572-585. Passmore, D., 2005. Evolving Streets: A Review of Contemporary Approaches to Street Design. [Online], Available at: http://dalanpassmore.com/passmore (2005) Evolving streets.pdf] . Access Date: 25.12.2010]. Roger, H., 2002. Containing children: some lessons on planning for play from New York City. Environment and Urbanization.Vol. 14(2), 135-148. Shishegar, N., 2011. Home Zone: Improving social life of residential areas with emphasis on movement and accessibility system. Dissertation, Iran University of Science and Technology. Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran
  8. 8. 8 Tilly, A., Webster, D., and Buttress, S., 2005. Pilot home zone schemes: Evaluation of Northmoor, Manchester. Wokingham, UK: Transport Research Laboratory. Vis, A., Dijkstra, A., and Slop, M., 1992. Safety effects of 30 km/h zones in the Netherlands. Accident Analysis & Prevention. Vol. 24 (1), 75-86. Webster, D., Tilly, A., Wheeler, A., Nicholls, D. and Transport Research Laboratory, 2006. Pilot Home Zone Scheme: Summary Of Schemes. England: TRL Limited. Wheeler, A., Tilly, A., Webster, D., Rajesparan, Y., Buttress, S., Transport Research Laboratory. 2005. Pilot Home Zone Schemes: Evaluation of the Five Road Area, London Borough of Ealing. England: TRL limited. Wheeler, A., Tilly, A., Webster, D., Rajesparan, Y., Buttress, S., Transport Research Laboratory. 2005. Pilot Home Zone Schemes: Evaluation of Morice Town, Plymouth. England: TRL limited. Symposium on Architecture, Civil, and Urban Environment, July 21-23, 2011, Tehran, Iran

×