Communication process ,,,


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  • Transmission model In 1948, Harold Lasswell described the process as who (sender), says what (message), in what channel, to whom (reciever), with what effect.
  • Communication process ,,,

    1. 1. Communication process Presented by Nasir Iqbal  Assigned by Dr.Gohar Zaman
    2. 2. QUOTES about communication Functions of Communication The Communication Process Direction of Communication Interpersonal Communication Organizational Communication Communication models Barriers to Effective Communication Seven C’s Summary References MAIN CONTENTS
    3. 3. Quotes about communication: “Communication is the vehicle which allows humans to recall the past, think in the present, and plan for the future.” Roy Berko “Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after.” Anne Morrow Lindbergh. (n.d.) “The most basic and powerful way to connect to another person is to listen. Just listen. Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention. A loving silence often has far more power to heal and to connect than the most well- intentioned words.” Remen, Rachel Naomi. (1996).
    4. 4. Introduction COMMUNICATION DEFINED BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS AS: 2.” Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver” – G.G. Brown.  No Group can exist without communication: the transference of meaning among its members.  Communication must include both the transference and the understanding of meaning 3.. “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages”- Fred G. Meyer. 1.Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver (U.S. Army, 1983).
    5. 5. Functions of Communication It serves four major functions within a group or organization. Control 1. Communicate job related grievances. 2.To follow job description 3.To comply with company policy. Motivation 1. It fosters motivation by clarifying what needs to be done 2.How well employees are doing 3. What can be done to improve performance
    6. 6. Functions of Communication Emotional Expression For many employees the work group[ is a primary source of social interaction . They share their feelings of frustration and satisfaction with each other. Information Primary role relating to decision making by transmitting data and evaluating different choices
    7. 7. The Communication Process MessageMessage EncodingEncoding MediumMedium DecodingDecoding DecodingDecoding MediumMedium EncodingEncoding MessageMessage ReceiverReceiver (now sender)(now sender) SenderSender Transmission Phase Feedback Phase NOISENOISE •Two phase process
    8. 8. Direction of Communication Downward Communication-Communication that flows from upper level of a group or organization to a lower level. Upward Communication-Communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization. Lateral Communication-Communication that takes place among members of the same level.
    9. 9. Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication-The chief means of conveying messages by utilizing speed and feedback. Written Communication-any device that is transmitted via written words or symbols. Nonverbal Communication-nonverbal component of a verbally given message such as body movements, intonations, facial expressions, etc.
    10. 10. Organizational Communication Networks show information flows in an organization.  Wheel Network: information flow to and from one central member.  Chain Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence.  Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction.  Circle Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, office location, etc.  All-Channel Network: found in teams, with high levels of communications between each member and all others.
    11. 11. Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Wheel Network Circle Network Chain Network All Channel Network
    12. 12. 3 Models for Communication Communication as Action Communication as Transaction Communication as Interaction
    13. 13. Communication as Action Sender ReceiverChannelMessage Message Noise Noise Noise  Questions describing communications:  Who?  Says what?  In which channel?  To whom?  With what effect? Lasswell Model (1948)
    14. 14. destinationdestinationsourcesource signalsignal Field of experience Field of experience encoderencoder decoderdecoder communication is effective when information are shared between sender and receiver 14 Shannon-Weaver model (1948) Back and forth, we talk, we listen, we talk, we listen Adds feedback and context. Communication as Transaction
    15. 15. MessageMessage MessageMessage Encoder Interpreter Decoder Decoder Interpreter Encoder Third Model: both, sender and receiver interact by encoding, interpreting, re-coding, sending and receiving information/message 15 Schramm Model (1954) Communication as Interaction
    16. 16. Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering (holding back information) Selective Perception Information Overload Emotions Language Communication Apprehension Gender Differences
    17. 17. Barriers to effective Communication Filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers • Selective Perception The receivers in communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience , background and other personal characteristics.
    18. 18. Barriers to effective Communication Information Overload Individuals have a finite capacity to process data and when it exceeds our processing capacity the result is information load. Then people tend to select out, ignore, pass over or forget information. • Emotions Extreme emotions like jubilation or depression are more likely to hinder effective communication Language Communication apprehensions
    19. 19.  Completeness(all relevant info included)  Check for five Ws & one H  Who What When Where Why  and How. Conciseness (to the point) Consideration (focus on audience) avoid I and we use “U”. Concreteness (Facts and figure) Clarity (Using words that familiar to the message of receiver) Courtesy(polite and respectful) Correctness (Grammar, punctuation, and spelling) The Seven C’s
    20. 20. Pay attention to what is sent as a message. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Ask questions to clarify your understanding. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.
    21. 21. References: Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge Prentice Hall Contemporary management, 5thEdition,Gareth R.Jone and Jennifer M.George  . Remen, Rachel Naomi. (1996). Kitchen Table Wisdom: Stories That Heal. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
    22. 22. Thank you for your listening !! 22